Cialis犀利士

Cialis Mechanism of Action

tadalafil

Manufacturer:

Eli Lilly

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Urologicals, drugs used in erectile dysfunction. ATC Code: G04BE08.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Tadalafil is a selective, reversible inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). When sexual stimulation causes the local release of nitric oxide, inhibition of PDE5 by tadalafil produces increased levels of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. This results in smooth muscle relaxation and inflow of blood into the penile tissues, thereby producing an erection. Tadalafil has no effect in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in the absence of sexual stimulation.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Studies in vitro have shown that tadalafil is a selective inhibitor of PDE5. PDE5 is an enzyme found in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, vascular and visceral smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, platelets, kidney, lung, and cerebellum. The effect of tadalafil is more potent on PDE5 than on other phosphodiesterases. Tadalafil is >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE1, PDE2, and PDE4, enzymes which are found in the heart, brain, blood vessels, liver, and other organs. Tadalafil is >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE3, an enzyme found in the heart and blood vessels. This selectivity for PDE5 over PDE3 is important because PDE3 is an enzyme involved in cardiac contractility. Additionally, tadalafil is approximately 700-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE6, an enzyme which is found in the retina and is responsible for phototransduction. Tadalafil is also >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE7 through PDE10.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Tadalafil administered to healthy subjects produced no significant difference compared to placebo in supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean maximal decrease of 1.6/0.8 mm Hg, respectively), in standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean maximal decrease of 0.2/4.6 mm Hg, respectively), and no significant change in heart rate.
In a study to assess the effects of tadalafil on vision, no impairment of colour discrimination (blue/green) was detected using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. This finding is consistent with the low affinity of tadalafil for PDE6 compared to PDE5. Across all clinical studies, reports of changes in colour vision were rare (<0.1%).
Three studies were conducted in men to assess the potential effect on spermatogenesis of CIALIS 10 mg (one 6-month study) and 20 mg (one 6-month and one 9-month study) administered daily. In two of these studies, decreases were observed in sperm count and concentration related to tadalafil treatment of unlikely clinical relevance. These effects were not associated with changes in other parameters such as motility, morphology and FSH.
Erectile Dysfunction: For CIALIS on demand, three clinical studies were conducted in 1054 patients in an at-home setting to define the period of responsiveness. Tadalafil demonstrated statistically significant improvement in erectile function and the ability to have successful sexual intercourse up to 36 hours following dosing, as well as patients' ability to attain and maintain erections for successful intercourse compared to placebo as early as 16 minutes following dosing.
In a 12-week study performed in 186 patients (142 tadalafil, 44 placebo) with erectile dysfunction secondary to spinal cord injury, tadalafil significantly improved the erectile function leading to a mean per-subject proportion of successful attempts in patients treated with tadalafil 10 or 20 mg (flexible-dose, on demand) of 48% as compared to 17% with placebo.
For once-a-day evaluation of tadalafil at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg 3 clinical studies were initially conducted involving 853 patients of various ages (range 21-82 years) and ethnicities, with erectile dysfunction of various severities (mild, moderate, severe) and etiologies. In the two primary efficacy studies of general populations, the mean per-subject proportion of successful intercourse attempts were 57 and 67% on CIALIS 5 mg, 50% on CIALIS 2.5 mg as compared to 31 and 37% with placebo. In the study in patients with erectile dysfunction secondary to diabetes, the mean per-subject proportion of successful attempts were 41 and 46 % on CIALIS 5 mg and 2.5 mg, respectively, as compared to 28% with placebo. Most patients in these three studies were responders to previous on-demand treatment with PDE5 inhibitors. In a subsequent study, 217 patients who were treatment-naive to PDE5 inhibitors were randomized to CIALIS 5 mg once a day vs. placebo. The mean per-subject proportion of successful sexual intercourse attempts was 68% for CIALIS patients compared to 52% for patients on placebo.
Paediatric Population: A single study has been performed in paediatric patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in which no evidence of efficacy was seen. The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, 3-arm study of tadalafil was conducted in 331 boys aged 7-14 years with DMD receiving concurrent corticosteroid therapy. The study included a 48-week double-blind period where patients were randomised to tadalafil 0.3 mg/kg, tadalafil 0.6 mg/kg, or placebo daily. Tadalafil did not show efficacy in slowing the decline in ambulation as measured by the primary 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) endpoint: least squares (LS) mean change in 6MWD at 48 weeks was - 51.0 meters (m) in the placebo group, compared with - 64.7 m in the tadalafil 0.3 mg/kg group (p = 0.307) and - 59.1 m in the tadalafil 0.6 mg/kg group (p = 0.538). In addition, there was no evidence of efficacy from any of the secondary analyses performed in this study. The overall safety results from this study were generally consistent with the known safety profile of tadalafil and with adverse events (AEs) expected in a paediatric DMD population receiving corticosteroids.
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies in all subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of the erectile dysfunction. See Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Tadalafil is readily absorbed after oral administration and the mean maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) is achieved at a median time of 2 hours after dosing. Absolute bioavailability of tadalafil following oral dosing has not been determined.
The rate and extent of absorption of tadalafil are not influenced by food, thus CIALIS may be taken with or without food. The time of dosing (morning versus evening) had no clinically relevant effects on the rate and extent of absorption.
Distribution: The mean volume of distribution is approximately 63 L, indicating that tadalafil is distributed into tissues. At therapeutic concentrations, 94% of tadalafil in plasma is bound to proteins. Protein binding is not affected by impaired renal function.
Less than 0.0005% of the administered dose appeared in the semen of healthy subjects.
Biotransformation: Tadalafil is predominantly metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoform. The major circulating metabolite is the methylcatechol glucuronide. This metabolite is at least 13,000-fold less potent than tadalafil for PDE5. Consequently, it is not expected to be clinically active at observed metabolite concentrations.
Elimination: The mean oral clearance for tadalafil is 2.5 L/h and the mean half-life is 17.5 hours in healthy subjects.
Tadalafil is excreted predominantly as inactive metabolites, mainly in the faeces (approximately 61% of the dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (approximately 36% of the dose).
Linearity/Non-Linearity: Tadalafil pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects are linear with respect to time and dose. Over a dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg, exposure (AUC) increases proportionally with dose. Steady-state plasma concentrations are attained within 5 days of once-daily dosing.
Pharmacokinetics determined with a population approach in patients with erectile dysfunction are similar to pharmacokinetics in subjects without erectile dysfunction.
Special Populations: Elderly: Healthy elderly subjects (65 years or over), had a lower oral clearance of tadalafil, resulting in 25% higher exposure (AUC) relative to healthy subjects aged 19 to 45 years. This effect of age is not clinically significant and does not warrant a dose adjustment.
Renal Insufficiency: In clinical pharmacology studies using single-dose tadalafil (5 to 20 mg), tadalafil exposure (AUC) approximately doubled in subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 51 to 80 mL/min) or moderate (creatinine clearance 31 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment and in subjects with end‑stage renal disease on dialysis. In haemodialysis patients, Cmax was 41% higher than that observed in healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributes negligibly to tadalafil elimination.
Hepatic Insufficiency: Tadalafil exposure (AUC) in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B) is comparable to exposure in healthy subjects when a dose of 10 mg is administered. There is limited clinical data on the safety of CIALIS in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Class C). There are no available data about the administration of once-a-day dosing of tadalafil to patients with hepatic impairment. If CIALIS is prescribed once-a-day, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician.
Patients with Diabetes: Tadalafil exposure (AUC) in patients with diabetes was approximately 19% lower than the AUC value for healthy subjects. This difference in exposure does not warrant a dose adjustment.
Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, and toxicity to reproduction.
There was no evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity or foetotoxicity in rats or mice that received up to 1000 mg/kg/day tadalafil. In a rat prenatal and postnatal development study, the no observed effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day. In the pregnant rat the AUC for calculated free drug at this dose was approximately 18 times the human AUC at a 20 mg dose.
There was no impairment of fertility in male and female rats. In dogs given tadalafil daily for 6 to 12 months at doses of 25 mg/kg/day (resulting in at least a 3-fold greater exposure [range 3.7-18.6] than seen in humans given a single 20 mg dose) and above, there was regression of the seminiferous tubular epithelium that resulted in a decrease in spermatogenesis in some dogs. (See also Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics.)
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