Idacio

Idacio Mechanism of Action

adalimumab

Manufacturer:

Fresenius Kabi

Distributor:

Zuellig
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Immunosuppressants, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors. ATC code: L04AB04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Adalimumab binds specifically to TNF and neutralises the biological function of TNF by blocking its interaction with the p55 and p75 cell surface TNF receptors.
Adalimumab also modulates biological responses that are induced or regulated by TNF, including changes in the levels of adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte migration (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 with an IC50 of 0.1-0.2 nM).
Pharmacodynamic effects: After treatment with adalimumab, a rapid decrease in levels of acute phase reactants of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) and serum cytokines (IL-6) was observed, compared to baseline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) that produce tissue remodelling responsible for cartilage destruction were also decreased after adalimumab administration. Patients treated with adalimumab usually experienced improvement in haematological signs of chronic inflammation.
A rapid decrease in CRP levels was also observed in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Crohn's disease after treatment with adalimumab. In patients with Crohn's disease, a reduction of the number of cells expressing inflammatory markers in the colon including a significant reduction of expression of TNFα was seen. Endoscopic studies in intestinal mucosa have shown evidence of mucosal healing in adalimumab-treated patients.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Rheumatoid arthritis: Adalimumab was evaluated in over 3,000 patients in all rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. The efficacy and safety of adalimumab were assessed in five randomised, double-blind and well-controlled studies. Some patients were treated for up to 120 months duration.
RA study I evaluated 271 patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who were ≥ 18 years old, had failed therapy with at least one disease-modifying, anti-rheumatic drug and had insufficient efficacy with methotrexate at doses of 12.5 to 25 mg (10 mg if methotrexate-intolerant) every week and whose methotrexate dose remained constant at 10 to 25 mg every week. Doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg of adalimumab or placebo were given every other week for 24 weeks.
RA study II evaluated 544 patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who were ≥ 18 years old and had failed therapy with at least one disease-modifying, anti-rheumatic drugs. Doses of 20 or 40 mg of adalimumab were given by subcutaneous injection every other week with placebo on alternative weeks or every week for 26 weeks; placebo was given every week for the same duration. No other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were allowed.
RA study III evaluated 619 patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who were ≥ 18 years old, and who had an ineffective response to methotrexate at doses of 12.5 to 25 mg or have been intolerant to 10 mg of methotrexate every week. There were three groups in this study. The first received placebo injections every week for 52 weeks. The second received 20 mg of adalimumab every week for 52 weeks. The third group received 40 mg of adalimumab every other week with placebo injections on alternate weeks. Upon completion of the first 52 weeks, 457 patients enrolled in an open-label extension phase in which 40 mg of adalimumab/MTX was administered every other week up to 10 years.
RA study IV primarily assessed safety in 636 patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who were ≥ 18 years old. Patients were permitted to be either disease-modifying, anti-rheumatic drug-naïve or to remain on their pre-existing rheumatologic therapy provided that therapy was stable for a minimum of 28 days. These therapies include methotrexate, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine and/or gold salts. Patients were randomised to 40 mg of adalimumab or placebo every other week for 24 weeks.
RA study V evaluated 799 methotrexate-naïve, adult patients with moderate to severely active early rheumatoid arthritis (mean disease duration less than 9 months). This study evaluated the efficacy of adalimumab 40 mg every other week/methotrexate combination therapy, adalimumab 40 mg every other week monotherapy and methotrexate monotherapy in reducing the signs and symptoms and rate of progression of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis for 104 weeks. Upon completion of the first 104 weeks, 497 patients enrolled in an open-label extension phase in which 40 mg of adalimumab was administered every other week up to 10 years.
The primary end point in RA studies I, II and III and the secondary endpoint in RA study IV was the percentage of patients who achieved an ACR 20 response at week 24 or 26. The primary endpoint in RA study V was the percent of patients who achieved an ACR 50 response at week 52. RA studies III and V had an additional primary endpoint at 52 weeks of retardation of disease progression (as detected by X-ray results). RA study III also had a primary endpoint of changes in quality of life.
ACR response: The percent of adalimumab-treated patients achieving ACR 20, 50 and 70 responses was consistent across RA studies I, II and III. The results for the 40 mg every other week dose are summarised in Table 1. (See Table 1.)

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In RA studies I-IV, all individual components of the ACR response criteria (number of tender and swollen joints, physician and patient assessment of disease activity and pain, disability index (HAQ) scores and CRP (mg/dl) values) improved at 24 or 26 weeks compared to placebo. In RA study III, these improvements were maintained throughout 52 weeks.
In the open-label extension for RA study III, most patients who were ACR responders maintained response when followed for up to 10 years. Of 207 patients who were randomised to adalimumab 40 mg every other week, 114 patients continued on adalimumab 40 mg every other week for 5 years. Among those, 86 patients (75.4%) had ACR 20 responses; 72 patients (63.2%) had ACR 50 responses; and 41 patients (36%) had ACR 70 responses. Of 207 patients, 81 patients continued on adalimumab 40 mg every other week for 10 years. Among those, 64 patients (79.0%) had ACR 20 responses; 56 patients (69.1%) had ACR 50 responses; and 43 patients (53.1%) had ACR 70 responses.
In RA study IV, the ACR 20 response of patients treated with adalimumab plus standard of care was statistically significantly better than patients treated with placebo plus standard of care (p < 0.001).
In RA studies I-IV, adalimumab-treated patients achieved statistically significant ACR 20 and 50 responses compared to placebo as early as one to two weeks after initiation of treatment.
In RA study V with early rheumatoid arthritis patients who were methotrexate-naïve, combination therapy with adalimumab and methotrexate led to faster and significantly greater ACR responses than methotrexate monotherapy and adalimumab monotherapy at week 52 and responses were sustained at week 104 (see Table 2).

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In the open-label extension for RA study V, ACR response rates were maintained when followed for up to 10 years. Of 542 patients who were randomised to adalimumab 40 mg every other week, 170 patients continued on adalimumab 40 mg every other week for 10 years. Among those, 154 patients (90.6%) had ACR 20 responses; 127 patients (74.7%) had ACR 50 responses; and 102 patients (60.0%) had ACR 70 responses.
At week 52, 42.9% of patients who received adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy achieved clinical remission (DAS28 (CRP) < 2.6) compared to 20.6% of patients receiving methotrexate monotherapy and 23.4% of patients receiving adalimumab monotherapy. Adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy was clinically and statistically superior to methotrexate (p < 0.001) and adalimumab monotherapy (p < 0.001) in achieving a low disease state in patients with recently diagnosed moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. The response for the two monotherapy arms was similar (p = 0.447).
Of 342 subjects originally randomised to adalimumab monotherapy or adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy who entered the open-label extension study, 171 subjects completed 10 years of adalimumab treatment. Among those, 109 subjects (63.7%) were reported to be in remission at 10 years.
Radiographic response: In RA study III, where adalimumab-treated patients had a mean duration of rheumatoid arthritis of approximately 11 years, structural joint damage was assessed radiographically and expressed as change in modified Total Sharp Score (TSS) and its components, the erosion score and joint space narrowing score. Adalimumab/methotrexate patients demonstrated significantly less radiographic progression than patients receiving methotrexate alone at 6 and 12 months (see Table 3).
In the open-label extension of RA study III, the reduction in rate of progression of structural damage is maintained for 8 and 10 years in a subset of patients. At 8 years, 81 of 207 patients originally treated with 40 mg adalimumab every other week were evaluated radiographically. Among those, 48 patients showed no progression of structural damage defined by a change from baseline in the mTSS of 0.5 or less. At 10 years, 79 of 207 patients originally treated with 40 mg adalimumab every other week were evaluated radiographically. Among those, 40 patients showed no progression of structural damage defined by a change from baseline in the mTSS of 0.5 or less. (See Table 3.)

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In RA study V, structural joint damage was assessed radiographically and expressed as change in modified Total Sharp Score (see Table 4).

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Following 52 weeks and 104 weeks of treatment, the percentage of patients without progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score ≤ 0.5) was significantly higher with adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy (63.8% and 61.2% respectively) compared to methotrexate monotherapy (37.4% and 33.5% respectively, p < 0.001) and adalimumab monotherapy (50.7%, p < 0.002 and 44.5%, p < 0.001 respectively).
In the open-label extension of RA study V, the mean change from baseline at Year 10 in the modified Total Sharp Score was 10.8, 9.2 and 3.9 in patients originally randomised to methotrexate monotherapy, adalimumab monotherapy and adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy, respectively. The corresponding proportions of patients with no radiographic progression were 31.3%, 23.7% and 36.7% respectively.
Quality of life and physical function: Health-related quality of life and physical function were assessed using the disability index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) in the four original adequate and well-controlled trials, which was a pre-specified primary endpoint at week 52 in RA study III. All doses/schedules of adalimumab in all four studies showed statistically significantly greater improvement in the disability index of the HAQ from baseline to Month 6 compared to placebo and in RA study III the same was seen at week 52. Results from the Short Form Health Survey (SF 36) for all doses/schedules of adalimumab in all four studies support these findings, with statistically significant physical component summary (PCS) scores, as well as statistically significant pain and vitality domain scores for the 40 mg every other week dose.
A statistically significant decrease in fatigue as measured by functional assessment of chronic illness therapy (FACIT) scores was seen in all three studies in which it was assessed (RA studies I, III, IV).
In RA study III, most subjects who achieved improvement in physical function and continued treatment maintained improvement through week 520 (120 months) of open-label treatment. Improvement in quality of life was measured up to week 156 (36 months) and improvement was maintained through that time.
In RA study V, the improvement in the HAQ disability index and the physical component of the SF 36 showed greater improvement (p < 0.001) for adalimumab/methotrexate combination therapy versus methotrexate monotherapy and adalimumab monotherapy at week 52, which was maintained through week 104. Among the 250 subjects who completed the open-label extension study, improvements in physical function were maintained through 10 years of treatment.
Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA): pJIA I: The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were assessed in a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study in 171 children (4-17 years old) with polyarticular JIA. In the open-label lead in phase (OL LI) patients were stratified into two groups, MTX (methotrexate)-treated or non-MTX-treated. Patients who were in the non-MTX stratum were either naïve to or had been withdrawn from MTX at least two weeks prior to study drug administration. Patients remained on stable doses of NSAIDs and or prednisone (≤ 0.2 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/day maximum). In the OL LI phase all patients received 24 mg/m2 up to a maximum of 40 mg adalimumab every other week for 16 weeks. The distribution of patients by age and minimum, median and maximum dose received during the OL LI phase is presented in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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Patients demonstrating a Pediatric ACR 30 response at week 16 were eligible to be randomised into the double blind (DB) phase and received either adalimumab 24 mg/m2 up to a maximum of 40 mg, or placebo every other week for an additional 32 weeks or until disease flare. Disease flare criteria were defined as a worsening of ≥ 30% from baseline in ≥ 3 of 6 Pediatric ACR core criteria, ≥ 2 active joints, and improvement of ≥ 30% in no more than 1 of the 6 criteria. After 32 weeks or at disease flare, patients were eligible to enrol into the open label extension phase. (See Table 6.)

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Amongst those who responded at week 16 (n=144), the Pediatric ACR 30/50/70/90 responses were maintained for up to six years in the OLE phase in patients who received adalimumab throughout the study. Over all 19 subjects, of which 11 of the baseline age group 4 to 12 and 8 of the baseline age group 13 to 17 years were treated 6 years or longer.
Overall responses were generally better and, fewer patients developed antibodies when treated with the combination of adalimumab and MTX compared to adalimumab alone. Taking these results into consideration, Idacio is recommended for use in combination with MTX and for use as monotherapy in patients for whom MTX use is not appropriate (see Dosage & Administration).
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): Adalimumab 40 mg every other week was assessed in 393 patients in two randomised, 24 week double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (mean baseline score of disease activity [Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI)] was 6.3 in all groups) who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy. Seventy-nine (20.1%) patients were treated concomitantly with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and 37 (9.4%) patients with glucocorticoids. The blinded period was followed by an open-label period during which patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week subcutaneously for up to an additional 28 weeks. Subjects (n=215, 54.7%) who failed to achieve ASAS 20 at weeks 12, or 16 or 20 received early escape open-label adalimumab 40 mg every other week subcutaneously and were subsequently treated as non-responders in the double-blind statistical analyses.
In the larger AS study I with 315 patients, results showed statistically significant improvement of the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis in patients treated with adalimumab compared to placebo. Significant response was first observed at week 2 and maintained through 24 weeks (Table 7). (See Table 7.)

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Adalimumab-treated patients had significantly greater improvement at week 12 which was maintained through week 24 in both the SF36 and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL).
Similar trends (not all statistically significant) were seen in the smaller randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled AS study II of 82 adult patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.
Psoriatic arthritis: Adalimumab, 40 mg every other week, was studied in patients with moderately to severely active psoriatic arthritis in two placebo-controlled studies, PsA studies I and II. PsA study I with 24 week duration, treated 313 adult patients who had an inadequate response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and of these, approximately 50% were taking methotrexate. PsA study II with 12-week duration, treated 100 patients who had an inadequate response to DMARD therapy. Upon completion of both studies, 383 patients enrolled in an open-label extension study, in which 40 mg adalimumab was administered every other week.
There is insufficient evidence of the efficacy of Idacio in patients with ankylosing spondylitis-like psoriatic arthropathy due to the small number of patients studied. (See Table 8.)

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ACR responses in PsA study I were similar with and without concomitant methotrexate therapy. ACR responses were maintained in the open-label extension study for up to 136 weeks.
Radiographic changes were assessed in the psoriatic arthritis studies. Radiographs of hands, wrists, and feet were obtained at baseline and week 24 during the double-blind period when patients were on adalimumab or placebo and at week 48 when all patients were on open-label adalimumab. A modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS), which included distal interphalangeal joints (i.e., not identical to the TSS used for rheumatoid arthritis), was used.
Adalimumab treatment reduced the rate of progression of peripheral joint damage compared with placebo treatment as measured by change from baseline in mTSS (mean ± SD) 0.8 ± 2.5 in the placebo group (at week 24) compared with 0.0 ± 1.9 (p < 0.001) in the adalimumab group (at week 48).
In subjects treated with adalimumab with no radiographic progression from baseline to week 48 (n=102), 84% continued to show no radiographic progression through 144 weeks of treatment. Adalimumab-treated patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement in physical function as assessed by HAQ and Short Form Health Survey (SF 36) compared to placebo at week 24. Improved physical function continued during the open label extension up to week 136.
Psoriasis: The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were studied in adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (≥ 10% BSA involvement and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) ≥ 12 or ≥ 10) who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy in randomised, double-blind studies. 73% of patients enrolled in Psoriasis Studies I and II had received prior systemic therapy or phototherapy.
Psoriasis study I (REVEAL) evaluated 1,212 patients within three treatment periods. In period A, patients received placebo or adalimumab at an initial dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg every other week starting one week after the initial dose. After 16 weeks of therapy, patients who achieved at least a PASI 75 response (PASI score improvement of at least 75% relative to baseline), entered period B and received open-label 40 mg adalimumab every other week. Patients who maintained ≥ PASI 75 response at week 33 and were originally randomised to active therapy in period A, were re-randomised in period C to receive 40 mg adalimumab every other week or placebo for an additional 19 weeks. Across all treatment groups, the mean baseline PASI score was 18.9 and the baseline Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) score ranged from "moderate" (53% of subjects included) to "severe" (41%) to "very severe" (6%).
Psoriasis study II (CHAMPION) compared the efficacy and safety of adalimumab versus methotrexate and placebo in 271 patients. Patients received placebo, an initial dose of MTX 7.5 mg and thereafter dose increases up to week 12, with a maximum dose of 25 mg or an initial dose of 80 mg adalimumab followed by 40 mg every other week (starting one week after the initial dose) for 16 weeks. There are no data available comparing adalimumab and MTX beyond 16 weeks of therapy. Patients receiving MTX who achieved a ≥ PASI 50 response at week 8 and/or 12 did not receive further dose increases. Across all treatment groups, the mean baseline PASI score was 19.7 and the baseline PGA score ranged from "mild" (< 1%) to "moderate" (48%) to "severe" (46%) to "very severe" (6%).
Patients participating in all Phase 2 and Phase 3 psoriasis studies were eligible to enrol into an open-label extension trial, where adalimumab was given for at least an additional 108 weeks.
In Psoriasis Studies I and II, a primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a PASI 75 response from baseline at week 16 (see Tables 9 and 10).

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In Psoriasis study I, 28% of patients who were PASI 75 responders and were re-randomised to placebo at week 33 compared to 5% continuing on adalimumab, p < 0.001, experienced "loss of adequate response" (PASI score after week 33 and on or before week 52 that resulted in a < PASI 50 response relative to baseline with a minimum of a 6-point increase in PASI score relative to week 33). Of the patients who lost adequate response after re-randomisation to placebo who then enrolled into the open-label extension trial, 38% (25/66) and 55% (36/66) regained PASI 75 response after 12 and 24 weeks of retreatment, respectively.
A total of 233 PASI 75 responders at week 16 and week 33 received continuous adalimumab therapy for 52 weeks in Psoriasis study I, and continued adalimumab in the open-label extension trial. PASI 75 and PGA of clear or minimal response rates in these patients were 74.7% and 59.0%, respectively, after an additional 108 weeks of open-label therapy (total of 160 weeks). In an analysis in which all patients who dropped out of the study for adverse events or lack of efficacy, or who dose-escalated, were considered non-responders, PASI 75 and PGA of clear or minimal response rates in these patients were 69.6% and 55.7%, respectively, after an additional 108 weeks of open-label therapy (total of 160 weeks).
A total of 347 stable responders participated in a withdrawal and retreatment evaluation in an open-label extension study. During the withdrawal period, symptoms of psoriasis returned over time with a median time to relapse (decline to PGA "moderate" or worse) of approximately 5 months. None of these patients experienced rebound during the withdrawal period. A total of 76.5% (218/285) of patients who entered the retreatment period had a response of PGA "clear" or "minimal" after 16 weeks of retreatment, irrespective of whether they relapsed during withdrawal (69.1% [123/178] and 88.8% [95/107] for patients who relapsed and who did not relapse during the withdrawal period, respectively). A similar safety profile was observed during retreatment as before withdrawal.
Significant improvements at week 16 from baseline compared to placebo (Studies I and II) and MTX (study II) were demonstrated in the DLQI (Dermatology Life Quality Index). In study I, improvements in the physical and mental component summary scores of the SF-36 were also significant compared to placebo.
In an open-label extension study, for patients who dose escalated from 40 mg every other week to 40 mg weekly due to a PASI response below 50%, 26.4% (92/349) and 37.8% (132/349) of patients achieved PASI 75 response at week 12 and 24, respectively.
Crohn's disease: The safety and efficacy of adalimumab were assessed in over 1500 patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≥ 220 and ≤ 450) in randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Concomitant stable doses of aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and/or immunomodulatory agents were permitted and 80% of patients continued to receive at least one of these medications.
Induction of clinical remission (defined as CDAI < 150) was evaluated in two studies, CD study I (CLASSIC I) and CD study II (GAIN). In CD study I, 299 TNF-antagonist naïve patients were randomised to one of four treatment groups; placebo at weeks 0 and 2, 160 mg adalimumab at week 0 and 80 mg at week 2, 80 mg at week 0 and 40 mg at week 2, and 40 mg at week 0 and 20 mg at week 2. In CD study II, 325 patients who had lost response or were intolerant to infliximab were randomised to receive either 160 mg adalimumab at week 0 and 80 mg at week 2 or placebo at weeks 0 and 2. The primary non-responders were excluded from the studies and therefore these patients were not further evaluated.
Maintenance of clinical remission was evaluated in CD study III (CHARM). In CD study III, 854 patients received open-label 80 mg at week 0 and 40 mg at week 2. At week 4 patients were randomised to 40 mg every other week, 40 mg every week, or placebo with a total study duration of 56 weeks. Patients in clinical response (decrease in CDAI ≥ 70) at week 4 were stratified and analysed separately from those not in clinical response at week 4. Corticosteroid taper was permitted after week 8.
CD study I and CD study II induction of remission and response rates are presented in Table 11. (See Table 11.)

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Similar remission rates were observed for the 160/80 mg and 80/40 mg induction regimens by week 8 and adverse events were more frequently noted in the 160/80 mg group.
In CD study III, at week 4, 58% (499/854) of patients were in clinical response and were assessed in the primary analysis. Of those in clinical response at week 4, 48% had been previously exposed to other TNF-antagonists. Maintenance of remission and response rates are presented in Table 12.
Clinical remission results remained relatively constant irrespective of previous TNF-antagonist exposure.
Disease-related hospitalisations and surgeries were statistically significantly reduced with adalimumab compared with placebo at week 56. (See Table 12.)

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Among patients who were not in response at week 4, 43% of adalimumab maintenance patients responded by week 12 compared to 30% of placebo maintenance patients. These results suggest that some patients who have not responded by week 4 benefit from continued maintenance therapy through week 12. Therapy continued beyond 12 weeks did not result in significantly more responses (see Dosage & Administration).
117/276 patients from CD study I and 272/777 patients from CD studies II and III were followed through at least 3 years of open-label adalimumab therapy. 88 and 189 patients, respectively, continued to be in clinical remission. Clinical response (CR-100) was maintained in 102 and 233 patients, respectively.
Quality of life: In CD study I and CD study II, statistically significant improvement in the disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ) total score was achieved at week 4 in patients randomised to adalimumab 80/40 mg and 160/80 mg compared to placebo and was seen at weeks 26 and 56 in CD study III as well among the adalimumab treatment groups compared to the placebo group.
Immunogenicity: Anti-adalimumab antibodies may develop during adalimumab treatment. Formation of anti-adalimumab antibodies is associated with increased clearance and reduced efficacy of adalimumab. There is no apparent correlation between the presence of anti-adalimumab antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption and distribution: After subcutaneous administration of a single 40 mg dose, absorption and distribution of adalimumab was slow, with peak serum concentrations being reached about 5 days after administration. The average absolute bioavailability of adalimumab estimated from three studies following a single 40 mg subcutaneous dose was 64%. After single intravenous doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 mg/kg, concentrations were dose proportional. After doses of 0.5 mg/kg (~40 mg), clearances ranged from 11 to 15 mL/hour, the distribution volume (Vss) ranged from 5 to 6 litres and the mean terminal phase half-life was approximately two weeks. Adalimumab concentrations in the synovial fluid from several rheumatoid arthritis patients ranged from 31-96% of those in serum.
Following subcutaneous administration of 40 mg of adalimumab every other week in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients the mean steady-state trough concentrations were approximately 5 μg/mL (without concomitant methotrexate) and 8 to 9 μg/mL (with concomitant methotrexate), respectively. The serum adalimumab trough levels at steady-state increased roughly proportionally with dose following 20, 40 and 80 mg subcutaneous dosing every other week and every week.
Following the administration of 24 mg/m2 (up to a maximum of 40 mg) subcutaneously every other week to patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) the mean trough steady-state (values measured from week 20 to 48) serum adalimumab concentration was 5.6 ± 5.6 μg/mL (102% CV) for adalimumab without concomitant methotrexate and 10.9 ± 5.2 μg/mL (47.7% CV) with concomitant methotrexate.
In adult patients with psoriasis, the mean steady-state trough concentration was 5 μg/mL during adalimumab 40 mg every other week monotherapy treatment.
In patients with Crohn's disease, the loading dose of 80 mg adalimumab on week 0 followed by 40 mg adalimumab on week 2 achieves serum adalimumab trough concentrations of approximately 5.5 μg/mL during the induction period. A loading dose of 160 mg adalimumab on week 0 followed by 80 mg adalimumab on week 2 achieves serum adalimumab trough concentrations of approximately 12 μg/mL during the induction period. Mean steady-state trough levels of approximately 7 μg/mL were observed in Crohn's disease patients who received a maintenance dose of 40 mg adalimumab every other week.
Elimination: Population pharmacokinetic analyses with data from over 1300 RA patients revealed a trend toward higher apparent clearance of adalimumab with increasing body weight. After adjustment for weight differences, gender and age appeared to have a minimal effect on adalimumab clearance. The serum levels of free adalimumab (not bound to anti-adalimumab antibodies, AAA) were observed to be lower in patients with measurable AAA.
Hepatic or renal impairment: Adalimumab has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal impairment.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on studies of single dose toxicity, repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity.
An embryo-foetal developmental toxicity/perinatal developmental study has been performed in cynomolgus monkeys at 0, 30 and 100 mg/kg (9-17 monkeys/group) and has revealed no evidence of harm to the foetuses due to adalimumab. Neither carcinogenicity studies, nor a standard assessment of fertility and postnatal toxicity, were performed with adalimumab due to the lack of appropriate models for an antibody with limited cross-reactivity to rodent TNF and to the development of neutralizing antibodies in rodents.
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