The reported cases of overdose are those described in the literature after incorrect dilution and non-authorised use of cefuroxime intended for systemic administration.
Inadvertent high-dose (3-fold the recommended dose) intracameral cefuroxime was administered to 6 patients following an incorrect dilution due to homemade cefuroxime dilution protocol. These injections did not cause any detectable adverse effect in any patient even on ocular tissues.
Toxicity data were available following intracameral injection, during cataract surgery, of 40 to 50-fold the recommended dose of cefuroxime in 6 patients after a dilution error. Initial mean visual acuity was 20/200. Severe anterior segment inflammation was present, and retinal optical coherence tomography showed extensive macular oedema. Six weeks after surgery, mean visual acuity reached 20/25. Macular optical coherence tomography profile returned to normal. A 30% decrease of scotopic electroretinography was, however, observed in all patients.
Administration of incorrectly diluted cefuroxime (10-100 mg per eye) to 16 patients resulted in ocular toxicity including corneal oedema resolving in weeks, transient raised intraocular pressure, loss of corneal endothelial cells and changes in the electroretinography. A number of these patients had permanent and severe vision loss.