Humalog

Humalog

insulin lispro

Manufacturer:

Eli Lilly

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Insulin lispro (recombinant DNA origin produced in E.coli).
Description
One ml contains 100 units (equivalent to 3.5 mg) insulin lispro (recombinant DNA origin produced in E. coli).
Vial: Each container includes 10ml equivalent to 1000 units insulin lispro.
Cartridge: Each container includes 3ml equivalent to 300 units insulin lispro.
Pre-filled Pen: Each Humalog KwikPen contains 300 U (3 ml) insulin lispro.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: m-Cresol [3.15 mg/ml], Glycerol, Dibasic sodium phosphate·7H2O, Zinc oxide and Water for injections. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may be used to adjust pH to 7.0-7.8.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Fast-acting human insulin analogue. ATC code: A10A B04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: The primary activity of insulin lispro is the regulation of glucose metabolism.
In addition, insulins have several anabolic and anti-catabolic actions on a variety of different tissues. Within muscle tissue this includes increasing glycogen, fatty acid, glycerol and protein synthesis and amino acid uptake, while decreasing glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, lipolysis, protein catabolism and amino acid output.
Insulin lispro has a rapid onset of action (approximately 15 minutes), thus allowing it to be given closer to a meal (within zero to 15 minutes of the meal) when compared to regular insulin (30 to 45 minutes before). Insulin lispro takes effect rapidly and has a shorter duration of activity (2 to 5 hours) when compared to regular insulin.
Clinical trials in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have demonstrated reduced postprandial hyperglycaemia with insulin lispro compared to soluble human insulin.
As with all insulin preparations, the time course of insulin lispro action may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and is dependent on dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature and physical activity. The typical activity profile following subcutaneous injection is illustrated as follows. (See figure.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

The previous representation reflects the relative amount of glucose over time required to maintain the subject's whole blood glucose concentrations near fasting levels and is an indicator of the effect of these insulins on glucose metabolism over time.
Clinical trials have been performed in children (61 patients aged 2 to 11) and children and adolescents (481 patients aged 9 to 19 years), comparing insulin lispro to human soluble insulin. The pharmacodynamic profile of insulin lispro in children is similar to that seen in adults.
When used in subcutaneous infusion pumps, treatment with insulin lispro has been shown to result in lower glycosylated haemoglobin levels compared to soluble insulin. In a double-blind, crossover study, the reduction in glycosylated haemoglobin levels after 12 weeks dosing was 0.37 percentage points with insulin lispro, compared to 0.03 percentage points for soluble insulin (p = 0.004).
In patients with type 2 diabetes on maximum doses of sulphonyl urea agents, studies have shown that the addition of insulin lispro significantly reduces HbA1c compared to sulphonyl urea alone. The reduction of HbA1c would also be expected with other insulin products e.g. soluble or isophane insulins.
Clinical trials in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have demonstrated a reduced number of episodes of nocturnal hypoglycaemia with insulin lispro compared to soluble human insulin. In some studies, reduction of nocturnal hypoglycaemia was associated with increased episodes of daytime hypoglycaemia.
The glucodynamic response to insulin lispro is not affected by renal or hepatic function impairment. Glucodynamic differences between insulin lispro and soluble human insulin, as measured during a glucose clamp procedure, were maintained over a wide range of renal function.
Insulin lispro has been shown to be equipotent to human insulin on a molar basis but its effect is more rapid and of a shorter duration.
Pharmacokinetics: The pharmacokinetics of insulin lispro reflect a compound that is rapidly absorbed, and achieves peak blood levels 30 to 70 minutes following subcutaneous injection. When considering the clinical relevance of these kinetics, it is more appropriate to examine the glucose utilisation curves (as previously discussed in Pharmacodynamics).
Insulin lispro maintains more rapid absorption when compared to soluble human insulin in patients with renal impairment. In patients with type 2 diabetes over a wide range of renal function the pharmacokinetic differences between insulin lispro and soluble human insulin were generally maintained and shown to be independent of renal function. Insulin lispro maintains more rapid absorption and elimination when compared to soluble human insulin in patients with hepatic impairment.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: In in vitro tests, including binding to insulin receptor sites and effects on growing cells, insulin lispro behaved in a manner that closely resembled human insulin. Studies also demonstrate that the dissociation of binding to the insulin receptor of insulin lispro is equivalent to human insulin. Acute, one month and twelve month toxicology studies produced no significant toxicity findings.
Insulin lispro did not induce fertility impairment, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity in animal studies.
Indications/Uses
For the treatment of adults and children with diabetes mellitus who require insulin for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. Humalog is also indicated for the initial stabilisation of diabetes mellitus.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The dosage should be determined by the physician, according to the requirement of the patient.
Humalog may be given shortly before meals. When necessary Humalog can be given soon after meals. Humalog preparations should be given by subcutaneous injection or by continuous subcutaneous infusion pump (see Dosage & Administration) and may, although not recommended, also be given by intramuscular injection. If necessary, Humalog may also be administered intravenously, for example; for the control of blood glucose levels during ketoacidosis, acute illnesses or during intra and post operative periods.
Subcutaneous administration should be in the upper arms, thighs, buttocks, or abdomen. Use of injection sites should be rotated so that the same site is not used more than approximately once a month.
When administered subcutaneously care should be taken when injecting Humalog to ensure that a blood vessel has not been entered. After injection, the site of injection should not be massaged. Patients must be educated to use the proper injection techniques.
Humalog takes effect rapidly and has a shorter duration of activity (2 to 5 hours) given subcutaneously as compared with regular insulin. This rapid onset of activity allows a Humalog injection (or, in the case of administration by continuous subcutaneous infusion, a Humalog bolus) to be given very close to mealtime. The time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. The faster onset of action compared to soluble human insulin is maintained regardless of injection site. As with all insulin preparations, the duration of action of Humalog is dependent on dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity.
Humalog can be used in conjunction with a longer-acting insulin or oral sulphonylurea agents, on the advice of a physician.
Use of Humalog in an insulin infusion pump: Only certain CE-marked insulin infusion pumps may be used to infuse insulin lispro. Before infusing insulin lispro, the manufacturers instructions should be studied to ascertain the suitability or otherwise for the particular pump. Read and follow the instructions that accompany the infusion pump. Use the correct reservoir and catheter for the pump. The infusion set (tubing and cannula) should be changed in accordance with the instructions in the product information supplied with the infusion set. In the event of a hypoglycaemic episode, the infusion should be stopped until the episode is resolved. If repeated or severe low blood glucose levels occur, notify your health care professional and consider the need to reduce or stop your insulin infusion. A pump malfunction or obstruction of the infusion set can result in a rapid rise in glucose levels. If an interruption to insulin flow is suspected, follow the instructions in the product literature and if appropriate, notify your health care professional. When used with an insulin infusion pump, Humalog should not be mixed with any other insulin.
Intravenous administration of insulin: Intravenous injection of insulin lispro should be carried out following normal clinical practise for intravenous injections, for example by an intravenous bolus or by an infusion system. Frequent monitoring of the blood glucose levels is required.
Infusion systems at concentrations from 0.1 units/ml to 1.0 units/ml insulin lispro in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose are stable at room temperature for 48 hours. It is recommended that the system is primed before starting the infusion to the patient.
Paediatric population: Humalog can be used in adolescents and children (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Overdosage
Insulins have no specific overdose definitions because serum glucose concentrations are a result of complex interactions between insulin levels, glucose availability and other metabolic processes. Hypoglycaemia may occur as a result of an excess of insulin activity relative to food intake and energy expenditure.
Hypoglycaemia may be associated with listlessness, confusion, palpitations, headache, sweating and vomiting.
Mild hypoglycaemic episodes will respond to oral administration of glucose or other sugar or saccharated products.
Correction of moderately severe hypoglycaemia can be accomplished by intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of glucagon, followed by oral carbohydrate when the patient recovers sufficiently. Patients who fail to respond to glucagon must be given glucose solution intravenously.
If the patient is comatose, glucagon should be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. However, glucose solution must be given intravenously if glucagon is not available or if the patient fails to respond to glucagon. The patient should be given a meal as soon as consciousness is recovered.
Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycaemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to insulin lispro or to any of the excipients.
Hypoglycaemia.
Special Precautions
Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type (regular, NPH, lente, etc.), species (animal, human, human insulin analogue), and/or method of manufacture (recombinant DNA versus animal-source insulin) may result in the need for a change in dosage. For fast-acting insulins, any patient also on basal insulin must optimise dosage of both insulins to obtain glucose control across the whole day, particularly nocturnal/fasting glucose control.
The shorter-acting Humalog should be drawn into the syringe first, to prevent contamination of the vial by the longer-acting insulin. Mixing of the insulins ahead of time or just before the injection should be on advice of the physician. However, a consistent routine must be followed.
Conditions which may make the early warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia different or less pronounced include long duration of diabetes, intensified insulin therapy, diabetic nerve disease or medications such as beta-blockers.
A few patients who have experienced hypoglycaemic reactions after transfer from animal-source insulin to human insulin have reported that the early warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia were less pronounced or different from those experienced with their previous insulin. Uncorrected hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic reactions can cause loss of consciousness, coma, or death.
The use of dosages which are inadequate or discontinuation of treatment, especially in insulin-dependent diabetics, may lead to hyperglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis; conditions which are potentially lethal.
Insulin requirements may be reduced in the presence of renal impairment. Insulin requirements may be reduced in patients with hepatic impairment due to reduced capacity for gluconeogenesis and reduced insulin breakdown; however, in patients with chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in insulin resistance may lead to increased insulin requirements.
Insulin requirements may be increased during illness or emotional disturbances.
Adjustment of dosage may also be necessary if patients undertake increased physical activity or change their usual diet. Exercise taken immediately after a meal may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. A consequence of the pharmacodynamics of rapid-acting insulin analogues is that if hypoglycaemia occurs, it may occur earlier after an injection when compared with soluble human insulin.
If the 40 units/ml vial is the product normally prescribed, do not take insulin from a 100 units/ml cartridge using a 40 units/ml syringe.
Combination of Humalog with pioglitazone: Cases of cardiac failure have been reported when pioglitazone was used in combination with insulin, especially in patients with risk factors for development of cardiac heart failure. This should be kept in mind, if treatment with the combination of pioglitazone and Humalog is considered. If the combination is used, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure, weight gain and oedema. Pioglitazone should be discontinued, if any deterioration in cardiac symptoms occurs.
Instructions for use and handling (cartridge): To prevent the possible transmission of disease, each cartridge must be used by one patient only, even if the needle on the delivery device is changed.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: The patient's ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycaemia. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance (e.g. driving a car or operating machinery).
Patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia whilst driving, this is particularly important in those who have reduced or absent awareness of the warning signs of hypoglycaemia or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. The advisability of driving should be considered in these circumstances.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Data on a large number of exposed pregnancies do not indicate any adverse effect of insulin lispro on pregnancy or on the health of the foetus/newborn.
It is essential to maintain good control of the insulin-treated (insulin-dependent or gestational diabetes) patient throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements usually fall during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Patients with diabetes should be advised to inform their doctor if they are pregnant or are contemplating pregnancy. Careful monitoring of glucose control, as well as general health, is essential in pregnant patients with diabetes.
Patients with diabetes who are breast-feeding may require adjustments in insulin dose, diet or both.
Adverse Reactions
Hypoglycaemia is the most frequent undesirable effect of insulin therapy that a patient with diabetes may suffer. Severe hypoglycaemia may lead to loss of consciousness, and in extreme cases, death. No specific frequency for hypoglycaemia is presented, since hypoglycaemia is a result of both the insulin dose and other factors e.g. a patient's level of diet and exercise.
Local allergy in patients is common (1/100 to <1/10). Redness, swelling, and itching can occur at the site of insulin injection. This condition usually resolves in a few days to a few weeks. In some instances, this condition may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in the skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique. Systemic allergy, which is rare (1/10,000 to <1/1,000) but potentially more serious, is a generalised allergy to insulin. It may cause a rash over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, reduction in blood pressure, fast pulse, or sweating. Severe cases of generalised allergy may be life-threatening.
Lipodystrophy at the injection site is uncommon (1/1,000 to <1/100).
Cases of oedema have been reported with insulin therapy, particularly if previous poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions to the Drug Office, Department of Health.
Drug Interactions
Insulin requirements may be increased by medicinal products with hyperglycaemic activity, such as oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, or thyroid replacement therapy, danazol, beta2 stimulants (such as ritodrine, salbutamol, terbutaline).
Insulin requirements may be reduced in the presence of medicinal products with hypoglycaemic activity, such as oral hypoglycaemics, salicylates (for example, acetylsalicylic acid), sulpha antibiotics, certain antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), certain angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, octreotide or alcohol.
The physician should be consulted when using other medications in addition to Humalog (see Precautions).
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Instructions for use and handling: Vial: The vial is to be used in conjunction with an appropriate syringe (100 unit markings).
a) Preparing a dose: Inspect the Humalog solution. It should be clear and colourless. Do not use Humalog if it appears cloudy, thickened, or slightly coloured or if solid particles are visible.
i) Humalog: 1. Wash hands.
2. If using a new vial, flip off the plastic protective cap, but do not remove the stopper.
3. If the therapeutic regimen requires the injection of basal insulin and Humalog at the same time, the two can be mixed in the syringe. If mixing insulins, refer to Mixing Humalog with longer-acting Human Insulins as follows and Incompatibilities.
4. Draw air into the syringe equal to the prescribed Humalog dose. Wipe the top of the vial with an alcohol swab. Put the needle through the rubber top of the Humalog vial and inject the air into the vial.
5. Turn the vial and syringe upside down. Hold the vial and syringe firmly in one hand.
6. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the Humalog, withdraw the correct dose into the syringe.
7. Before removing the needle from the vial, check the syringe for air bubbles that reduce the amount of Humalog in it. If bubbles are present, hold the syringe straight up and tap its side until the bubbles float to the top. Push them out with the plunger and withdraw the correct dose.
8. Remove the needle from the vial and lay the syringe down so that the needle does not touch anything.
ii) Mixing Humalog with longer-acting Human Insulins (see Incompatibilities): 1. Humalog should be mixed with longer-acting human insulins only on the advice of a doctor.
2. Draw air into the syringe equal to the amount of longer-acting insulin being taken. Insert the needle into the longer-acting insulin vial and inject the air. Withdraw the needle.
3. Now inject air into the Humalog vial in the same manner, but do not withdraw the needle.
4. Turn the vial and syringe upside down.
5. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the Humalog, withdraw the correct dose of Humalog into the syringe.
6. Before removing the needle from the vial, check the syringe for air bubbles that reduce the amount of Humalog in it. If bubbles are present, hold the syringe straight up and tap its side until the bubbles float to the top. Push them out with the plunger and withdraw the correct dose.
7. Remove the needle from the vial of Humalog and insert it into the vial of the longer-acting insulin. Turn the vial and syringe upside down. Hold the vial and syringe firmly in one hand and shake gently. Making sure the tip of the needle is in the insulin, withdraw the dose of longer-acting insulin.
8. Withdraw the needle and lay the syringe down so that the needle does not touch anything.
b) Injecting a dose: 1. Choose a site for injection.
2. Clean the skin as instructed.
3. Stabilise the skin by spreading it or pinching up a large area. Insert the needle and inject as instructed.
4. Pull the needle out and apply gentle pressure over the injection site for several seconds. Do not rub the area.
5. Dispose of the syringe and needle safely.
6. Use of the injection sites should be rotated so that the same is not used more than approximately once a month.
c) Mixing insulins: Do not mix insulin in vials with insulin in cartridges. See Incompatibilities.
Cartridge: To prevent the possible transmission of disease, each cartridge must be used by one patient only, even if the needle on the delivery device is changed.
Humalog cartridges are to be used with a CE marked pen as recommended in the information provided by the device manufacturer.
a) Preparing a dose: Inspect the Humalog solution. It should be clear and colourless. Do not use Humalog if it appears cloudy, thickened, or slightly coloured or if solid particles are visible.
The following is a general description. The manufacturer's instructions with each individual pen must be followed for loading the cartridge, attaching the needle and administering the insulin injection.
b) Injecting a dose: 1. Wash hands.
2. Choose a site for injection.
3. Clean the skin as instructed.
4. Remove outer needle cap.
5. Stabilise the skin by spreading it or pinching up a large area. Insert the needle as instructed.
6. Press the knob.
7. Pull the needle out and apply gentle pressure over the injection site for several seconds. Do not rub the area.
8. Using the outer needle cap, unscrew the needle and dispose of it safely.
9. Use of injection sites should be rotated so that the same site is not used more than approximately once a month.
c) Mixing insulins: Do not mix insulin in vials with insulin in cartridges. See Incompatibilities.
KwikPen: Always check the pack and the label of the pre-filled pen for the name and type of the insulin when getting from the pharmacy. Make sure to get the Humalog KwikPen that the physician has told to use.
Always use Humalog KwikPen exactly as the physician has told. Check with the physician if unsure.
Preparing Humalog KwikPen: Humalog is already dissolved in water, no need to mix it. But use it only if it looks like water. It must be clear, have no colour and no solid pieces in it. Check each time the patient injects himself/herself.
Getting the KwikPen ready to use (Please see user manual): First wash the hands.
Read the instructions on how to use the pre-filled insulin pen. Follow the instructions carefully.
Use a clean needle. (Needles are not included.)
Prime the KwikPen before each use. This checks that insulin comes out and clears the air bubbles from the KwikPen. There may still be some small air bubbles left in the pen, these are harmless. But if the air bubbles are too large it may affect the insulin dose.
Injecting Humalog: Before making an injection, clean the skin as instructed. Inject under the skin, as instructed. Do not inject directly into a vein. After the injection, leave the needle in the skin for five seconds to make sure the patient has taken the whole dose. Do not rub the area of injection. Make sure to inject at least half an inch (1 cm) from the last injection and that the patient 'rotates' the places of injection, as what has been taught. It doesn't matter which injection site the patient uses, either upper arm, thigh, buttock or abdomen, the Humalog injection will still work quicker than soluble human insulin.
Do not administer Humalog by the intravenous route. Inject Humalog as the physician or nurse has taught. Only the physician can administer Humalog by the intravenous route. He will only do this under special circumstances such as surgery or if the patient is ill and the glucose levels are too high.
After injecting: As soon as the patient has done the injection, unscrew the needle from the KwikPen using the outer needle cap. This will keep the insulin sterile and stop it leaking. It also stops air entering the pen and the needle clogging. Do not share the needles. Do not share the pen. Replace the cap on the pen.
Further injections: Every time the patient uses a KwikPen, use a new needle. Before every injection, clear any air bubbles. The patient can see how much insulin is left by holding the KwikPen with the needle pointing up. The scale on the cartridge shows about how many units are left.
Do not mix any other insulin in the disposable pen. Once the KwikPen is empty, do not use it again. Please get rid of it carefully, the pharmacist or diabetes nurse will tell the patient how to do this.
Using Humalog in an infusion pump: Only certain CE-marked insulin infusion pumps may be used to infuse insulin lispro. Before infusing insulin lispro, the manufacturers instructions should be studied to ascertain the suitability or otherwise for the particular pump. Read and follow the instructions in the product literature supplied with the infusion pump.
Be sure to use the correct reservoir and catheter for the pump.
Change the infusion set every 48 hours. Use aseptic technique when inserting the infusion set.
In the event of a hypoglycaemic episode, the infusion should be stopped until the episode is resolved. If repeated or severe low blood glucose levels occur, notify the physician or clinic and consider the need to reduce or stop the insulin infusion.
A pump malfunction or obstruction of the infusion set can result in a rapid rise in glucose levels. If an interruption to insulin flow is suspected, follow the instructions in the product literature and if appropriate, notify the physician or clinic.
When used with an insulin infusion pump, Humalog should not be mixed with any other insulin.
Incompatibilities: Humalog preparations should not be mixed with insulins produced by other manufacturers or with animal insulin preparations. This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned previously.
Storage
Vial: Do not freeze. Do not expose to excessive heat or direct sunlight.
Unopened vials: Store in a refrigerator at (2°C-8°C).
After first use: Store in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C) or below 30°C.
Shelf life: Unopened vials: 3 years.
After first use: 28 days.
Cartridge: Unused cartridge: Store in a refrigerator at (2°C-8°C). Do not freeze. Do not expose to excessive heat or direct sunlight.
After cartridge insertion: Store below 30°C. Do not refrigerate. The pen with the inserted cartridge should not be stored with the needle attached.
Shelf life: Unused cartridge: 3 years.
After cartridge insertion: 28 days.
KwikPen: Before first use: Store in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C). Do not freeze.
In use: Keep at room temperature (15°C-30°C) and discard after 28 days. Do not put it near heat or in the sun. Do not keep the KwikPen in use in the fridge. The KwikPen should not be stored with the needle attached.
Do not use Humalog KwikPen, if the solution is coloured or it has solid pieces in it. Use it only if it looks like water. Check each time the patient injects himself/herself.
ATC Classification
A10AB04 - insulin lispro ; Belongs to the class of fast-acting insulins and analogues. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
Vial 100 u/mL (sterile, clear, colourless, aqueous solution) x 10 mL x 1's. Cartridge 100 u/mL (sterile, clear, colourless, aqueous solution) x 3 mL x 5's. Pre-filled pen (Kwikpen; sterile, clear, colourless, aqueous solution) 100 u/ml x 3 ml x 5's.
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