Women of child bearing potential: Women of childbearing potential should consider the use of adequate contraception to prevent pregnancy and continue its use for at least five months after the last Idacio treatment.
Pregnancy: A large number (approximately 2100) of prospectively collected pregnancies exposed to adalimumab resulting in live birth with known outcomes, including more than 1500 exposed during the first trimester, does not indicate an increase in the rate of malformation in the newborn.
In a prospective cohort registry, 257 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or Crohn's disease (CD) treated with adalimumab at least during the first trimester and 120 women with RA or CD not treated with adalimumab were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the birth prevalence of major birth defects. The rate of pregnancies ending with at least one live born infant with a major birth defect was 6/69 (8.7%) in the adalimumab-treated women with RA and 5/74 (6.8%) in the untreated women with RA (unadjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.38-4.52) and 16/152 (10.5%) in the adalimumab-treated women with CD and 3/32 (9.4%) in the untreated women with CD (unadjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.31-4.16). The adjusted OR (accounting for baseline differences) was 1.10 (95% CI 0.45-2.73) with RA and CD combined. There were no distinct differences between adalimumab-treated and untreated women for the secondary endpoints spontaneous abortions, minor birth defects, preterm delivery, birth size and serious or opportunistic infections and no stillbirths or malignancies were reported. The interpretation of data may be impacted due to methodological limitations of the study, including small sample size and non-randomized design.
In a developmental toxicity study conducted in monkeys, there was no indication of maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. Preclinical data on postnatal toxicity of adalimumab are not available (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Due to its inhibition of TNFα, adalimumab administered during pregnancy could affect normal immune responses in the newborn. Adalimumab should only be used during pregnancy if clearly needed.
Adalimumab may cross the placenta into the serum of infants born to women treated with adalimumab during pregnancy. Consequently, these infants may be at increased risk for infection. Administration of live vaccines (e.g., BCG vaccine) to infants exposed to adalimumab in utero is not recommended for 5 months following the mother's last adalimumab injection during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: Limited information from the published literature indicates that adalimumab is excreted in breast milk at very low concentrations with the presence of adalimumab in human milk at concentrations of 0.1% to 1% of the maternal serum level. Given orally, immunoglobulin G proteins undergo intestinal proteolysis and have poor bioavailability. No effects on the breastfed newborns/infants are anticipated. Consequently, Idacio can be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility: Preclinical data on fertility effects of adalimumab are not available.