Pregnancy: Since furosemide crosses the placenta, it should be used during pregnancy for short periods and in compelling indications only.
Diuretics are not suitable for routine therapy of hypertension and oedema during pregnancy, as they impair placental perfusion and, consequently, foetal growth.
Treatment during pregnancy requires monitoring of electrolytes, haematocrit and foetal growth.
In animal studies, reproductive toxicity was observed (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Furosemide reaches 100% of the maternal serum concentration in cord blood. No malformations in humans which might be associated with exposure to furosemide have been reported to date. However, there is limited experience to allow a concluding evaluation of a potential damaging effect in the embryo/foetus.
If used during pregnancy, furosemide can predispose the foetus to hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and secondary hyperparathyreosis. In utero urinary production can also be stimulated in the foetus.
Breastfeeding: Furosemide is excreted into breast milk and inhibits lactation. In such cases, breastfeeding is contraindicated (see Contraindications).