Aimovig

Aimovig

erenumab

Manufacturer:

Novartis

Distributor:

Zuellig
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Erenumab.
Description
Each pre-filled pen contains 70 mg erenumab.
Erenumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody produced using recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Sucrose, Polysorbate 80, Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment), Glacial acetic acid, Water for injections.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Analgetics, antimigraine preparations. ATC code: N02CX07.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Erenumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor. The CGRP receptor is located at sites that are relevant to migraine pathophysiology, such as the trigeminal ganglion. Erenumab potently and specifically competes with the binding of CGRP and inhibits its function at the CGRP receptor, and has no significant activity against other calcitonin family of receptors.
CGRP is a neuropeptide that modulates nociceptive signalling and a vasodilator that has been associated with migraine pathophysiology. In contrast with other neuropeptides, CGRP levels have been shown to increase significantly during migraine and return to normal with headache relief. Intravenous infusion of CGRP induces migraine-like headache in patients.
Inhibition of the effects of CGRP could theoretically attenuate compensatory vasodilation in ischaemic-related conditions. A study evaluated the effect of a single intravenous dose of 140 mg Aimovig in subjects with stable angina under controlled exercise conditions. Aimovig showed similar exercise duration compared to placebo and did not aggravate myocardial ischaemia in these patients.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Aimovig (erenumab) was evaluated for prophylaxis of migraine in two pivotal studies across the migraine spectrum in chronic and episodic migraine. In both studies, the patients enrolled had at least a 12-month history of migraine (with or without aura) according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III) diagnostic criteria. Elderly patients (>65 years), patients with opioid overuse in study in chronic migraine, patients with medication overuse in study in episodic migraine, and also patients with pre-existing myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischaemic attacks, unstable angina, coronary artery bypass surgery or other re-vascularisation procedures within 12 months prior to screening were excluded. Patients with poorly controlled hypertension or BMI >40 were excluded from Study 1.
Chronic migraine: Study 1: Aimovig (erenumab) was evaluated as monotherapy for prophylaxis of chronic migraine in a randomised, multicentre, 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients suffering from migraine with or without aura (≥15 headache days per month with ≥8 migraine days per month).
667 patients were randomised in a 3:2:2 ratio to receive placebo (n = 286) or 70 mg (n = 191) or 140 mg (n = 190) erenumab, stratified by the presence of acute medication overuse (present in 41% of overall patients). Patients were allowed to use acute headache treatments during the study.
Demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced and comparable between study arms. Patients had a median age of 43 years, 83% were female and 94% were white. The mean migraine frequency at baseline was approximately 18 migraine days per month. Overall, 68% had failed one or more previous prophylactic pharmacotherapies due to lack of efficacy or poor tolerability, and 49% had failed two or more previous prophylactic pharmacotherapies due to lack of efficacy or poor tolerability. A total of 366 (96%) patients in the erenumab arms and 265 (93%) patients in the placebo arm completed the study (i.e. completed Week 12 assessment).
Reduction in mean monthly migraine days from placebo was observed in a monthly analysis from Month 1 and in a follow-up weekly analysis an onset of erenumab effect was seen from the first week of administration. (See Figure 1 and Table 1.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In patients failing one or more prophylactic pharmacotherapies the treatment difference for the reduction of monthly migraine days (MMD) observed between erenumab 140 mg and placebo was -3.3 days (95% CI: -4.6, -2.1) and between erenumab 70 mg and placebo -2.5 days (95% CI: -3.8, -1.2). In patients failing two or more prophylactic pharmacotherapies the treatment difference was -4.3 days (95% CI: -5.8; -2.8) between 140 mg and placebo and -2.7 days (95% CI: -4.2, -1.2) between 70 mg and placebo. There was also a higher proportion of subjects treated with erenumab who achieved at least 50% reduction of MMD compared to placebo in the patients failing one or more prophylactic pharmacotherapies (40.8% for 140 mg, 34.7% for 70 mg versus 17.3% for placebo), with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% CI: 2.0, 5.5) for 140 mg and 2.6 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.5) for 70 mg. In patients failing two or more prophylactic pharmacotherapies the proportion was 41.3% for 140 mg and 35.6% for 70 mg versus 14.2% for placebo with an odds ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 2.2, 7.9) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 6.6), respectively.
Approximately 41% of patients in the study had medication overuse. The treatment difference observed between erenumab 140 mg and placebo and between erenumab 70 mg and placebo for the reduction of MMD in these patients was -3.1 days (95% CI: -4.8, -1.4) in both cases, and for the reduction of acute migraine-specific medication days was -2.8 (95% CI: -4.2, -1.4) for 140 mg and -3.3 (95% CI: -4.8, -1.9) for 70 mg. There was a higher proportion of patients in the erenumab group who achieved at least a 50% reduction of MMD compared to placebo (34.6% for 140 mg, 36.4% for 70 mg versus 17.7% for placebo), with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3, 4.9) and 2.7 (95% CI: 1.4, 5.2), respectively.
Efficacy was sustained for up to 1 year in the open-label extension of Study 1 in which patients received 70 mg and/or 140 mg erenumab. 74.1% of patients completed the 52-week extension. Pooled across the two doses, a reduction of -9.3 MMD was observed after 52 weeks relative to core study baseline. 59% of patients completing the study achieved a 50% response in the last month of the study.
Episodic migraine: Study 2: Aimovig (erenumab) was evaluated for prophylaxis of episodic migraine in a randomised, multicentre, 24-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients suffering from migraine with or without aura (4-14 migraine days per month).
955 patients were randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 140 mg (n = 319) or 70 mg (n = 317) erenumab or placebo (n = 319). Patients were allowed to use acute headache treatments during the study.
Demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced and comparable between study arms. Patients had a median age of 42 years, 85% were female and 89% were white. The mean migraine frequency at baseline was approximately 8 migraine days per month. Overall, 39% had failed one or more previous prophylactic pharmacotherapies due to lack of efficacy or poor tolerability. A total of 292 patients (92%) for 140 mg, 284 (90%) patients for 70 mg and 282 patients (88%) in the placebo arm completed the double-blind phase.
Patients treated with erenumab had a clinically relevant and statistically significant reduction from baseline in the frequency of migraine days from Months 4 to 6 (Figure 2) compared to patients receiving placebo. Differences from placebo were observed from Month 1. (See Figure 2 and Table 2.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In patients failing one or more prophylactic pharmacotherapies the treatment difference for the reduction of MMD observed between erenumab 140 mg and placebo was -2.5 (95% CI: -3.4, -1.7) and between erenumab 70 mg and placebo -2.0 (95% CI: -2.8, -1.2). There was also a higher proportion of subjects treated with erenumab who achieved at least 50% reduction of MMD compared to placebo (39.7% for 140 mg and 38.6% for 70 mg, with an odds ratio of 3.1 [95% CI: 1.7, 5.5] and 2.9 [95% CI: 1.6, 5.3], respectively).
Efficacy was sustained up to 1 year in the active re-randomisation part of Study 2. Patients were re-randomised in the active treatment phase (ATP) to 70 mg or 140 mg erenumab. 79.8% completed the entire study out to 52 weeks. The reduction in monthly migraine days from baseline to Week 52 was -4.22 in the 70 mg ATP group and -4.64 days in the 140 mg ATP group. At Week 52, the proportion of subjects who achieved a ≥50% reduction in MMD from baseline was 61.0% in the 70 mg ATP and 64.9% in the 140 mg ATP group.
Paediatric population: The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Aimovig in prevention of migraine headaches in one or more subsets of the paediatric population (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Pharmacokinetics: Erenumab exhibits non-linear kinetics as a result of binding to the CGRP-R receptor. However, at therapeutically relevant doses, the pharmacokinetics of erenumab following subcutaneous dosing every 4 weeks are predominantly linear due to saturation of binding to CGRP-R. Subcutaneous administration of a 140 mg once monthly dose and a 70 mg once monthly dose in healthy volunteers resulted in a Cmax mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 15.8 (4.8) μg/ml and 6.1 (2.1) μg/ml, respectively, and AUClast mean (SD) of 505 (139) day*μg/ml and 159 (58) day*μg/ml, respectively.
Less than 2-fold accumulation was observed in trough serum concentrations following 140 mg doses administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks and serum trough concentrations approached steady state by 12 weeks of dosing.
Absorption: Following a single subcutaneous dose of 140 mg or 70 mg erenumab administered to healthy adults, median peak serum concentrations were attained in 4 to 6 days, and estimated absolute bioavailability was 82%.
Distribution: Following a single 140 mg intravenous dose, the mean (SD) volume of distribution during the terminal phase (Vz) was estimated to be 3.86 (0.77) l.
Biotransformation / Elimination: Two elimination phases were observed for erenumab. At low concentrations, the elimination is predominately through saturable binding to target (CGRP-R), while at higher concentrations the elimination of erenumab is largely through a non-specific proteolytic pathway. Throughout the dosing period erenumab is predominantly eliminated via a non-specific proteolytic pathway with the effective half-life of 28 days.
Special populations: Patients with renal impairment: Patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) have not been studied. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of integrated data from the Aimovig clinical studies did not reveal a difference in the pharmacokinetics of erenumab in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment relative to those with normal renal function (see Dosage & Administration).
Patients with hepatic impairment: No studies have been performed in patients with hepatic impairment. Erenumab, as a human monoclonal antibody, is not metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes and hepatic clearance is not a major clearance pathway for erenumab (see Dosage & Administration).
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated-dose toxicity, toxicity to reproduction and development.
Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with erenumab. Erenumab is not pharmacologically active in rodents. It has biological activity in cynomolgus monkeys, but this species is not an appropriate model for evaluation of tumorigenic risk. The mutagenic potential of erenumab has not been evaluated; however, monoclonal antibodies are not expected to alter DNA or chromosomes.
In repeated-dose toxicology studies there were no adverse effects in sexually mature monkeys dosed up to 150 mg/kg subcutaneously twice weekly for up to 6 months at systemic exposures up to 123-fold and 246-fold higher than the clinical dose of 140 mg and 70 mg, respectively, every 4 weeks, based on serum AUC. There were also no adverse effects on surrogate markers of fertility (anatomical pathology or histopathology changes in reproductive organs) in these studies.
In a reproduction study in cynomolgus monkeys there were no effects on pregnancy, embryo-foetal or post-natal development (up to 6 months of age) when erenumab was dosed throughout pregnancy at exposure levels approximately 17-fold and 34-fold higher than those achieved in patients receiving erenumab 140 mg and 70 mg, respectively, every 4 weeks dosing regimen based on AUC. Measurable erenumab serum concentrations were observed in the infant monkeys at birth, confirming that erenumab, like other IgG antibodies, crosses the placental barrier.
Indications/Uses
Aimovig is indicated for prophylaxis of migraine in adults who have at least 4 migraine days per month.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Treatment should be initiated by physicians experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of migraine.
Posology: Treatment is intended for patients with at least 4 migraine days per month when initiating treatment with erenumab.
The recommended dose is 70 mg erenumab every 4 weeks. Some patients may benefit from a dose of 140 mg every 4 weeks (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Each 140 mg dose is given as two subcutaneous injections of 70 mg.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that the majority of patients responding to therapy showed clinical benefit within 3 months. Consideration should be given to discontinuing treatment in patients who have shown no response after 3 months of treatment. Evaluation of the need to continue treatment is recommended regularly thereafter.
Special populations: Elderly (aged 65 years and over): Aimovig has not been studied in elderly patients. No dose adjustment is required as the pharmacokinetics of erenumab are not affected by age.
Renal impairment / hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment or hepatic impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of Aimovig in children below the age of 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: Aimovig is for subcutaneous use.
Aimovig is intended for patient self-administration after proper training. The injections can also be given by another individual who has been appropriately instructed. The injection can be administered into the abdomen, thigh or into the outer area of the upper arm (the arm should be used only if the injection is being given by a person other than the patient; see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Injection sites should be rotated and injections should not be given into areas where the skin is tender, bruised, red or hard.
Pre-filled pen: The entire contents of the Aimovig pre-filled pen should be injected. Each pre-filled pen is for single use only and designed to deliver the entire contents with no residual content remaining.
Comprehensive instructions for administration are given in Instructions for use of Aimovig pre-filled pen under Cautions for Usage.
Overdosage
No cases of overdose have been reported in clinical studies.
Doses up to 280 mg have been administered subcutaneously in clinical studies with no evidence of dose-limiting toxicity.
In the event of an overdose, the patient should be treated symptomatically and supportive measures instituted as required.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Patients with certain major cardiovascular diseases were excluded from clinical studies (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). No safety data are available in these patients.
Latex-sensitive individuals: The removable cap of the Aimovig pen contains dry natural rubber latex, which may cause allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to latex.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Aimovig is expected to have no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are a limited amount of data from the use of erenumab in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Aimovig during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether erenumab is excreted in human milk. Human IgGs are known to be excreted in breast milk during the first few days after birth, which is decreasing to low concentrations soon afterwards; consequently, a risk to the breast-fed infant cannot be excluded during this short period. Afterwards, use of Aimovig could be considered during breast-feeding only if clinically needed.
Fertility: Animal studies showed no impact on female and male fertility (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: A total of over 2,500 patients (more than 2,600 patient years) have been treated with Aimovig in registration studies. Of these, more than 1,300 patients were exposed for at least 12 months.
The reported adverse drug reactions for 70 mg and 140 mg were injection site reactions (5.6%/4.5%), constipation (1.3%/3.2%), muscle spasms (0.7%/2.0%) and pruritus (1.0%/1.8%). Most of the reactions were mild or moderate in severity. Less than 2% of patients in these studies discontinued due to adverse events.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: Table 3 lists all adverse drug reactions that occurred in Aimovig-treated patients during the 12-week placebo-controlled periods of the studies. Within each system organ class, the ADRs are ranked by frequency, with the most frequent reactions first. Within each frequency grouping, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. In addition, the corresponding frequency category for each adverse drug reaction is based on the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000). (See Table 3.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Description of selected adverse reactions: Injection site reactions: In the integrated 12-week placebo-controlled phase of the studies, injection site reactions were mild and mostly transient. There were no cases of discontinuation due to injection site reactions. The most frequent injection site reactions were localised pain, erythema and pruritus. Injection site pain typically subsided within 1 hour after administration.
Cutaneous reactions: Non-serious cases of rash, pruritus and swelling/oedema were observed, which in the majority of cases were mild and did not lead to treatment discontinuation.
Immunogenicity: In the clinical studies, the incidence of anti-erenumab antibody development during the double-blind treatment phase was 6.3% (56/884) among subjects receiving a 70 mg dose of erenumab (3 of whom had in vitro neutralising activity) and 2.6% (13/504) among subjects receiving a 140 mg dose of erenumab (none of whom had in vitro neutralising activity). There was no impact of anti-erenumab antibody development on efficacy or safety.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
Drug Interactions
No effect on exposure of co-administered medicinal products is expected based on the metabolic pathways of monoclonal antibodies. No interaction with oral contraceptives (ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate) or sumatriptan was observed in studies with healthy volunteers.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Before administration, the solution should be inspected visually. The solution should not be injected if it is cloudy, distinctly yellow or contains flakes or particles.
Pre-filled pen: To avoid discomfort at the site of injection, the pre-filled pen(s) should be left to stand at room temperature (up to 25°C) for at least 30 minutes before injecting. It should also be protected from direct sunlight. The entire contents of the pre-filled pen(s) must be injected. The pen(s) must not be warmed by using a heat source such as hot water or microwave and must not be shaken.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Instructions for use of Aimovig pre-filled pen: Step 1: Prepare: Note: The prescribed dose of Aimovig is either 70 mg or 140 mg. This means that for the 70 mg dose the patient must inject the contents of one 70 mg single-use pen. For a dose of 140 mg the patient must inject the contents of two 70 mg single-use pens, one after the other, to get the full dose of this medicine.
(A) Carefully lift Aimovig pre-filled pen out of the carton. The patient may need to use either one or two pens based on the prescribed dose. Do not shake.
To avoid discomfort at the site of injection, leave the pen(s) at room temperature for at least 30 minutes before injecting.
Note: Do not try to warm the pen(s) by using a heat source such as hot water or microwave.
(B) Inspect each pen. Make sure the solution the patient sees in the window is clear and colourless to light yellow.
Note: Do not use the pen if any part of it appears cracked or broken.
Do not use the pen if it has been dropped.
Do not use the pen if the white cap is missing or is not securely attached.
In all cases described previously, use a new pen, and if the patient is unsure contact the doctor or pharmacist.
(C) Gather all materials needed for the injections.
Wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water.
On a clean, well-lit work surface, place the: New pen, Alcohol wipes, Cotton balls or gauze pads, Adhesive plasters, Sharps disposal container.
(D) Prepare and clean the injection site(s).
The patient can use any of the following injection sites: Thigh, Stomach area (abdomen) (except for a 5 cm area around the navel), Outer area of upper arm (only if someone else is giving the injection).
Clean the injection site with an alcohol wipe and let the skin dry.
Choose a different site each time the patient gives himself/herself an injection. If the patient needs to use the same injection site, just make sure it is not the same spot on that site used last time.
Note: After the patient has cleaned the area, do not touch it again before injecting.
Do not choose an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard. Avoid injecting into areas with scars or stretch marks.
Step 2: Get ready: (E) Pull the white cap straight off, only when ready to inject. The injection must be administered within 5 minutes. It is normal to see a drop of liquid at the end of the needle or green safety guard.
Note: Do not leave the white cap off for more than 5 minutes. This can dry out the medicine.
Do not twist or bend the white cap.
Do not put the white cap back onto the pen once it has been removed.
(F) Stretch or pinch the injection site to create a firm surface.
Stretch method: Stretch skin firmly by moving the thumb and fingers in opposite directions, creating an area about five cm wide.
Pinch method: Pinch skin firmly between the thumb and fingers, creating an area about five cm wide.
Note: Keep skin stretched or pinched while injecting.
Step 3: Inject: (G) Keep holding the stretch or pinch. With the white cap off, place the pen on the skin at an angle of 90 degrees.
Note: Do not touch the purple start button yet.
(H) Firmly push the pen down onto the skin until it stops moving.
Note: The patient must push all the way down but must not touch the purple start button until ready to inject.
(I) Press the purple start button. The patient will hear a click.
(J) Remove the thumb from the button, but keep pushing down on the skin. The injection could take about 15 seconds.
Note: When the injection is completed, the window will turn yellow and the patient may hear a second click.
Note: After the patient removes the pen from the skin, the needle will automatically be covered by the green safety guard.
When the patient removes the pen, if the window has not turned yellow, or if it looks like the medicine is still injecting, this means the patient has not received a full dose. Contact the doctor immediately.
Step 4: Finish: (K) Discard the used pen and the white cap.
Put the used pen in a sharps disposal container immediately after use. Talk to the doctor or pharmacist about proper disposal. There may be local regulations for disposal.
Note: Do not reuse the pen.
Do not recycle the pen or sharps disposal container, or throw them into household waste.
(L) Examine the injection site.
If there is any blood on the skin, press a cotton ball or gauze pad onto the injection site. Do not rub the injection site. Apply an adhesive plaster if needed.
In case the dose is 140 mg, repeat all steps with the second pen to inject the full dose.
Incompatibilities: In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C). Do not freeze.
Keep the pre-filled pen in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
After removal from the refrigerator, Aimovig must be used within 14 days when stored at room temperature (up to 25°C), or discarded. If it is stored at a higher temperature or for a longer period it must be discarded.
Shelf life: 2 years.
ATC Classification
N02CD01 - erenumab ; Belongs to the class of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists preparations. Used to relieve migraine.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for inj (pre-filled pen) (clear to opalescent, colourless to light yellow) 70 mg/mL x 1's.
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