Aclasta骨樂加

Aclasta

zoledronic acid

Manufacturer:

Sandoz

Distributor:

Zuellig
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Zoledronic acid.
Description
One bottle with 100 mL solution contains 5 mg zoledronic acid (anhydrous), corresponding to 5.33 mg zoledronic acid monohydrate.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Mannitol, sodium citrate and water for injections.
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Zoledronic acid belongs to the class of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and acts primarily on bone. It is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.
The selective action of bisphosphonates on bone is based on their high affinity for mineralized bone. Intravenously administered zoledronic acid is rapidly distributed to bone and, like other bisphosphonates, localises preferentially at sites of high bone turnover. The main molecular target of zoledronic acid in the osteoclast is the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, but this does not exclude other mechanisms. The relatively long duration of action of zoledronic acid is attributable to its high binding affinity for the active site of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase and to its strong affinity for bone mineral.
Pharmacodynamics: Osteoporosis: Aclasta treatment rapidly reduced the rate of bone turnover from elevated postmenopausal levels with the nadir for resorption markers observed at 7 days and for formation markers at 12 weeks. Thereafter, bone markers stabilized within the premenopausal range. There was no progressive reduction of bone turnover markers with repeated annual dosing.
In long-term animal studies, zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption without adversely affecting bone formation, mineralisation or the mechanical properties of bone. Histomorphometric data from long-term rat and monkey experiments showed the typical response of bone to an anti-resorptive agent with a dose-dependent reduction in osteoclastic activity and activation frequency of new remodelling sites in both trabecular and Haversian bone. Continuing bone remodelling was observed in bone samples from all animals treated with clinically relevant doses of zoledronic acid. There was no evidence of a mineralising defect, no aberrant accumulation of osteoid and no woven bone in treated animals.
Clinical Studies: Clinical trial results for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: Core Study (HORIZON-PFT): In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial, Aclasta significantly decreased the risk of one or more new/worsening vertebral fractures at 1 year (58%), 2 years (68%) and 3 years (67%) (all p<0.0001) and also the risk of at least one new moderate or severe vertebral fracture at 1 year (60%), 2 years (71%) and 3 years (70%) (all p<0.0001). Aclasta treatment also reduced the risk of hip fracture by 40% over 3 years (p=0.003). Furthermore, Aclasta treatment had beneficial effects on all clinical fractures, bone mineral density, bone histology, bone turnover markers, height and disability.
Extension Study: In a three-year extension study in which subjects initially treated with three infusions of Aclasta were randomized to placebo or Aclasta treatment, three additional annual Aclasta infusions compared to placebo significantly (p<0.05) reduced the risk of new morphometric vertebral fracture (3% vs 6.2%) and new/worsening morphometric vertebral fracture (3.4% vs 7.0%).
Clinical trial results in the prevention of clinical fractures after hip fracture: In male and female patients with a recent low-trauma hip fracture, treatment with Aclasta significantly reduced the incidence of any clinical fracture by 35%; 46% reduction in the risk of a clinical vertebral fracture, 27% reduction in the risk for non-vertebral fractures and also 30% reduced risk for a subsequent hip fracture. Aclasta treatment significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) relative to placebo at the hip and femoral neck (12, 24 and 36 month time points).
Clinical trial results for the treatment of male osteoporosis (MO): In one randomized active-control study, an annual infusion of Aclasta was similar to weekly alendronate for the percentage change in lumbar spine BMD at month 12 and non-inferior at month 24 relative to baseline. In a second randomized, placebo-control study, Aclasta significantly reduced the risk of new morphometric vertebral fracture by 63% and was superior to placebo in increasing or preserving BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck over 24 months (all, p<0.05).
Clinical trial results in the treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: In a randomized, active-control trial in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, increases in BMD were significantly greater in the Aclasta-treated group at all sites, which included the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, trochanter and distal radius at 12 months compared to risedronate 5 mg daily (all p<0.03).
Clinical trial results for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, Aclasta significantly increased lumbar spine BMD relative to placebo at Month 24. Aclasta administered annually for two years or as a single dose both significantly increased total hip BMD relative to placebo at Month 24 (all p<0.0001).
Paget's disease of bone: In two 6-month randomized comparative, well-controlled clinical trials, in patients with Paget's disease, Aclasta demonstrated a superior and more rapid response in serum alkaline phosphatase compared with risedronate. In addition, more Aclasta-treated patients demonstrated normalization bone turnover as reflected in biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption compared with risedronate-treated patients.
Pharmacokinetics: Single and multiple 5 and 15-minute infusions of 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg zoledronic acid in 64 cancer patients with bone metastases yielded the following pharmacokinetic data, which were found to be dose independent. Pharmacokinetic data in patients with osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone are not available.
After initiation of the zoledronic acid infusion, plasma concentrations of the active substance increased rapidly, achieving their peak at the end of the infusion period, followed by a rapid decline to <10% of peak after 4 hours and <1% of peak after 24 hours, with a subsequent prolonged period of very low concentrations not exceeding 0.1% of peak levels.
Intravenously administered zoledronic acid is eliminated by a triphasic process: rapid biphasic disappearance from the systemic circulation, with half-lives of t½alpha 0.24 and t½beta 1.87 hours, followed by a long elimination phase with a terminal elimination half-life of t½gamma 146 hours. There was no accumulation of the active substance in plasma after multiple doses given every 28 days. The early disposition phases (alpha and beta, with t½ values above) presumably represent rapid uptake into bone and excretion via the kidneys.
Zoledronic acid is not metabolised and is excreted unchanged via the kidney. Over the first 24 hours, 39 ± 16% of the administered dose is recovered in the urine, while the remainder is principally bound to bone tissue. From the bone tissue it is released very slowly back into the systemic circulation and eliminated via the kidney. The total body clearance is 5.04 ± 2.5 L/h, independent of dose, and unaffected by gender, age, race or body weight. The inter- and intra-subject variation for plasma clearance of zoledronic acid was shown to be 36% and 34%, respectively. Increasing the infusion time from 5 to 15 minutes caused a 30% decrease in zoledronic acid concentration at the end of the infusion, but had no effect on the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve.
Drug-drug interactions: No specific drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted with zoledronic acid. Since zoledronic acid is not metabolised in humans and the substance was found to have little or no capacity as a direct-acting and/or irreversible metabolism-dependent inhibitor of P450 enzymes, zoledronic acid is unlikely to reduce the metabolic clearance of substances which are metabolised via the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems. Zoledronic acid is not highly bound to plasma proteins (approximately 23 to 40% bound) and binding is concentration independent. Therefore, interactions resulting from displacement of highly protein-bound drugs are unlikely.
Special Populations (see Dosage & Administration): Renal Impairment: The renal clearance of zoledronic acid was correlated with creatinine clearance, renal clearance representing 75 ± 33% of the creatinine clearance, which showed a mean of 84 ± 29 mL/min (range 22 to 143 mL/min) in the 64 patients studied. Small observed increases in AUC(0-24hr), by about 30% to 40% in mild to moderate renal impairment, compared to a patient with normal renal function, and lack of accumulation of drug with multiple doses irrespective of renal function, suggest that dose adjustments of zoledronic acid in mild (Clcr = 50 to 80 mL/min) and moderate (Clcr = 30 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment are not necessary. The use of Aclasta in patients with creatinine clearance <35 mL/min is contraindicated due to an increased risk of renal failure in this population (see Contraindications). No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with creatinine clearance ≥35 mL/min.
Toxicology: Non-clinical Safety Data: Toxicity Studies: In the bolus parenteral studies, zoledronic acid was well-tolerated when administered sibcutaneous to rats and intravenous to dogs at doses of up to 0.02 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. Administration of 0.001 mg/kg/day subcutaneously in rats and 0.005 mg/kg intravenous once every 2 to 3 days in dogs for up to 52 weeks was also well-tolerated. The kidney was identified as a target organ for toxicity in parenteral studies with zoledronic acid.
In intravenous infusion studies, renal tolerability was observed in rats at doses of up to 0.6 mg/kg and in dogs up to 0.5 mg/kg but dosing intervals were different.
The most frequent finding in the repeat-dose studies consisted of increased primary spongiosa in the metaphyses of long bones in growing animals at nearly all doses, a finding that reflected the compound's pharmacological antiresorptive activity.
Reproductive Toxicity: Teratogenicity studies were performed in two species, both via SC administration of zoledronic acid. Teratogenicity was observed in the rat at doses ≥0.2 mg/kg/day and was manifested by external, visceral and skeletal malformations. Dystocia was observed at the lowest dose (0.01 mg/kg/day) tested in rats.
No teratogenic or embryo/foetal effects were observed in the rabbit, although maternal toxicity was marked at 0.1 mg/kg/day.
Adverse maternal effects were associated with, and may have been caused by, drug-induced hypocalcemia.
Mutagenicity: Zoledronic acid was not mutagenic in vitro and in vivo in the mutagenicity tests performed.
Carcinogenicity: In oral carcinogenicity studies in rodents, zoledronic acid revealed no carcinogenic potential.
Indications/Uses
Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and in men.
Treatment of osteopenia in postmenopausal women who have at least one risk factor.
Prevention of clinical fractures after hip fracture in men and women.
Treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in women and men.
Treatment of Paget's disease of the bone (osteodystrophia deformans).
Important Limitations of Use: The safety and effectiveness of Aclasta for the treatment of osteoporosis is based on clinical data of three years duration. The optimal duration of use has not been determined. All patients on bisphosphonate therapy should have the need for continued therapy re-evaluated on a periodic basis.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Aclasta must be given at a constant infusion rate over at least 15 minutes.
See Precautions for additional treatment with calcium and vitamin D.
In osteoporosis, the recommended dose is a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg Aclasta once a year. To date there are not enough data to support treatment lasting longer than three years. The recommended regimen for the treatment of osteopenia in postmenopausal women is a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg Aclasta. An annual assessment of the patient's risk of fracture and of the response to treatment should guide the decision as to possible retreatment.
For the treatment of Paget's disease, the recommended dose is a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg Aclasta. No data are available on the safety and efficacy of retreatment (after 1 year). Aclasta should only be prescribed by physicians with experience in the treatment of Paget's disease.
Special Patient Populations: Patients with renal dysfunction: Owing to limited clinical safety data in patients with severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance <35 ml/minute), use of Aclasta in such patients cannot be recommended.
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with creatinine clearance ≥35 ml/minute.
Patients with hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary.
Patients 65 years of age or older: No dose adjustment is necessary because bioavailability, distribution and elimination are similar in elderly and younger patients.
Children and adolescents: Aclasta is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to the lack of data on safety and efficacy.
Overdosage
Clinical experience with acute overdosage is limited. Patients who have received doses higher than those recommended should be carefully monitored. In the event of overdose leading to clinically significant hypocalcemia, reversal may be achieved with supplemental oral calcium and/or an infusion of calcium gluconate.
Contraindications
Hypocalcemia (see Precautions).
Severe renal impairment with creatinine clearance <35 mL/min (see Precautions).
Pregnancy and breast-feeding women (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients or to any bisphosphonates.
Special Precautions
General: The dose of 5 mg zoledronic acid must be administered over at least 15 minutes.
Aclasta contains the same active ingredient found in Zometa (zoledronic acid), used for oncology indications, and a patient being treated with Zometa should not be treated with Aclasta.
Patients must be appropriately hydrated prior to administration of Aclasta. This is especially important in the elderly and for patients receiving diuretic therapy.
Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be treated by adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D before initiating therapy with Aclasta (see Contraindications). Other disturbances of mineral metabolism must also be effectively treated (e.g. diminished parathyroid reserve; thyroid surgery, parathyroid surgery, intestinal calcium malabsorption). Physicians should consider clinical monitoring for these patients.
Renal impairment: The use of Aclasta in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <35 mL/min) is contraindicated due to an increased risk of renal failure in this population.
Renal impairment has been observed following the administration of Aclasta (see Post-Marketing Spontaneous Reports under Adverse Reactions), especially in patients with pre-existing renal compromise or other risk factors including advanced age, concomitant nephrotoxic medicinal products, concomitant diuretic therapy (see Interactions) or dehydration occurring after Aclasta administration. Renal impairment has been observed in patients after a single administration. Renal failure requiring dialysis or with a fatal outcome has rarely occurred in patients with underlying renal impairment or with any of the risk factors described previously.
The following precautions should be taken into account to minimize the risk of renal adverse reactions: Creatinine clearance should be calculated (e.g. Cockcroft-Gault formula) before each Aclasta dose. Transient increase in serum creatinine may be greater in patients with underlying impaired renal function; interim monitoring of serum creatinine should be considered in at-risk patients.
Aclasta should be used with caution when concomitantly used with other medicinal products that could impact renal function (see Interactions).
Patients, especially elderly patients and those receiving diuretic therapy, should be appropriately hydrated prior to administration of Aclasta.
A single dose of Aclasta should not exceed 5 mg and the duration of infusion should not be less than 15 minutes (see Dosage & Administration).
Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation: Treatment and prevention of Osteoporosis: Adequate supplemental calcium and vitamin D intake is important in men and women with osteoporosis or treated to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis if dietary intake is inadequate.
Prevention of Clinical Fractures after a Hip Fracture: Supplemental calcium and vitamin D intake is recommended for patients treated to prevent clinical fractures after a hip fracture.
Treatment of Paget's disease of bone: Elevated bone turnover is a characteristic of Paget's disease of bone. Due to the rapid onset of effect of zoledronic acid on bone turnover, transient hypocalcemia, sometimes symptomatic, may develop and is usually maximal within the first 10 days after infusion of Aclasta (see Adverse Reactions). Adequate vitamin D intake is recommended in association with Aclasta administration. In addition, it is strongly advised that adequate supplemental calcium corresponding to at least 500 mg elemental calcium twice daily is ensured in patients with Paget's disease for at least 10 days following Aclasta administration. Patients should be informed about symptoms of hypocalcemia. Physicians should consider clinical monitoring for patients at risk.
Musculoskeletal pain: Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint and/or muscle pain have been infrequently reported in patients taking bisphosphonates, including Aclasta.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ): Osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with bisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids. The majority of reported cases have been associated with dental procedures such as tooth extraction. Many had signs of local infection including osteomyelitis. A dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry should be considered prior to treatment with bisphosphonates in patients with concomitant risk factors (e.g. cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic drugs corticosteroids, poor oral hygiene). While on treatment, these patients should avoid invasive dental procedures if possible. For patients who develop Osteonecrosis of the Jaw while on bisphosphonate therapy, dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. For patients requiring dental procedures, there are no data available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment reduces the risk of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. The clinical judgement of the treating physician should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment.
Atypical fractures of the femur: Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been reported in association with bisphosphonate therapy, primarily in patients receiving long-term treatment for osteoporosis. These transverse or short oblique fractures can occur anywhere along the femur from just below the lesser trochanter to just above the supracondylar flare. These fractures occur after minimal or no trauma and some patients experience thigh or groin pain weeks to months before presenting with a completed femoral fracture. Fractures are often bilateral; therefore, the contralateral femur should be examined in bisphosphonate-treated patients who have sustained a femoral shaft fracture. Poor healing of these fractures has also been reported. Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy in patients suspected to have an atypical femur fracture should be considered pending evaluation of the patient, based on an individual benefit risk assessment. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with bisphosphonates.
During bisphosphonate treatment, including Aclasta, patients should be advised to report any thigh, hip or groin pain and any patient presenting with such symptoms should be evaluated for possible femur fracture.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Aclasta is contraindicated during pregnancy (see Contraindications). There are no data on the use of zoledronic acid in pregnant women. Studies in rats have shown reproductive toxicological effects (see Pharmacology: Toxicology under Actions). The potential risk in humans is unknown.
Breast-feeding: Aclasta is contraindicated and in breast-feeding women (see Contraindications).
Women of child-bearing potential: Women of child-bearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving Aclasta. There is a theoretical risk of fetal harm (e.g. skeletal and other abnormalities) if a woman becomes pregnant while receiving bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration on this risk have not been established (see Contraindications and Pharmacology: Toxicology: Non-clinical Safety Data under Actions).
Fertility: The fertility was decreased in rats dosed subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg/day of zoledronic acid. There are no data available in humans.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The presented adverse reactions have been derived from different studies in the clinical program (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions). Aclasta was studied in postmenopausal osteoporosis in the pivotal fracture trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational (HORIZON-PFT) study including 7,736 women and it's extension study including 2,456 women. Paget's disease in two double-blind, randomized safety and efficacy trials involving 357 patients; the prevention of clinical fractures in patients who suffered from a recent low-trauma hip fracture was demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational endpoint (HORIZON-RFT) study of 2,127 men and women. Aclasta was studied in the treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in a randomized, multicentre, double-blind, stratified, active-controlled study of 833 men and women. Aclasta was studied in men with osteoporosis or significant osteoporosis secondary to hypogonadism in a randomized, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled study of 302 men. Finally, Aclasta was studied in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in a 2-year randomized, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 581 postmenopausal women.
Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, osteoporosis in men, prevention of clinical fractures after low trauma hip fracture, treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and paget's disease of the bone: In the studies to support the indications treatment of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women, prevention of clinical fractures after low trauma hip fracture, treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease of the bone, there were no significant differences in the overall incidence of serious adverse events compared to placebo or comparator and most adverse events were mild to moderate. Aclasta was administered once a year in all aforementioned studies.
Consistent with the intravenous administration of bisphosphonates, Aclasta has been most commonly associated with the following post-dose symptoms (frequencies derived from the study in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: Fever (18.1%), myalgia (9.4%), flu-like symptoms (7.8%), arthralgia (6.8%) and headache (6.5%), the majority of which occur within the first 3 days following Aclasta administration. The majority of these symptoms were mild to moderate in nature and resolved within 3 days of the event onset. The incidence of these symptoms decreased markedly with subsequent annual doses of Aclasta.
The incidence of post-dose symptoms occurring within the first 3 days after administration of Aclasta, can be reduced by approximately 50% with the administration of paracetamol or ibuprofen shortly following Aclasta administration as needed.
Tabulated summary of adverse drug reactions from clinical trials: Adverse drug reactions from clinical trials (see Table 1) are listed according to system organ classes in MedDRA. These are suspected adverse reactions to Aclasta (investigator assessment) in the pooled studies supporting the indications: treatment of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women, prevention of clinical fractures after low trauma hip fracture, treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease of the bone. Within each system organ class, the adverse drug reactions are ranked by frequency, with the most frequent reactions first. In addition, the corresponding frequency using the following convention (CIOMS III) is also provided for each adverse drug reaction: Very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100, <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000, <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), including isolated reports. (See Table 1.)

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Additional adverse reactions which were reported in the individual studies but are not included in the Table 1 (due to a lower frequency in the Aclasta group compared with that of the placebo group when the data was pooled) include: Cardiac disorders: Atrial fibrillation*, palpitations.
Eye disorders: Ocular hyperemia.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Gastritis, toothache.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Infusion site reaction.
Investigations: Increased C-reactive protein.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Hypocalcaemia.
Nervous system disorders: Dysgeusia.
*see Atrial Fibrillation under Description of Selected Adverse Reactions.
Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: The overall safety and tolerability profile of Aclasta in the prevention of osteoporosis was comparable to the adverse reaction profile reported in the Aclasta postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment trial, however, there was a higher incidence of post-dose symptoms in the Aclasta-treated osteopenic patients that occurred within 3 days after infusion: Pain, fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, headache, fatigue, dizziness and arthralgia. The majority of these symptoms were mild to moderate and resolved within 3 days of the reaction onset. The incidence of these symptoms decreased with a subsequent dose of Aclasta. Suspected adverse reactions to Aclasta (investigator assessment) in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis which occurred more than once and which are either not included in Table 1 or reported with a higher frequency in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis trial are summarised in Table 2 using the following convention: Very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100, <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100).
The adverse reactions listed are either in addition to or reported with a higher frequency than those in Table 1. (See Table 2.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Renal impairment: Treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid, has been associated with renal impairment manifested as deterioration in renal function (i.e. increased serum creatinine) and in rare cases acute renal failure. Renal impairment has been observed following the administration of zoledronic acid, especially in patients with pre-existing renal compromise or additional risk factors (e.g. advanced age, oncology patients with chemotherapy, concomitant nephrotoxic medicinal products, concomitant diuretic therapy, severe dehydration), with the majority of them receiving a 4 mg dose every 3 to 4 weeks, but it has also been observed in patients after a single administration.
In the HORIZON-PFT core trial, the change in creatinine clearance (measured annually prior to dosing), and the incidence of renal failure and impairment was comparable for both the Aclasta and placebo treatment groups over 3 years. There was a transient increase in serum creatinine observed within 10 days in 1.8% of Aclasta-treated patients versus 0.8% of placebo-treated patients.
In the 3-year HORIZON-PFT extension trial, 2.9% of the patients who continued to receive Aclasta (i.e. 6-years total exposure to Aclasta) vs. 0.65% of the patients who discontinued (i.e. 3-years Aclasta in the core then 3-years placebo in the extension trial) had transient increases in serum creatinine. However, the mean change from baseline in serum creatinine over time was <0.5 micromol/L for both treatment groups at the end of the trial (i.e. +0.4 and -0.26 micromol/L for both treatments, respectively).
In the studies to support the indications prevention of clinical fractures after hip fracture in men and women, treatment of osteoporosis in men, treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, the change in creatinine clearance (measured annually prior to dosing) and the incidence of renal failure and impairment was comparable for both the Aclasta and placebo or comparator treatment groups.
In the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis trial, the change in creatinine clearance (measured annually prior to dosing and at one month after the first dose) and the incidence of renal failure and impairment were comparable in the Aclasta and placebo groups.
Hypocalcaemia: In the HORIZON-PFT core trial, approximately 0.2% of patients had notable declines of serum calcium levels (less than 1.87 mmol/L) following Aclasta administration.
No symptomatic cases of hypocalcemia were observed.
In the HORIZON-PFT extension trial, 0.4% of patients who received placebo during the core trial and Aclasta during the extension trial had confirmed events of hypocalcaemia (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions). There were no confirmed hypocalcaemia events in the other treatment groups. All of the cases were asymptomatic, no treatment or intervention was required.
In the HORIZON-RFT, treatment of male osteoporosis and treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis trials, there were no patients who had treatment emergent serum calcium levels below 1.87 mmol/L.
In the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis trial, there was one patient who had treatment emergent serum calcium levels below 1.87 mmol/L.
In the Paget's disease trials, symptomatic hypocalcemia was observed in approximately 1% of patients, all of which resolved.
Local Reactions: In the HORIZON-PFT trial, local reactions at the infusion site such as redness, swelling and/or pain were reported (0.7%) following the administration of zoledronic acid.
In the HORIZON-RFT trial, the event rate was comparable for both the Aclasta and placebo treatment groups.
In the treatment of male osteoporosis trial, the event rate was 2.6% in the zoledronic acid treatment group and 1.4% in the alendronate treatment group.
In the treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis trial, no local reactions were reported.
In the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis trial, the event rate was 1.1% in Aclasta-treated patients compared to 2.0% in placebo-treated patients.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Cases of osteonecrosis (primarily of the jaw) have been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with bisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid (uncommon). Many of these patients had signs of local infection including osteomyelitis, and the majority of the reports refer to cancer patients following tooth extractions or other dental surgeries. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has multiple well-documented risk factors including a diagnosis of cancer, concomitant therapies (e.g. chemotherapy, antiangiogenic drugs, radiotherapy, corticosteroids) and co-morbid conditions (e.g. anemia, coagulopathies, infection, pre-existing dental disease). Although causality has not been determined, it is prudent to avoid dental surgery as recovery may be prolonged (see Precautions).
In the HORIZON-PFT core trial in 7,736 intention-to-treated (ITT) patients, ONJ has been reported in one patient treated with Aclasta and one patient treated with placebo. Both cases resolved.
In the HORIZON-PFT extension trial in 2,456 ITT patients, there were two confirmed cases of ONJ, one in the group of patients receiving Aclasta during the core and the extension trial (i.e. 6-years total exposure to Aclasta) and one in the group of patients receiving placebo in the core and Aclasta in the extension trial (i.e. 3-years exposure to Aclasta). Both patients had a history of poor dental hygiene and both made a complete recovery.
In the HORIZON-RFT, treatment of male osteoporosis, treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis trials there were no cases of Osteonecrosis of the jaw.
Atrial Fibrillation: In one 3 year trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (HORIZON-PFT), the overall incidence of all atrial fibrillation adverse events was 2.5% (96 out of 3,862) in the Aclasta group vs. 1.9% (75 out of 3,852) in the placebo group. The rate of atrial fibrillation serious adverse events was 1.3% (51 out of 3,862) in patients receiving Aclasta compared with 0.6% (22 out of 3,852) in patients receiving placebo. The mechanism behind the increased incidence of atrial fibrillation is unknown. The imbalance observed in this trial has not been observed in other clinical trials with zoledronic acid.
In the HORIZON-PFT extension trial, the incidence of atrial fibrillation adverse events was 3.4% (21 out of 613) in the group of patients who received Aclasta in the core and extension trial (i.e. 6-years of total exposure to Aclasta) vs. 2.1% (13 out of 616) in patients who received Aclasta in the core (i.e. 3-years exposure) and placebo in the extension trial. The rate of atrial fibrillation serious adverse events was 2% (12 out of 613) in patients who received 6-years Aclasta compared with 1.1% (7 out of 616) in patients who received 3-years Aclasta then 3-years placebo. These imbalances were not statistically significant.
Adverse drug reactions from post-marketing spontaneous reports: The following adverse drug reactions have been derived from post-marketing experience with Aclasta via spontaneous case reports and literature cases. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency which is therefore categorized as not known. Adverse drug reactions are listed according to system organ classes in MedDRA. Within each system organ class, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Eye disorders: Scleritis, parophthalmia.
Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, urticaria.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: dehydration secondary to post-dose symptoms such as pyrexia, vomiting and diarrhea; hypotension in patients with underlying risk factors.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: osteonecrosis of jaw (see Precautions).
Renal and urinary disorders: renal failure requiring dialysis or with fatal outcome*, renal impairment (see Precautions).
*Especially in patients with pre-existing renal compromise or other risk factors such as advanced age, concomitant nephrotoxic medicinal products, concomitant diuretic therapy or dehydration in the post-infusion period.
Drug Interactions
Specific drug-drug interaction studies have not been conducted with zoledronic acid. Zoledronic acid is not systemically metabolised and does not affect human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Zoledronic acid is not highly bound to plasma proteins (approximately 23 to 40% bound) and interactions resulting from displacement of highly protein-bound drugs are therefore unlikely. Zoledronic acid is eliminated by renal excretion.
Drugs that Could Impact Renal Function: Caution is indicated when Aclasta is administered in conjunction with medicinal products that can significantly impact renal function (e.g. aminoglycosides or diuretics that may cause dehydration).
Drugs Primarily Excreted by the Kidney: In patients with renal impairment, the systemic exposure to concomitant medicinal products that are primarily excreted via the kidneys may increase.
Caution For Usage
Instructions for Use and Handling: Aclasta must not be mixed or given intravenous with any other medication and must be given through a separate vented infusion line at a constant infusion rate. If refrigerated, allow the refrigerated solution to reach room temperature before administration. Aseptic techniques must be followed during the preparation of the infusion.
For single use only. Any unused solution should be discarded. Only clear solution free from particles and discoloration should be used.
Incompatibilities: Aclasta solution for infusion must not be allowed to come into contact with any calcium- or other divalent cation-containing solutions.
Storage
After opening, the solution is chemically and physically stable for at least 24 hours at 2 to 8°C.
From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2 to 8°C.
ATC Classification
M05BA08 - zoledronic acid ; Belongs to the class of bisphosphonates. Used in the treatment of bone diseases.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for infusion (vial, sterile, clear and colourless) 5 mg/100 mL x 1's.
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