Each tablet contains 10 mg of ezetimibe.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Each tablet contains 67.5 mg of lactose monohydrate. Hypromellose, croscarmellose sodium, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate.
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Lipid modifying agents, Other lipid modifying agents. ATC Code: C10A X09.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Ezetimibe is in a new class of lipid-lowering compounds that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and related plant sterols. Ezetimibe is orally active, and has a mechanism of action that differs from other classes of cholesterol-reducing compounds [e.g. statins, bile acid sequestrants (resins), fibric acid derivatives, and plant stanols]. The molecular target of ezetimibe is the sterol transporter, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), which is responsible for the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and phytosterols.
Ezetimibe localises at the brush border of the small intestine and inhibits the absorption of cholesterol, leading to a decrease in the delivery of intestinal cholesterol to the liver; statins reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver and together these distinct mechanisms provide complementary cholesterol reduction. In a 2-week clinical study in 18 hypercholesterolaemic patients, Ezetimibe inhibited intestinal cholesterol absorption by 54%, compared with placebo.
A series of preclinical studies was performed to determine the selectivity of ezetimibe for inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe inhibited the absorption of [14C]-cholesterol with no effect on the absorption of triglycerides, fatty acids, bile acids, progesterone, ethinyl estradiol, or fat soluble vitamins A and D.
Epidemiologic studies have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total- C and LDL-C and inversely with the level of HDL-C. A beneficial effect of Ezetimibe on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not yet been demonstrated.
Clinical Trials: In controlled clinical studies, ezetimibe, either as monotherapy or co-administered with a statin significantly reduced total cholesterol (total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and trigylcerides (TG) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
Primary hypercholesterolaemia: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week study, 769 patients with hypercholesterolaemia already receiving statin monotherapy and not at National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) LDL-C goal [2.6 to 4.1 mmol/l (100 to 160 mg/dl), depending on baseline characteristics] were randomised to receive either ezetimibe 10 mg or placebo in addition to their on-going statin therapy.
Among statin-treated patients not at LDL-C goal at baseline (~82%), significantly more patients randomised to ezetimibe achieved their LDL-C goal at study endpoint compared to patients randomised to placebo, 72% and 19% respectively. The corresponding LDL-C reductions were significantly different (25% and 4% for ezetimibe versus placebo, respectively). In addition, ezetimibe, added to on-going statin therapy, significantly decreased total-C, Apo B, TG and increased HDL-C, compared with placebo. Ezetimibe or placebo added to statin therapy reduced median C-reactive protein by 10% or 0% from baseline, respectively.
In two, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled, 12-week studies in 1,719 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia, ezetimibe 10 mg significantly lowered total-C (13%), LDL-C (19%), Apo B (14%), and TG (8%) and increased HDL-C (3%) compared to placebo. In addition, ezetimibe had no effect on the plasma concentrations of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E, no effect on prothrombin time, and, like other lipid-lowering agents, did not impair adrenocortical steroid hormone production.
In a multicenter, double-blind, controlled clinical study (ENHANCE), 720 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to receive ezetimibe 10 mg in combination with simvastatin 80 mg (n=357) or simvastatin 80 mg (n=363) for 2 years. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the effect of ezetimibe/simvastatin combination therapy on carotid artery intimamedia thickness (IMT) compared to simvastatin monotherapy. The impact of this surrogate marker on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still not demonstrated.
The primary endpoint, the change in the mean IMT of all six carotid segments, did not differ significantly (p=0.29) between the two treatment groups as measured by Bmode ultrasound. With ezetimibe 10 mg in combination with simvastatin 80 mg or simvastatin 80 mg alone, intima-medial thickening increased by 0.0111 mm and 0.0058 mm, respectively, over the study's 2 year duration (baseline mean carotid IMT 0.68 mm and 0.69 mm respectively).
Ezetimibe 10 mg in combination with simvastatin 80 mg lowered LDL-C, total-C, Apo B, and TG significantly more than simvastatin 80 mg. The percent increase in HDL-C was similar for the two treatment groups. The adverse reactions reported for ezetimibe 10 mg in combination with simvastatin 80 mg were consistent with its known safety profile.
Clinical studies in paediatric population (10 to 17 years of age): In a multicentre, double-blind, controlled study, 142 boys (Tanner stage II and above) and 106 postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age (mean age 14.2 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) with baseline LDL-C levels between 4.1 and 10.4 mmol/l were randomized to either ezetimibe 10 mg coadministered with simvastatin (10, 20 or 40 mg) or simvastatin (10, 20 or 40 mg) alone for 6 weeks, co-administered ezetimibe and 40 mg simvastatin or 40 mg simvastatin alone for the next 27 weeks, and open-label co-administered ezetimibe and simvastatin (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) for 20 weeks thereafter.
At Week 6, ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin (all doses) significantly reduced total-C (38% vs 26%), LDL-C (49% vs 34%), Apo B (39% vs 27%), and non-HDL-C (47% vs 33%) compared to simvastatin (all doses) alone. Results for the two treatment groups were similar for TG and HDL-C (-17% vs -12% and +7% vs +6%, respectively). At Week 33, results were consistent with those at Week 6 and significantly more patients receiving ezetimibe and 40 mg simvastatin (62%) attained the NCEP AAP ideal goal [<2.8 mmol/L (110 mg/dL)] for LDL-C compared to those receiving 40 mg simvastatin (25%).
At Week 53, the end of the open label extension, the effects on lipid parameters were maintained.
The safety and efficacy of ezetimibe co-administered with doses of simvastatin above 40 mg daily have not been studied in paediatric patients 10 to 17 years of age. The long-term efficacy of therapy with ezetimibe in patients below 17 years of age to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been studied.
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH): A double-blind, randomised, 12-week study enrolled 50 patients with a clinical and/or genotypic diagnosis of HoFH, who were receiving atorvastatin or simvastatin (40 mg) with or without concomitant LDL apheresis. Ezetimibe co-administered with atorvastatin (40 or 80 mg) or simvastatin (40 or 80 mg), significantly reduced LDL-C by 15% compared with increasing the dose of simvastatin or atorvastatin monotherapy from 40 to 80 mg.
Aortic Stenosis: The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe for the Treatment of Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a median duration of 4.4 years conducted in 1873 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), documented by Doppler-measured aortic peak flow velocity within the range of 2.5 to 4.0 m/s. Only patients who were considered not to require statin treatment for purposes of reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo or co-administered ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg daily.
The primary endpoint was the composite of major cardiovascular events (MCE) consisting of cardiovascular death, aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery, congestive heart failure (CHF) as a result of progression of AS, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), hospitalization for unstable angina, and nonhemorrhagic stroke.
The key secondary endpoints were composites of subsets of the primary endpoint event categories.
Compared to placebo, ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg did not significantly reduce the risk of MCE. The primary outcome occurred in 333 patients (35.3%) in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group and in 355 patients (38.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.12; p=0.59). Aortic valve replacement was performed in 267 patients (28.3%) in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group and in 278 patients (29.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.18; p=0.97). Fewer patients had ischemic cardiovascular events in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group (n=148) than in the placebo group (n=187) (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.97; p=0.02), mainly because of the smaller number of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.
Cancer occurred more frequently in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group (105 versus 70, p=0.01). The clinical relevance of this observation is uncertain. In a meta-analysis including interim results from two large, long-term, ongoing studies with ezetimibe/simvastatin (n=10,319 actively treated, 10,298 control treated; patient-years=18,246 actively treated, 18,255 control treated) there was not an increased rate of cancer (313 active treatment, 326 control; risk ratio, 0.96; 0.95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61).
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After oral administration, ezetimibe is rapidly absorbed and extensively conjugated to a pharmacologically active phenolic glucuronide (ezetimibe glucuronide). Mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) occur within 1 to 2 hours for ezetimibe-glucuronide and 4 to 12 hours for ezetimibe.
The absolute bioavailability of ezetimibe cannot be determined as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection.
Concomitant food administration (high fat or non-fat meals) had no effect on the oral bioavailability of ezetimibe when administered as Ezetimibe 10-mg tablets. Ezetimibe can be administered with or without food.
Distribution: Ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are bound 99.7% and 88 to 92% to human plasma proteins, respectively.
Biotransformation: Ezetimibe is metabolised primarily in the small intestine and liver via glucuronide conjugation (a phase II reaction) with subsequent biliary excretion. Minimal oxidative metabolism (a phase I reaction) has been observed in all species evaluated. Ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are the major drug-derived compounds detected in plasma, constituting approximately 10 to 20 % and 80 to 90 % of the total drug in plasma, respectively. Both ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide are slowly eliminated from plasma with evidence of significant enterohepatic recycling. The half-life for ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide is approximately 22 hours.
Elimination: Following oral administration of 14C-ezetimibe (20 mg) to human subjects, total ezetimibe accounted for approximately 93% of the total radioactivity in plasma. Approximately 78% and 11% of the administered radioactivity were recovered in the faeces and urine, respectively, over a 10-day collection period. After 48 hours, there were no detectable levels of radioactivity in the plasma.
Paediatric population: The absorption and metabolism of ezetimibe are similar between children and adolescents (10 to 18 years) and adults. Based on total ezetimibe, there are no pharmacokinetic differences between adolescents and adults. Pharmacokinetic data in the paediatric population <10 years of age are not available. Clinical experience in paediatric and adolescent patients includes patients with HoFH, HeFH.
Elderly: Plasma concentrations for total ezetimibe are about 2-fold higher in the elderly (≥65 years) than in the young (18 to 45 years). LDL-C reduction and safety profile are comparable between elderly and young subjects treated with Ezetimibe.
Therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly.
Hepatic impairment: After a single 10-mg dose of ezetimibe, the mean AUC for total ezetimibe was increased approximately 1.7-fold in patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh score 5 or 6), compared to healthy subjects. In a 14-day, multipledose study (10 mg daily) in patients with moderate hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh score 7 to 9), the mean AUC for total ezetimibe was increased approximately 4-fold on Day 1 and Day 14 compared to healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild hepatic insufficiency. Due to the unknown effects of the increased exposure to ezetimibe in patients with moderate or severe (Child Pugh score >9) hepatic insufficiency, Ezetimibe is not recommended in these patients (see Precautions).
Renal impairment: After a single 10-mg dose of ezetimibe in patients with severe renal disease (n=8; mean CrCl ≤30 ml/min/1.73m2), the mean AUC for total ezetimibe was increased approximately 1.5-fold, compared to healthy subjects (n=9). This result is not considered clinically significant. No dosage adjustment is necessary for renally impaired patients.
An additional patient in this study (post-renal transplant and receiving multiple medications, including ciclosporin) had a 12-fold greater exposure to total ezetimibe.
Gender: Plasma concentrations for total ezetimibe are slightly higher (approximately 20%) in women than in men. LDL-C reduction and safety profile are comparable between men and women treated with Ezetimibe. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is necessary on the basis of gender.
Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: Animal studies on the chronic toxicity of ezetimibe identified no target organs for toxic effects. In dogs treated for four weeks with ezetimibe (≥0.03 mg/kg/day) the cholesterol concentration in the cystic bile was increased by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5. However, in a one-year study on dogs given doses of up to 300 mg/kg/day no increased incidence of cholelithiasis or other hepatobiliary effects were observed. The significance of these data for humans is not known. A lithogenic risk associated with the therapeutic use of Ezetimibe cannot be ruled out.
In co-administration studies with ezetimibe and statins the toxic effects observed were essentially those typically associated with statins. Some of the toxic effects were more pronounced than observed during treatment with statins alone. This is attributed to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions in co-administration therapy. No such interactions occurred in the clinical studies. Myopathies occurred in rats only after exposure to doses that were several times higher than the human therapeutic dose (approximately 20 times the AUC level for statins and 500 to 2,000 times the AUC level for the active metabolites).
In a series of in vivo and in vitro assays ezetimibe, given alone or co-administered with statins, exhibited no genotoxic potential. Long-term carcinogenicity tests on ezetimibe were negative.
Ezetimibe had no effect on the fertility of male or female rats, nor was it found to be teratogenic in rats or rabbits, nor did it affect prenatal or postnatal development. Ezetimibe crossed the placental barrier in pregnant rats and rabbits given multiple doses of 1,000 mg/kg/day. The co-administration of ezetimibe and statins was not teratogenic in rats. In pregnant rabbits a small number of skeletal deformities (fused thoracic and caudal vertebrae, reduced number of caudal vertebrae) were observed. The co-administration of ezetimibe with lovastatin resulted in embryolethal effects.
Primary Hypercholesterolaemia: Ezetimibe, co-administered with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for use in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and non-familial) hypercholesterolaemia who are not appropriately controlled with a statin alone.
Ezetimibe monotherapy is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for use in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and non-familial) hypercholesterolaemia in whom a statin is considered inappropriate or is not tolerated.
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH): Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin, is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for use in patients with HoFH. Patients may also receive adjunctive treatments (e.g. LDL apheresis).
The patient should be on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet and should continue on this diet during treatment with Ezetimibe.
Route of administration is oral. The recommended dose is one Ezetimibe 10 mg tablet daily. Ezetimibe can be administered at any time of the day, with or without food.
When Ezetimibe is added to a statin, either the indicated usual initial dose of that particular statin or the already established higher statin dose should be continued. In this setting, the dosage instructions for that particular statin should be consulted.
Co-administration with bile acid sequestrants: Dosing of Ezetimibe should occur either ≥2 hours before or ≥4 hours after administration of a bile acid sequestrant.
Use in the Elderly: No dosage adjustment is required for elderly patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric Population: Initiation of treatment must be performed under review of a specialist.
Adolescents ≥10 Years (pubertal status: boys Tanner Stage II and above and girls who are at least one year post-menarche): No dosage adjustment is required (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). The clinical experience in paediatric and adolescent patients (aged 10 to 17 years old) is however limited.
When Ezetimibe is administered with simvastatin, the dosage instructions for simvastatin, in adolescents should be consulted.
Children <10 years: Ezetimibe is not recommended for use in children below age 10 due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy.
Use in Hepatic Impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh score 5 to 6). Treatment with Ezetimibe is not recommended in patients with moderate (Child Pugh score 7 to 9) or severe (Child Pugh score >9) liver dysfunction. (See Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions.)
Use in Renal Impairment: No dosage adjustment is required for renally impaired patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
In clinical studies, administration of ezetimibe, 50 mg/day, to 15 healthy subjects for up to 14 days, or 40 mg/day to 18 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia for up to 56 days, was generally well tolerated.
In animals, no toxicity was observed after single oral doses of 5,000 mg/kg of ezetimibe in rats and mice and 3,000 mg/kg in dogs.
A few cases of overdosage with Ezetimibe have been reported: Most have not been associated with adverse experiences. Reported adverse experiences have not been serious. In the event of an overdose, symptomatic and supportive measures should be employed.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
When Ezetimibe is co-administered with a statin, please refer to the package leaflet for that particular medicinal product.
Therapy with Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations in serum transaminases.
When Ezetimibe is co-administered with a statin, please refer to the package leaflet for that particular medicinal product.
Liver enzymes: In controlled co-administration trials in patients receiving Ezetimibe with a statin, consecutive transaminase elevations [≥3 X the upper limit of normal (ULN)] have been observed. When Ezetimibe is co-administered with a statin, liver function tests should be performed at initiation of therapy and according to the recommendations of the statin. (See Adverse Reactions).
Skeletal muscle: In post-marketing experience with Ezetimibe, cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported.
Most patients who developed rhabdomyolysis were taking a statin concomitantly with Ezetimibe. However, rhabdomyolysis has been reported very rarely with Ezetimibe monotherapy and very rarely with the addition of Ezetimibe to other agents known to be associated with increased risk of rhabdomyolysis. If myopathy is suspected based on muscle symptoms or is confirmed by a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level >10 times the ULN, Ezetimibe, any statin, and any of these other agents that the patient is taking concomitantly should be immediately discontinued. All patients starting therapy with Ezetimibe should be advised of the risk of myopathy and told to report promptly any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness (see Adverse Reactions).
Hepatic insufficiency: Due to the unknown effects of the increased exposure to ezetimibe in patients with moderate or severe hepatic insufficiency, Ezetimibe is not recommended (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric (10 to 17 Years of Age) population: Efficacy and safety of Ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have been evaluated in a controlled clinical trial in adolescent boys (Tanner stage II or above) and in girls who were at least one year post-menarche.
In this limited controlled study, there was generally no detectable effect on growth or sexual maturation in the adolescent boys or girls, or any effect on menstrual cycle length in girls. However, the effects of ezetimibe for a treatment period >33 weeks on growth and sexual maturation have not been studied (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
The safety and efficacy of Ezetimibe co-administered with doses of simvastatin above 40 mg daily have not been studied in paediatric patients 10 to 17 years of age.
Ezetimibe has not been studied in patients younger than 10 years of age or in pre-menarchal girls (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
The long-term efficacy of therapy with Ezetimibe in patients below 17 years of age to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been studied.
Fibrates: The safety and efficacy of Ezetimibe administered with fibrates have not been established.
If cholelithiasis is suspected in a patient receiving Ezetimibe and fenofibrate, gallbladder investigations are indicated and this therapy should be discontinued (see Adverse Reactions and Interactions).
Ciclosporin: Caution should be exercised when initiating Ezetimibe in the setting of ciclosporin. Ciclosporin concentrations should be monitored in patients receiving Ezetimibe and ciclosporin (see Interactions).
Anticoagulants: If Ezetimibe is added to warfarin, another coumarin anticoagulant, or fluindione, the International Normalised Ratio (INR) should be appropriately monitored (see Interactions).
Excipient: Ezetimibe contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, when driving vehicles or operating machines, it should be taken into account that dizziness has been reported.
Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation (see Contraindications), please refer to the package leaflet for that particular statin.
Pregnancy: Ezetimibe should be given to pregnant women only if clearly necessary. No clinical data are available on the use of Ezetimibe during pregnancy. Animal studies on the use of ezetimibe in monotherapy have shown no evidence of direct or indirect harmful effects on pregnancy, embryofoetal development, birth or postnatal development (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions).
Breast-feeding: Ezetimibe should not be used during lactation. Studies on rats have shown that ezetimibe is secreted into breast milk. It is not known if ezetimibe is secreted into human breast milk.
Fertility: No clinical data are available. No effects on fertility were observed in non-clinical studies. (See Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions.)
In clinical studies of up to 112 weeks duration, Ezetimibe 10 mg daily was administered alone in 2396 patients, or with a statin in 11,308 patients or with fenofibrate in 185 patients. Adverse reactions were usually mild and transient. The overall incidence of side effects was similar between Ezetimibe and placebo. Similarly, the discontinuation rate due to adverse experiences was comparable between Ezetimibe and placebo.
Ezetimibe administered alone or co-administered with a statin: The following adverse reactions were observed in patients treated with Ezetimibe (N=2396) and at a greater incidence than placebo (N=1159) or in patients treated with Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin (N=11308) and at a greater incidence than statin administered alone (N=9361).
Frequencies are defined as: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Tables 1 and 2.)
Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Ezetimibe co-administered with fenofibrate: Gastrointestinal Disorders:
Abdominal pain (common).
In a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study in patients with mixed hyperlipidaemia, 625 patients were treated for up to 12 weeks and 576 patients for up to 1 year. In this study, 172 patients treated with Ezetimibe and fenofibrate completed 12 weeks of therapy, and 230 patients treated with Ezetimibe and fenofibrate (including 109 who received Ezetimibe alone for the first 12 weeks) completed 1 year of therapy. This study was not designed to compare treatment groups for infrequent events. Incidence rates (95% CI) for clinically important elevations (>3 X ULN, consecutive) in serum transaminases were 4.5% (1.9, 8.8) and 2.7% (1.2, 5.4) for fenofibrate monotherapy and Ezetimibe co-administered with fenofibrate, respectively, adjusted for treatment exposure. Corresponding incidence rates for cholecystectomy were 0.6% (0.0, 3.1) and 1.7% (0.6, 4.0) for fenofibrate monotherapy and Ezetimibe coadministered with fenofibrate, respectively (see Precautions and Interactions).
Paediatric (10 to 17 years of age) population:
In a study involving paediatric (10 to 17 years of age) patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (n=248), elevations of ALT and/or AST (≥3X ULN, consecutive) were observed in 3% (4 patient) of the ezetimibe/simvastatin patients compared to 2% (2 patients) in the simvastatin monotherapy group; these figures were respectively 2% (2 patients) and 0% for elevations of CPK (≥10X ULN). No cases of myopathy were reported.
This trial was not suited for comparison of rare adverse drug reactions.
In controlled clinical monotherapy trials, the incidence of clinically important elevations in serum transaminases (ALT and/or AST ≥3 X ULN, consecutive) was similar between Ezetimibe (0.5%) and placebo (0.3%). In co-administration trials, the incidence was 1.3% for patients treated with Ezetimibe co-administered with a statin and 0.4% for patients treated with a statin alone. These elevations were generally asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and returned to baseline after discontinuation of therapy or with continued treatment (see Precautions).
In clinical trials, CPK >10 X ULN was reported for 4 of 1,674 (0.2%) patients administered Ezetimibe alone vs 1 of 786 (0.1%) patients administered placebo, and for 1 of 917 (0.1%) patients co-administered Ezetimibe and a statin vs 4 of 929 (0.4%) patients administered a statin alone. There was no excess of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis associated with Ezetimibe compared with the relevant control arm (placebo or statin alone) (see Precautions).
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience. Because these adverse experiences have been identified from spontaneous reports, their true frequencies are not known and cannot be estimated.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders:
Immune system disorders:
Hypersensitivity, including rash, urticaria, anaphylaxis and angioedema.
Nervous system disorders:
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:
Hepatitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:
Myalgia; myopathy/rhabdomyolysis (see Precautions).
General disorders and administration site conditions:
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
In preclinical studies, it has been shown that ezetimibe does not induce cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions have been observed between ezetimibe and drugs known to be metabolised by cytochromes P450 1A2, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4, or N-acetyltransferase.
In clinical interaction studies, ezetimibe had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of dapsone, dextromethorphan, digoxin, oral contraceptives (ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel), glipizide, tolbutamide, or midazolam, during co-administration. Cimetidine, co-administered with ezetimibe, had no effect on the bioavailability of ezetimibe.
Antacids: Concomitant antacid administration decreased the rate of absorption of ezetimibe but had no effect on the bioavailability of ezetimibe. This decreased rate of absorption is not considered clinically significant.
Cholestyramine: Concomitant cholestyramine administration decreased the mean area under the curve (AUC) of total ezetimibe (ezetimibe + ezetimibe glucuronide) approximately 55%. The incremental low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction due to adding Ezetimibe to cholestyramine may be lessened by this interaction (see Dosage & Administration).
Fibrates: In patients receiving fenofibrate and Ezetimibe, physicians should be aware of the possible risk of cholelithiasis and gallbladder disease (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions).
If cholelithiasis is suspected in a patient receiving Ezetimibe and fenofibrate, gallbladder investigations are indicated and this therapy should be discontinued (see Adverse Reactions).
Concomitant fenofibrate or gemfibrozil administration modestly increased total ezetimibe concentrations (approximately 1.5- and 1.7-fold respectively).
Co-administration of Ezetimibe with other fibrates has not been studied.
Fibrates may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to cholelithiasis. In animal studies, ezetimibe sometimes increased cholesterol in the gallbladder bile, but not in all species (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions). A lithogenic risk associated with the therapeutic use of Ezetimibe cannot be ruled out.
Statins: No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions were seen when ezetimibe was co-administered with atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin or rosuvastatin.
Ciclosporin: In a study of eight post-renal transplant patients with creatinine clearance of >50 mL/min on a stable dose of ciclosporin, a single 10-mg dose of Ezetimibe resulted in a 3.4-fold (range 2.3 to 7.9-fold) increase in the mean AUC for total ezetimibe compared to a healthy control population, receiving ezetimibe alone, from another study (n=17). In a different study, a renal transplant patient with severe renal insufficiency who was receiving ciclosporin and multiple other medications, demonstrated a 12-fold greater exposure to total ezetimibe compared to concurrent controls receiving ezetimibe alone. In a two-period crossover study in twelve healthy subjects, daily administration of 20 mg ezetimibe for 8 days with a single 100-mg dose of ciclosporin on Day 7 resulted in a mean 15% increase in ciclosporin AUC (range 10% decrease to 51% increase) compared to a single 100-mg dose of ciclosporin alone. A controlled study on the effect of co-administered ezetimibe on ciclosporin exposure in renal transplant patients has not been conducted. Caution should be exercised when initiating Ezetimibe in the setting of ciclosporin. Ciclosporin concentrations should be monitored in patients receiving Ezetimibe and ciclosporin (see Precautions).
Anticoagulants: Concomitant administration of ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) had no significant effect on bioavailability of warfarin and prothrombin time in a study of twelve healthy adult males. However, there have been post-marketing reports of increased International Normalised Ratio (INR) in patients who had Ezetimibe added to warfarin or fluindione. If Ezetimibe is added to warfarin, another coumarin anticoagulant, or fluindione, INR should be appropriately monitored (see Precautions).
Do not store above 30°C. Protect from moisture.
C10AX09 - ezetimibe ; Belongs to the class of other lipid modifying agents.