The use of ciprofloxacin should be avoided in patients who have experienced serious adverse reactions in the past when using quinolone or fluoroquinolone containing products (see Adverse Reactions).
Treatment of these patients with Ciprofloxacin Bayer should only be initiated in the absence of alternative treatment options and after careful benefit/risk assessment (see also Contraindications).
Severe infections and mixed infections with Gram-positive and anaerobic pathogens: Ciprofloxacin monotherapy is not suited for treatment of severe infections and infections that might be due to Gram-positive or anaerobic pathogens. In such infections ciprofloxacin must be co-administered with other appropriate antibacterial agents.
Streptococcal Infections (including Streptococcus pneumoniae): Ciprofloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of streptococcal infections due to inadequate efficacy.
Genital tract infections: Gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, epididymo-orchitis and pelvic inflammatory diseases may be caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.
Therefore, ciprofloxacin should be administered for the treatment of gonococcal urethritis or cervicitis only if ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be excluded (tab only).
For epididymo-orchitis and pelvic inflammatory diseases, empirical ciprofloxacin should only be considered in combination with another appropriate antibacterial agent (e.g. a cephalosporin) unless ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be excluded. If clinical improvement is not achieved after 3 days of treatment, the therapy should be reconsidered.
Urinary tract infections: Resistance to fluoroquinolones of Escherichia coli - the most common pathogen involved in urinary tract infections - varies across the European Union. Prescribers are advised to take into account the local prevalence of resistance in Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones.
Film-coated tablet: The single dose of ciprofloxacin, that may be used in uncomplicated cystitis in pre-menopausal women, is expected to be associated with lower efficacy than the longer treatment duration. This is all the more to be taken into account as regards the increasing resistance level of Escherichia coli to quinolones.
Intra-abdominal infections: There are limited data on the efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of post-surgical intra-abdominal infections.
Travellers' diarrhoea: The choice of ciprofloxacin should take into account information on resistance to ciprofloxacin in relevant pathogens in the countries visited.
Infections of the bones and joints: Ciprofloxacin should be used in combination with other antimicrobial agents depending on the results of the microbiological documentation.
Inhalational anthrax: Use in humans is based on in-vitro susceptibility data and on animal experimental data together with limited human data. Treating physicians should refer to national and/or international consensus documents regarding the treatment of anthrax.
Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, may occur following a single dose (see Adverse Reactions) and may be life-threatening. If such reaction occurs, ciprofloxacin should be discontinued and an adequate medical treatment is required.
Prolonged, disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse drug reactions: Very rare cases of prolonged (continuing months or years), disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse drug reactions affecting different, sometimes multiple, body systems (musculoskeletal, nervous, psychiatric and senses) have been reported in patients receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones irrespective of their age and pre-existing risk factors. Ciprofloxacin Bayer should be discontinued immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction and patients should be advised to contact their prescriber for advice.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture: Ciprofloxacin should generally not be used in patients with a history of tendon disease/disorder related to quinolone treatment. Nevertheless, in very rare instances, after microbiological documentation of the causative organism and evaluation of the risk/benefit balance, ciprofloxacin may be prescribed to these patients for the treatment of certain severe infections, particularly in the event of failure of the standard therapy or bacterial resistance, where the microbiological data may justify the use of ciprofloxacin. Tendinitis and tendon rupture (especially but not limited to Achilles tendon), sometimes bilateral, may occur as early as within 48 hours of starting treatment with quinolones and fluoroquinolones and have been reported to occur even up to several months after discontinuation of treatment (see Adverse Reactions). The risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in older patients, patients with renal impairment, patients with solid organ transplants, and those treated concurrently with corticosteroids. Therefore, concomitant use of corticosteroids should be avoided.
At the first sign of tendinitis (e.g. painful swelling, inflammation) the treatment with Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued and alternative treatment should be considered. The affected limb(s) should be appropriately treated (e.g. immobilisation). Corticosteroids should not be used if signs of tendinopathy occur.
Patients with myasthenia gravis: Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilator support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid fluoroquinolones in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis. (See Adverse Reactions.)
Vision disorders: If vision becomes impaired or any effects on the eyes are experienced, an eye specialist should be consulted immediately.
Photosensitivity: Ciprofloxacin has been shown to cause photosensitivity reactions. Patients taking ciprofloxacin should be advised to avoid direct exposure to either extensive sunlight or UV irradiation during treatment (see Adverse Reactions).
Seizures: Ciprofloxacin like other quinolones are known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. Ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with CNS disorders which may be predisposed to seizure. If seizures occur ciprofloxacin should be discontinued (see Adverse Reactions).
Peripheral neuropathy: Cases of sensory of sensorimotor polyneuropathy resulting in paraesthesia, hypaesthesia, dysesthesia, or weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones and fluoroquinolones. Patients under treatment with Ciprofloxacin should be advised to inform their doctor prior to continuing treatment if symptoms of neuropathy, such as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness develop in order to prevent the development of potentially irreversible condition (see Adverse Reactions).
Psychiatric reactions: Psychiatric reactions may occur even after first administration of ciprofloxacin. In rare cases, depression or psychosis can progress to suicidal ideations/thoughts culminating in attempted suicide or completed suicide. In the occurrence of such cases, ciprofloxacin should be discontinued.
Cardiac disorders: Caution should be taken when using fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients with known risk factors for prolongation of the QT interval such as, for example: congenital long QT syndrome; concomitant use of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval (e.g. Class IA and III anti-arrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics); uncorrected electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia); cardiac disease (e.g. heart failure, myocardial infarction, bradycardia).
Elderly patients and women may be more sensitive to QTc-prolonging medications. Therefore, caution should be taken when using fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in these populations. (See Elderly patients under Dosage & Administration, Interactions, Adverse Reactions, Overdosage).
Dysglycaemia: As with all quinolones, disturbances in blood glucose, including both hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia have been reported (see Adverse Reactions), usually in elderly diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycaemic agent (e.g. glibenclamide) or with insulin. Cases of hypoglycaemic coma have been reported. In diabetic patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
Gastrointestinal System: The occurrence of severe and persistent diarrhoea during or after treatment (including several weeks after treatment) may indicate an antibiotic-associated colitis (life-threatening with possible fatal outcome), requiring immediate treatment (see Adverse Reactions). In such cases, ciprofloxacin should immediately be discontinued, and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic drugs are contraindicated in this situation.
Renal and urinary system: Crystalluria related to the use of ciprofloxacin has been reported (see Adverse Reactions). Patients receiving ciprofloxacin should be well hydrated and excessive alkalinity of the urine should be avoided.
Impaired renal function: Since ciprofloxacin is largely excreted unchanged via renal pathway dose adjustment is needed in patients with impaired renal function as described in Dosage & Administration to avoid an increase in adverse drug reactions due to accumulation of ciprofloxacin.
Hepatobiliary system: Cases of hepatic necrosis and life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported with ciprofloxacin (see Adverse Reactions). In the event of any signs and symptoms of hepatic disease (such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, or tender abdomen), treatment should be discontinued.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: Haemolytic reactions have been reported with ciprofloxacin in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in these patients unless the potential benefit is considered to outweigh the possible risk. In this case, potential occurrence of haemolysis should be monitored.
Resistance: During or following a course of treatment with ciprofloxacin bacteria that demonstrate resistance to ciprofloxacin may be isolated, with or without a clinically apparent superinfection. There may be a particular risk of selecting for ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria during extended durations of treatment and when treating nosocomial infections and/or infections caused by Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species.
Cytochrome P450: Ciprofloxacin inhibits CYP1A2 and thus may cause increased serum concentration of concomitantly administered substances metabolised by this enzyme (e.g. theophylline, clozapine, olanzapine, ropinirole, tizanidine, duloxetine, agomelatine). Therefore, patients taking these substances concomitantly with ciprofloxacin should be monitored closely for clinical signs of overdose, and determination of serum concentrations (e.g. of theophylline) may be necessary (see Interactions). Co-administration of ciprofloxacin and tizanidine is contraindicated.
Methotrexate: The concomitant use of ciprofloxacin with methotrexate is not recommended (see Interactions).
Interaction with tests: The in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis might give false negative bacteriological test results in specimens from patients currently taking ciprofloxacin.
Aortic aneurysm and dissection: Epidemiologic studies report an increased risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection after intake of fluoroquinolones, particularly in the older population.
Therefore, fluoroquinolones should only be used after careful benefit-risk assessment and after consideration of other therapeutic options in patients with positive family history of aneurysm disease, or in patients diagnosed with pre-existing aortic aneurysm and/or aortic dissection, or in presence of other risk factors or conditions predisposing for aortic aneurysm and dissection (e.g., Marfan syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behcet's disease, hypertension, known atherosclerosis).
In case of sudden abdominal, chest or back pain, patients should be advised to immediately consult a physician in an emergency department.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Due to its neurological effects, ciprofloxacin may affect reaction time. Thus, the ability to drive or to operate machinery may be impaired.
Use in Children: The use of ciprofloxacin in children and adolescents should follow available official guidance. Ciprofloxacin treatment should be initiated only by physicians who are experienced in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and/or severe infections in children and adolescents.
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to cause arthropathy in weight-bearing joints of immature animals. Safety data from a randomised double-blind study on ciprofloxacin use in children (ciprofloxacin: n=335, mean age = 6.3 years; comparators: n=349, mean age = 6.2 years; age range = 1 to 17 years) revealed an incidence of suspected drug-related arthropathy (discerned from joint-related clinical signs and symptoms) by Day +42 of 7.2% and 4.6%. Respectively, an incidence of drug-related arthropathy by 1-year follow-up was 9.0% and 5.7%. The increase of suspected drug-related arthropathy cases over time was not statistically significant between groups. Treatment should be initiated only after a careful benefit/risk evaluation, due to possible adverse events related to joints and/or surrounding tissue (see Adverse Reactions).
Broncho-pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis: Clinical trials have included children and adolescents aged 5-17 years. More limited experience is available in treating children between 1 and 5 years of age.
Complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis: Ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infections should be considered when other treatments cannot be used, and should be based on the results of the microbiological documentation.
Clinical trials have included children and adolescents aged 1-17 years.
Other specific severe infections: Other severe infections in accordance with official guidance, or after careful benefit-risk evaluation when other treatments cannot be used, or after failure to conventional therapy and when the microbiological documentation can justify a ciprofloxacin use.
The use of ciprofloxacin for specific severe infections other than those mentioned above has not been evaluated in clinical trials and the clinical experience is limited. Consequently, caution is advised when treating patients with these infections.
Infusion: Injection Site Reaction: Local intravenous site reactions have been reported with the intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin. These reactions are more frequent if the infusion time is 30 minutes or less. These may appear as local skin reactions which resolve rapidly upon completion of the infusion. Subsequent intravenous administration is not contraindicated unless the reactions recur or worsen.
NaCl Load: In patients for whom sodium intake is of medical concern (patients with congestive heart failure, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, etc.), the additional sodium load should be taken into account (for sodium chloride content, see Description).