Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action:
Daptomycin is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology as follows].
Based on animal models of infection, the antimicrobial activity of daptomycin appears to correlate with the AUC/MIC (area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for certain pathogens, including S. aureus
. The principal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter best associated with clinical and microbiological cure has not been elucidated in clinical trials with CUBICIN.
Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Adults with cSSSI: Adult patients with clinically documented complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) (Table 1) were enrolled in two randomized, multinational, multicenter, investigator-blinded trials comparing CUBICIN (4 mg/kg IV q24h) with either vancomycin (1 g IV q12h) or an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin (i.e., nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, or flucloxacillin; 4 to 12 g IV per day). Patients could switch to oral therapy after a minimum of 4 days of IV treatment if clinical improvement was demonstrated. Patients known to have bacteremia at baseline were excluded. Patients with creatinine clearance (CLCR
) between 30 and 70 mL/min were to receive a lower dose of CUBICIN as specified in the protocol; however, the majority of patients in this subpopulation did not have the dose of CUBICIN adjusted. (See Table 1.)
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One trial was conducted primarily in the United States and South Africa (study 9801), and the second was conducted at non-US sites only (study 9901). The two trials were similar in design but differed in patient characteristics, including history of diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. There were a total of 534 adult patients treated with CUBICIN and 558 treated with comparator in the two trials. The majority (89.7%) of patients received IV medication exclusively.
The efficacy endpoints in both trials were the clinical success rates in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and in the clinically evaluable (CE) population. In study 9801, clinical success rates in the ITT population were 62.5% (165/264) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 60.9% (162/266) in patients treated with comparator drugs. Clinical success rates in the CE population were 76.0% (158/208) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 76.7% (158/206) in patients treated with comparator drugs. In study 9901, clinical success rates in the ITT population were 80.4% (217/270) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 80.5% (235/292) in patients treated with comparator drugs. Clinical success rates in the CE population were 89.9% (214/238) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 90.4% (226/250) in patients treated with comparator drugs.
The success rates by pathogen for microbiologically evaluable patients are presented in Table 2. (See Table 2.)
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Pediatric Patients (1 to 17 Years of Age) with cSSSI: The cSSSI pediatric trial was a single prospective multi-center, randomized, comparative trial. A total of 396 pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years with cSSSI caused by Gram positive pathogens were enrolled into the study. Patients known to have bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and pneumonia at baseline were excluded. Patients were enrolled in a stepwise approach into four age groups and given age-dependent doses of CUBICIN once daily for up to 14 days. The different age groups and doses evaluated were as follows: Adolescents (12 to 17 years) treated with 5 mg/kg of CUBICIN (n=113), Children (7 to 11 years) treated with 7 mg/kg of CUBICIN (n=113), Children (2 to 6 years) treated with 9 mg/kg of CUBICIN (n=125) and Infants (1 to < 2 years) treated with 10 mg/kg (n= 45).
Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive CUBICIN or a standard of care (SOC) comparator, which included intravenous therapy with either vancomycin, clindamycin, or an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin (nafcillin, oxacillin, or cloxacillin). Patients could switch to oral therapy after clinical improvement was demonstrated (no minimum IV dosing was required).
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of CUBICIN. The clinical outcome was determined by resolution or improvement of symptoms at the End-of-Treatment (EOT), 3 days after the last dose, and Test-of-Cure (TOC), 7-14 days after the last dose. Investigator observed outcomes were verified in a blinded fashion. Of the 396 subjects randomized in the study, 389 subjects were treated with CUBICIN or comparator and included in the ITT population. Of these, 257 subjects were randomized to the CUBICIN group and 132 subjects were randomized to the comparator group. Approximately 95% of subjects switched to oral therapy. The mean day of switch was day 4, and ranged from day 1 to day 14. The clinical success rates determined at 7 - 14 days after last dose of therapy (IV and oral) (TOC visit) were 88% (227/257) for CUBICIN and 86% (114/132) for comparator.
Bacteremia/Endocarditis: Adults with S. aureus
Bacteremia/Endocarditis: The efficacy of CUBICIN in the treatment of patients with S. aureus
bacteremia was demonstrated in a randomized, controlled, multinational, multicenter, open-label trial. In this trial, adult patients with at least one positive blood culture for S. aureus
obtained within 2 calendar days prior to the first dose of study drug and irrespective of source were enrolled and randomized to either CUBICIN (6 mg/kg IV q24h) or standard of care [an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin 2 g IV q4h (nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, or flucloxacillin) or vancomycin 1 g IV q12h, each with initial gentamicin 1 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for first 4 days]. Of the patients in the comparator group, 93% received initial gentamicin for a median of 4 days, compared with 1 patient (<1%) in the CUBICIN group. Patients with prosthetic heart valves, intravascular foreign material that was not planned for removal within 4 days after the first dose of study medication, severe neutropenia, known osteomyelitis, polymicrobial bloodstream infections, creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, and pneumonia were excluded.
Upon entry, patients were classified for likelihood of endocarditis using the modified Duke criteria (Possible, Definite, or Not Endocarditis). Echocardiography, including a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), was performed within 5 days following study enrollment. The choice of comparator agent was based on the oxacillin susceptibility of the S. aureus
isolate. The duration of study treatment was based on the investigator's clinical diagnosis. Final diagnoses and outcome assessments at Test of Cure (6 weeks after the last treatment dose) were made by a treatment-blinded Adjudication Committee, using protocol-specified clinical definitions and a composite primary efficacy endpoint (clinical and microbiological success) at the Test of Cure visit.
A total of 246 patients ≥18 years of age (124 CUBICIN, 122 comparator) with S. aureus
bacteremia were randomized from 48 centers in the US and Europe. In the ITT population, 120 patients received CUBICIN and 115 received comparator (62 received an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin and 53 received vancomycin). Thirty-five patients treated with an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin received vancomycin initially for 1 to 3 days, pending final susceptibility results for the S. aureus
isolates. The median age among the 235 patients in the ITT population was 53 years (range: 21 to 91 years); 30/120 (25%) in the CUBICIN group and 37/115 (32%) in the comparator group were ≥65 years of age. Of the 235 ITT patients, there were 141 (60%) males and 156 (66%) Caucasians across the two treatment groups. In addition, 176 (75%) of the ITT population had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at baseline and 85 (36%) had surgical procedures within 30 days prior to onset of the S. aureus
bacteremia. Eighty-nine patients (38%) had bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus
(MRSA). Entry diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and comprised 37 (16%) Definite, 144 (61%) Possible, and 54 (23%) Not Endocarditis. Of the 37 patients with an entry diagnosis of Definite Endocarditis, all (100%) had a final diagnosis of infective endocarditis, and of the 144 patients with an entry diagnosis of Possible Endocarditis, 15 (10%) had a final diagnosis of infective endocarditis as assessed by the Adjudication Committee. Of the 54 patients with an entry diagnosis of Not Endocarditis, 1 (2%) had a final diagnosis of infective endocarditis as assessed by the Adjudication Committee.
In the ITT population, there were 182 patients with bacteremia and 53 patients with infective endocarditis as assessed by the Adjudication Committee, including 35 with right-sided endocarditis and 18 with left-sided endocarditis. The 182 patients with bacteremia comprised 121 with complicated S. aureus
bacteremia and 61 with uncomplicated S. aureus
Complicated bacteremia was defined as S. aureus
isolated from blood cultures obtained on at least 2 different calendar days, and/or metastatic foci of infection (deep tissue involvement), and classification of the patient as not having endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria. Uncomplicated bacteremia was defined as S. aureus
isolated from blood culture(s) obtained on a single calendar day, no metastatic foci of infection, no infection of prosthetic material, and classification of the patient as not having endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria. The definition of right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) used in the clinical trial was Definite or Possible Endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria and no echocardiographic evidence of predisposing pathology or active involvement of either the mitral or aortic valve. Complicated RIE comprised patients who were not intravenous drug users, had a positive blood culture for MRSA, serum creatinine ≥2.5 mg/dL, or evidence of extrapulmonary sites of infection. Patients who were intravenous drug users, had a positive blood culture for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus
(MSSA), had serum creatinine <2.5 mg/dL, and were without evidence of extrapulmonary sites of infection were considered to have uncomplicated RIE.
The coprimary efficacy endpoints in the trial were the Adjudication Committee success rates at the Test of Cure visit (6 weeks after the last treatment dose) in the ITT and Per Protocol (PP) populations. The overall Adjudication Committee success rates in the ITT population were 44.2% (53/120) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 41.7% (48/115) in patients treated with comparator (difference = 2.4% [95% CI -10.2, 15.1]). The success rates in the PP population were 54.4% (43/79) in patients treated with CUBICIN and 53.3% (32/60) in patients treated with comparator (difference = 1.1% [95% CI -15.6, 17.8]).
Adjudication Committee success rates are shown in Table 3. (See Table 3.)
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Eighteen (18/120) patients in the CUBICIN arm and 19/116 patients in the comparator arm died during the trial. These comprise 3/28 CUBICIN-treated patients and 8/26 comparator-treated patients with endocarditis, as well as 15/92 CUBICIN-treated patients and 11/90 comparator-treated patients with bacteremia. Among patients with persisting or relapsing S. aureus
infections, 8/19 CUBICIN-treated patients and 7/11 comparator-treated patients died.
Overall, there was no difference in time to clearance of S. aureus
bacteremia between CUBICIN and comparator. The median time to clearance in patients with MSSA was 4 days and in patients with MRSA was 8 days.
Failure of treatment due to persisting or relapsing S. aureus
infections was assessed by the Adjudication Committee in 19/120 (16%) CUBICIN-treated patients (12 with MRSA and 7 with MSSA) and 11/115 (10%) comparator-treated patients (9 with MRSA treated with vancomycin and 2 with MSSA treated with an anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin). Among all failures, isolates from 6 CUBICIN-treated patients and 1 vancomycin-treated patient developed increasing MICs (reduced susceptibility) by central laboratory testing during or following therapy. Most patients who failed due to persisting or relapsing S. aureus
infection had deep-seated infection and did not receive necessary surgical intervention [see Persisting or Relapsing S. aureus
Bacteremia/Endocarditis under Precautions].
Pediatric Patients (1 to 17 Years of Age) with S.aureus
Bacteremia: The pediatric S. aureus
bacteremia study was designed as a prospective multi-center, randomized, comparative trial to treat pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years with bacteremia. Patients known to have endocarditis or pneumonia at baseline were excluded. Patients were enrolled in a stepwise approach into three age groups and given age-dependent doses of CUBICIN once daily for up to 42 days. The different age groups and doses evaluated were as follows: Adolescents (12 to 17 years, n=14 patients) treated with CUBICIN dosed at 7 mg/kg once daily, Children (7 to 11 years, n=19 patients) treated with CUBICIN dosed at 9 mg/kg once daily and Children (2 to 6 years, n=22 patients) treated with CUBICIN dosed at 12 mg/kg once daily. No patients 1 to <2 years of age were enrolled.
Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive CUBICIN or a standard of care comparator, which included intravenous therapy with vancomycin, semi-synthetic penicillin, first generation cephalosporin or clindamycin. Patients could switch to oral therapy after clinical improvement was demonstrated (no minimum IV dosing was required).
The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety of CUBICIN. The clinical outcome was determined by resolution or improvement of symptoms at test-of-cure (TOC) visit, 7 to 14 days after the last dose, which was assessed by the site level Blinded Evaluator.
Of the 82 subjects randomized in the study, 81 subjects were treated with CUBICIN or comparator and included in the safety population, and 73 had a proven S. aureus
bacteremia at Baseline. Of these, 51 subjects were randomized to the CUBICIN group and 22 subjects were randomized to the comparator group. The mean duration of IV therapy was 12 days, with a range of 1 to 44 days. Forty-eight subjects switched to oral therapy, and the mean duration of oral therapy was 21 days. The clinical success rates determined at 7 to 14 days after last dose of therapy (IV and oral) (TOC visit) were 88% (45/51) for CUBICIN and 77% (17/22) for comparator.
Pharmacokinetics: CUBICIN Administered over a 30-Minute Period in Adults:
The mean and standard deviation (SD) pharmacokinetic parameters of daptomycin at steady-state following intravenous (IV) administration of CUBICIN over a 30-minute period at 4 to 12 mg/kg q24h to healthy young adults are summarized in Table 4. (See Table 4.)
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Daptomycin pharmacokinetics were generally linear and time-independent at CUBICIN doses of 4 to 12 mg/kg q24h administered by IV infusion over a 30-minute period for up to 14 days. Steady-state trough concentrations were achieved by the third daily dose. The mean (SD) steady-state trough concentrations attained following the administration of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg/kg q24h were 5.9 (1.6), 6.7 (1.6), 10.3 (5.5), 12.9 (2.9), and 13.7 (5.2) mcg/mL, respectively.
CUBICIN Administered over a 2-Minute Period in Adults:
Following IV administration of CUBICIN over a 2-minute period to healthy adult volunteers at doses of 4 mg/kg (N=8) and 6 mg/kg (N=12), the mean (SD) steady-state systemic exposure (AUC) values were 475 (71) and 701 (82) mcg•h/mL, respectively. Values for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax
) at the end of the 2-minute period could not be determined adequately in this study. However, using pharmacokinetic parameters from 14 healthy adult volunteers who received a single dose of CUBICIN 6 mg/kg IV administered over a 30-minute period in a separate study, steady-state Cmax
values were simulated for CUBICIN 4 and 6 mg/kg IV administered over a 2-minute period. The simulated mean (SD) steady-state Cmax
values were 77.7 (8.1) and 116.6 (12.2) mcg/mL, respectively.
Daptomycin is reversibly bound to human plasma proteins, primarily to serum albumin, in a concentration-independent manner. The overall mean binding ranges from 90 to 93%.
In clinical studies, mean serum protein binding in adult subjects with creatinine clearance (CLCR
) ≥30 mL/min was comparable to that observed in healthy adult subjects with normal renal function. However, there was a trend toward decreasing serum protein binding among subjects with CLCR
<30 mL/min (88%), including those receiving hemodialysis (86%) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (84%). The protein binding of daptomycin in adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) was similar to that in healthy adult subjects.
The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss
) of daptomycin in healthy adult subjects was approximately 0.1 L/kg and was independent of dose.
In in vitro
studies, daptomycin was not metabolized by human liver microsomes.
In 5 healthy adults after infusion of radiolabeled 14
C-daptomycin, the plasma total radioactivity was similar to the concentration determined by microbiological assay. Inactive metabolites were detected in urine, as determined by the difference between total radioactive concentrations and microbiologically active concentrations. In a separate study, no metabolites were observed in plasma on Day 1 following the administration of CUBICIN at 6 mg/kg to subjects. Minor amounts of three oxidative metabolites and one unidentified compound were detected in urine. The site of metabolism has not been identified.
Daptomycin is excreted primarily by the kidneys. In a mass balance study of 5 healthy adult subjects using radiolabeled daptomycin, approximately 78% of the administered dose was recovered from urine based on total radioactivity (approximately 52% of the dose based on microbiologically active concentrations), and 5.7% of the administered dose was recovered from feces (collected for up to 9 days) based on total radioactivity.
Renal Impairment: Population-derived pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for infected adult patients (complicated skin and skin structure infections [cSSSI] and S. aureus
bacteremia) and noninfected adult subjects with various degrees of renal function (Table 5). Total plasma clearance (CLT
), elimination half-life (t1/2
), and volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss
) in patients with cSSSI were similar to those in patients with S. aureus
bacteremia. Following administration of CUBICIN 4 mg/kg q24h by IV infusion over a 30-minute period, the mean CLT
was 9%, 22%, and 46% lower among subjects and patients with mild (CLCR
50-80 mL/min), moderate (CLCR
30-<50 mL/min), and severe (CLCR
<30 mL/min) renal impairment, respectively, than in those with normal renal function (CLCR
>80 mL/min). The mean steady-state systemic exposure (AUC), t1/2
, and Vss
increased with decreasing renal function, although the mean AUC for patients with CLCR
30-80 mL/min was not markedly different from the mean AUC for patients with normal renal function. The mean AUC for patients with CLCR
<30 mL/min and for patients on dialysis (CAPD and hemodialysis dosed post-dialysis) was approximately 2 and 3 times higher, respectively, than for patients with normal renal function. The mean Cmax
ranged from 60 to 70 mcg/mL in patients with CLCR
≥30 mL/min, while the mean Cmax
for patients with CLCR
<30 mL/min ranged from 41 to 58 mcg/mL. After administration of CUBICIN 6 mg/kg q24h by IV infusion over a 30-minute period, the mean Cmax
ranged from 80 to 114 mcg/mL in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment and was similar to that of patients with normal renal function. (See Table 5.)
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Because renal excretion is the primary route of elimination, adjustment of CUBICIN dosage interval is necessary in adult patients with severe renal impairment (CLCR
<30 mL/min) [see Dosage in Adult Patients with Staphylococcus aureus
Bloodstream Infections (Bacteremia), Including Those with Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis, Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Isolates under Dosage & Administration].
Hepatic Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were evaluated in 10 subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) and compared with those in healthy volunteers (N=9) matched for gender, age, and weight. The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were not altered in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. No dosage adjustment is warranted when CUBICIN is administered to patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been evaluated.
Gender: No clinically significant gender-related differences in daptomycin pharmacokinetics have been observed. No dosage adjustment is warranted based on gender when CUBICIN is administered.
Geriatric: The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were evaluated in 12 healthy elderly subjects (≥75 years of age) and 11 healthy young adult controls (18 to 30 years of age). Following administration of a single 4 mg/kg dose of CUBICIN by IV infusion over a 30-minute period, the mean total clearance of daptomycin was approximately 35% lower and the mean AUC0-∞
was approximately 58% higher in elderly subjects than in healthy young adult subjects. There were no differences in Cmax
[see Use in Elderly under Precautions].
Obesity: The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were evaluated in 6 moderately obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] 25 to 39.9 kg/m2
) and 6 extremely obese (BMI ≥40 kg/m2
) adult subjects and controls matched for age, gender, and renal function. Following administration of CUBICIN by IV infusion over a 30-minute period as a single 4 mg/kg dose based on total body weight, the total plasma clearance of daptomycin normalized to total body weight was approximately 15% lower in moderately obese subjects and 23% lower in extremely obese subjects than in nonobese controls. The AUC0-∞
of daptomycin was approximately 30% higher in moderately obese subjects and 31% higher in extremely obese subjects than in nonobese controls. The differences were most likely due to differences in the renal clearance of daptomycin. No adjustment of CUBICIN dosage is warranted in obese patients.
Pediatric: The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in pediatric subjects was evaluated in 3 single-dose pharmacokinetic studies. In general, body weight-normalized total body clearance in pediatric patients was higher than in adults and increased with a decrease of age, whereas elimination half-life tends to decrease with a decrease of age. Body weight-normalized total body clearance and elimination half-life of daptomycin in children 2 to 6 years of age were similar at different doses.
A study was conducted to assess safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in pediatric patients (1 to 17 years old, inclusive) with cSSSI caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Patients were enrolled into 4 age groups [see Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies: Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections as previously mentioned], and intravenous CUBICIN doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg once daily were administered. Following administration of multiple doses, daptomycin exposure (AUCss
) was similar across different age groups after dose adjustment based on body weight and age (Table 6). (See Table 6.)
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A study was conducted to assess safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in pediatric patients with S. aureus
bacteremia. Patients were enrolled into 3 age groups [see Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies: S. aureus
Bacteremia/Endocarditis as previously mentioned], and intravenous doses of 7 to 12 mg/kg once daily were administered. Following administration of multiple doses, daptomycin exposure (AUCss
) was similar across different age groups after dose adjustment based on body weight and age (Table 7). (See Table 7.)
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No patients 1 to <2 years of age were enrolled in the study. Simulation using a population pharmacokinetic model demonstrated that the AUCss
of daptomycin in pediatric patients 1 to <2 years of age receiving 12 mg/kg once daily would be comparable to that in adult patients receiving 6 mg/kg once daily.
Drug-Drug Interactions: In Vitro
Studies: In vitro
studies with human hepatocytes indicate that daptomycin does not inhibit or induce the activities of the following human cytochrome P450 isoforms: 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. It is unlikely that daptomycin will inhibit or induce the metabolism of drugs metabolized by the P450 system.
Aztreonam: In a study in which 15 healthy adult subjects received a single dose of CUBICIN 6 mg/kg IV and a combination dose of CUBICIN 6 mg/kg IV and aztreonam 1 g IV, administered over a 30-minute period, the Cmax
of daptomycin were not significantly altered by aztreonam.
Tobramycin: In a study in which 6 healthy adult males received a single dose of CUBICIN 2 mg/kg IV, tobramycin 1 mg/kg IV, and both in combination, administered over a 30-minute period, the mean Cmax
of daptomycin were 12.7% and 8.7% higher, respectively, when CUBICIN was coadministered with tobramycin. The mean Cmax
of tobramycin were 10.7% and 6.6% lower, respectively, when tobramycin was coadministered with CUBICIN. These differences were not statistically significant. The interaction between daptomycin and tobramycin with a clinical dose of CUBICIN is unknown.
Warfarin: In 16 healthy adult subjects, administration of CUBICIN 6 mg/kg q24h by IV infusion over a 30-minute period for 5 days, with coadministration of a single oral dose of warfarin (25 mg) on the 5th day, had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of either drug and did not significantly alter the INR (International Normalized Ratio).
Simvastatin: In 20 healthy adult subjects on a stable daily dose of simvastatin 40 mg, administration of CUBICIN 4 mg/kg q24h by IV infusion over a 30-minute period for 14 days (N=10) had no effect on plasma trough concentrations of simvastatin and was not associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, including skeletal myopathy, than in subjects receiving placebo once daily (N=10) [see Myopathy and Rhabdomyolysis under Precautions and HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors under Interactions].
Probenecid: Concomitant administration of probenecid (500 mg 4 times daily) and a single dose of CUBICIN 4 mg/kg by IV infusion over a 30-minute period did not significantly alter the Cmax
Toxicology: Nonclinical Toxicology:
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of CUBICIN. However, neither mutagenic nor clastogenic potential was found in a battery of genotoxicity tests, including the Ames assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a test for chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, an in vivo
micronucleus assay, an in vitro
DNA repair assay, and an in vivo
sister chromatid exchange assay in Chinese hamsters.
Daptomycin did not affect the fertility or reproductive performance of male and female rats when administered intravenously at doses of 25, 75, or 150 mg/kg/day, which is approximately up to 9 times the estimated human exposure level based upon AUCs (or approximately up to 4 times the recommended human dose of 6 mg/kg based on body surface area comparison).
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: Adult Animals: In animals, daptomycin administration has been associated with effects on skeletal muscle. However, there were no changes in cardiac or smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle effects were characterized by microscopic degenerative/regenerative changes and variable elevations in creatine phosphokinase (CPK). No fibrosis or rhabdomyolysis was evident in repeat-dose studies up to the highest doses tested in rats (150 mg/kg/day) and dogs (100 mg/kg/day). The degree of skeletal myopathy showed no increase when treatment was extended from 1 month to up to 6 months. Severity was dose-dependent. All muscle effects, including microscopic changes, were fully reversible within 30 days following the cessation of dosing.
In adult animals, effects on peripheral nerve (characterized by axonal degeneration and frequently accompanied by significant losses of patellar reflex, gag reflex, and pain perception) were observed at daptomycin doses higher than those associated with skeletal myopathy. Deficits in the dogs' patellar reflexes were seen within 2 weeks after the start of treatment at 40 mg/kg/day (9 times the human Cmax
at the 6 mg/kg/day dose), with some clinical improvement noted within 2 weeks after the cessation of dosing. However, at 75 mg/kg/day for 1 month, 7 of 8 dogs failed to regain full patellar reflex responses within a 3-month recovery period. In a separate study in dogs receiving doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, minimal residual histological changes were noted at 6 months after the cessation of dosing. However, recovery of peripheral nerve function was evident.
Tissue distribution studies in rats showed that daptomycin is retained in the kidney but appears to penetrate the blood-brain barrier only minimally following single and multiple doses.
Juvenile Animals: Target organs of daptomycin-related effects in 7-week-old juvenile dogs were skeletal muscle and nerve, the same target organs as in adult dogs. In juvenile dogs, nerve effects were noted at lower daptomycin blood concentrations than in adult dogs following 28 days of dosing. In contrast to adult dogs, juvenile dogs also showed evidence of effects in nerves of the spinal cord as well as peripheral nerves after 28 days of dosing. No nerve effects were noted in juvenile dogs following 14 days of dosing at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day.
Administration of daptomycin to 7-week-old juvenile dogs for 28 days at doses of 50 mg/kg/day produced minimal degenerative effects on the peripheral nerve and spinal cord in several animals, with no corresponding clinical signs. A dose of 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days produced minimal degeneration in the peripheral nerve and spinal cord as well as minimal to mild degeneration of the skeletal muscle in a majority of animals, accompanied by slight to severe muscle weakness evident in most dogs. Following a 28-day recovery phase, microscopic examination revealed recovery of the skeletal muscle and the ulnar nerve effects, but nerve degeneration in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord was still observed in all 150 mg/kg/day dogs.
Following once-daily administration of daptomycin to juvenile dogs for 28 days, microscopic effects in nerve tissue were noted at a Cmax
value of 417 mcg/mL, which is approximately 3-fold less than the Cmax
value associated with nerve effects in adult dogs treated once daily with daptomycin for 28 days (1308 mcg/mL).
Neonatal Animals: Neonatal dogs (4 to 31 days old) were more sensitive to daptomycin-related adverse nervous system and/or muscular system effects than either juvenile or adult dogs. In neonatal dogs, adverse nervous system and/or muscular system effects were associated with a Cmax
value approximately 3-fold less than the Cmax
in juvenile dogs, and 9-fold less than the Cmax
in adult dogs following 28 days of dosing. At a dose of 25 mg/kg/day with associated Cmax
values of 147 mcg/mL and 717 mcg•h/mL, respectively (1.6 and 1.0-fold the adult human Cmax
and AUC, respectively, at the 6 mg/kg/day dose), mild clinical signs of twitching and one incidence of muscle rigidity were observed with no corresponding effect on body weight. These effects were found to be reversible within 28 days after treatment had stopped.
At higher dose levels of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day with associated Cmax
values of ≥321 mcg/mL and ≥1470 mcg•h/mL, respectively, marked clinical signs of twitching, muscle rigidity in the limbs, and impaired use of limbs were observed. Resulting decreases in body weights and overall body condition at doses ≥50 mg/kg/day necessitated early discontinuation by (PND)19.
Histopathological assessment did not reveal any daptomycin-related changes in the peripheral and central nervous system tissue, as well as in the skeletal muscle or other tissues assessed, at any dose level.
No adverse effects were observed in the dogs that received daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day, the NOAEL, with associated Cmax
values of 62 mcg/mL and 247 mcg•h/mL, respectively (or 0.6 and 0.4-fold the adult human Cmax
and AUC, respectively at the 6 mg/kg dose).
Daptomycin belongs to the cyclic lipopeptide class of antibacterials. Daptomycin has clinical utility in the treatment of infections caused by aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro
spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.
Daptomycin exhibits rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro
. This has been demonstrated both by time-kill curves and by MBC/MIC (minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) ratios using broth dilution methodology. Daptomycin maintained bactericidal activity in vitro
against stationary phase S. aureus
in simulated endocardial vegetations. The clinical significance of this is not known.
Mechanism of Action:
Daptomycin binds to bacterial cell membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death.
The mechanism(s) of daptomycin resistance is not fully understood. Currently, there are no known transferable elements that confer resistance to daptomycin.
Interactions with Other Antibacterials: In vitro
studies have investigated daptomycin interactions with other antibacterials. Antagonism, as determined by kill curve studies, has not been observed. In vitro
synergistic interactions of daptomycin with aminoglycosides, β-lactam antibacterials, and rifampin have been shown against some isolates of staphylococci (including some methicillin-resistant isolates).
Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infection (cSSSI) Trials in Adults:
The emergence of a daptomycin non-susceptible isolate occurred in an infected patient in a Phase 2 clinical trial of cSSSI in adult patients. A non-susceptible S. aureus
was isolated from a patient in a Phase 2 trial who received CUBICIN at less than the protocol-specified dose for the initial 5 days of therapy.
S. aureus Bacteremia/Endocarditis and Other Post-Approval Trials in Adults:
In subsequent clinical trials in adult patients, non-susceptible isolates were recovered. S. aureus
was isolated from a patient in a compassionate-use trial and from 7 patients in the S. aureus
bacteremia/endocarditis trial [see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies: S. aureus
Bacteremia/Endocarditis as previously mentioned].
Daptomycin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms both in vitro
and in clinical infections [see Indications/Uses].
Gram-Positive Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus
(including methicillin-resistant isolates), Streptococcus agalactiae
, Streptococcus dysgalactiae
, Streptococcus pyogenes
The following in vitro
data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Typically, the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for daptomycin against isolates of genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of daptomycin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
Gram-Positive Bacteria: Corynebacterium jeikeium
, Enterococcus faecalis
(vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant isolates), Enterococcus faecium
(including vancomycin-resistant isolates), Staphylococcus epidermidis
(including methicillin-resistant isolates), Staphylococcus haemolyticus
Susceptibility Test Methods:
When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro
susceptibility test for antimicrobial drugs used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid in the selection of an appropriate antibacterial drug for treatment.
Dilution Techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial MICs. These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized broth test method with the broth adjusted to a calcium content of 50 mg/L. The use of the agar dilution method is not recommended with daptomycin. The MICs should be interpreted according to criteria provided in Table 8.
Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters have not been shown to provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to daptomycin. The use of the disk diffusion method is not recommended with daptomycin. (See Table 8.)
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A report of Susceptible (S) indicates that the antimicrobial drug is likely to inhibit the growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial drug reaches the concentration usually achievable at the site of infection.
Quality Control: Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test. Standard daptomycin powder should provide the ranges of MIC values noted in Table 9. (See Table 9.)
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