Effects on Fertility: There are no data on human fertility. No effects of FLIXOTIDE on male or female fertility were observed in rats at subcutaneous doses up to 50 μg/kg/day.
Use in Pregnancy: There are limited data in pregnant women. Administration of FLIXOTIDE during pregnancy should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the foetus.
An observational retrospective epidemiological cohort study utilising electronic health records from the United Kingdom was conducted to evaluate the risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) following first trimester exposure to inhaled fluticasone propionate alone and salmeterol-fluticasone propionate combination relative to non-fluticasone propionate containing inhaled corticosteroids. No placebo comparator was included in this study.
Within the asthma cohort of 5,362 first trimester inhaled corticosteroid-exposed pregnancies, 131 diagnosed MCMs were identified: 1,612 (30%) were exposed to fluticasone propionate or salmeterol-fluticasone propionate of which 42 diagnosed MCMs were identified. The adjusted odds ratio for MCMs diagnosed by 1 year was 1.1 (95%CI: 0.5 - 2.3) for fluticasone propionate exposed vs non-fluticasone propionate inhaled corticosteroid exposed women with moderate asthma and 1.2 (95%: 0.7 - 2.0) for women with considerable to severe asthma. No difference in the risk of MCMs was identified following first trimester exposure to fluticasone propionate alone versus salmeterol-fluticasone propionate combination. Absolute risks of MCM across the asthma severity strata ranged from 2.0 to 2.9 per 100 fluticasone propionate-exposed pregnancies which is comparable to results from a study of 15,840 pregnancies unexposed to asthma therapies in the General Practice Research Database (2.8 MCM events per 100 pregnancies).
Results from the retrospective epidemiological study did not find an increased risk of MCMs following exposure to fluticasone propionate when compared to other inhaled corticosteroids, during the first trimester of pregnancy.
There was no evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic activity for fluticasone propionate in the standard battery of genotoxicity assays.
Use in Lactation: The excretion of fluticasone propionate into human breast milk has not been investigated. When measurable plasma levels were obtained in lactating laboratory rats following subcutaneous administration there was evidence of fluticasone propionate in the milk. However plasma levels in patients following inhaled application of fluticasone propionate at recommended doses are likely to be low.
However, the amount of fluticasone propionate ingested by the newborn is estimated to be very small as a consequence of very low maternal plasma concentration of fluticasone propionate.
Administration during lactation should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the child.