Intragam P

Intragam P

human normal immunoglobulin

Manufacturer:

CSL Behring

Distributor:

HKRCBTS
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Human immunoglobulin.
Description
Each 100-mL of Intragam P contains human protein 6 g and maltose 10 g. The solution has a pH of 4.25. Isotonicity is achieved by the addition of maltose. At least 98 % of the protein has the electrophoretic mobility of immunoglobulin G (IgG). At least 90% of the protein is IgG monomer and dimer. Based on 3 preclinical and 4 clinical batches, the distribution of IgG subclasses present in Intragam P, is on the average, IgG1 61%, IgG2 36%, IgG3 3% and IgG4 1%. Intragam P contains only trace amounts of IgA (nominally <0.025 mg/mL). Intragam P is intended for IV administration.
Intragam P is made by chromatographic fractionation of large pools of human plasma donated by Hong Kong's voluntary and non-renumerated blood donors. The protein has not been chemically or enzymatically modified. The manufacturing process contains specific steps to reduce the possibility of virus transmission, including pasteurisation (heating at 60°C for 10 hrs) and incubation at low pH.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics: The steady-state kinetic parameters for serum IgG were determined in 11 patients (9 male, 28-76 years) with primary immunodeficiency disorders, following the administration of monthly IV infusions of Intragam P for 6 months. The dose of Intragam P was individualised in the range 0.35-0.53 g/kg. The mean serum IgG concentration ranged from a trough of 7.4±1.1 g/L to a peak of 15.8±1.7 g/L, the mean clearance was 4.1±0.8 mL/hr and the mean half-life 39.7±7.8 days. Mean recovery, the increase in serum IgG concentration as a percentage of the expected concentration after an Intragam P infusion, was 44±2% (see Clinical Trials as follows).
Clinical Trials: Primary Immune Deficiency: The efficacy of Intragam P was assessed in 35 patients (6-76 years; 21 male) with primary immune deficiency disorders, following the administration of monthly IV infusions of Intragam P for 6 months. The dose of Intragam P was individualised in the range 0.2-0.67 g/kg. The mean number of days of hospitalisation over the 6-month period was 2.8±9 and the mean number of days absent from work or school due to illness, 5.3±6.4. These figures were similar to historical data relating to other IV immunoglobulins.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): The efficacy of Intragam P was assessed in 17 patients (21-72 years; 5 male) with ITP (6 acute, 11 chronic), following IV infusion of Intragam P once daily for 1-3 consecutive days. The dose of Intragam P was individualised up to a maximum total cumulative dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Following administration of Intragam P, a total of 13 patients (76.5%) achieved platelet count responses which were good (50 x 109/L-150 x 109/L) or excellent (>150 x 109/L). Platelet counts were maintained at ≥50 x 109/L for up to 35 days, with a median of 17.24 days (95% CI 10.35, 24.12). These figures were similar to historical data relating to other IV immunoglobulins.
Adverse events encountered during both clinical trials are outlined in Adverse Reactions.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS): There are several randomised, controlled clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of the use of human IV immunoglobulins (IVIGs) in the treatment of patients with GBS. A large multicentre study with 379 patients (>16 years and with neuropathic symptoms within the past 14 days) was randomised into 3 treatment arms (n=130 for IVIG, n=121 for plasma exchange (PE) and n=128 for PE followed by IVIG). The IVIG dose used was 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days. Overall, IVIG and PE therapies were equally efficacious in the management of GBS. IVIG therapy was effective in improving both the primary and secondary GBS efficacy parameters eg, disability grade, vital capacity, distally evoked compound muscle action potential, time to unaided walking, average rate of recovery, etc.
The adverse reactions reported in the literature for IVIG when used in GBS treatment were consistent with those reported for other indications (see Adverse Reactions).
Intragam P has similar characteristics to other IVIGs and has been used in the management of GBS.
Indications/Uses
Replacement IgG Therapy: Primary immunodeficiency; myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with severe secondary hypogammaglobulinaemia and recurrent infections; congenital or acquired immune deficiency syndrome with recurrent infections.
Immunomodulatory Therapy: Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP), in adults or children at high risk of bleeding or prior to surgery to correct the platelet count; allogeneic bone marrow transplantation; Kawasaki disease; Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS).
Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines describing appropriate clinical use of IV immunoglobulin in ITP have been published and should be followed wherever possible to avoid the inappropriate utilisation of Intragam P.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Intragam P may be infused undiluted. Intragam P may also be infused diluted with up to 2 parts of saline 0.9%or glucose 5%. The infusion should be commenced at the rate of 1 mL/min. After 15 min, the rate may be gradually increased to a maximum of 3-4 mL/min over a further 15 min. Consideration should be given to reducing the rate of infusion in elderly patients with preexisting renal disease.
A rate of infusion which is too rapid may cause flushing and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
Replacement Therapy: The optimal dose and frequency of administration of Intragam P must be determined for each patient. Freedom from recurrent bacterial infections is usually achieved with a serum IgG level above 5 g/L. Most patients receive a dose of 0.2-0.6 g IgG/kg body weight/month, either as a single dose or as 2 equal doses at fortnightly intervals. Following initial diagnosis, higher doses (0.4-0.6 g IgG/kg body weight/month) may be required for several months to provide rapid protection against recurrent infections. Adjustment of both dose and infusion interval is empirical and should be based on the patient's clinical state and the pre-infusion IgG level.
Immunomodulatory Therapy: Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): The optimal dose and frequency of administration of Intragam P must be determined for each patient. Patients may receive a dose of up to a maximum total cumulative dose of 2 g IgG/kg body weight, over 2-5 days. Adjustment of both dose and infusion interval is empirical and should be based on the patient's clinical state.
Kawasaki Disease: The optimal dose and frequency of administration of Intragam P must be determined for each patient. Patients should receive 1.6-2 g IgG/kg body weight, administered in divided doses over 2-5 days or 2 g IgG/kg body weight as a single dose. Patients should receive concomitant treatment with acetylsalicylic acid.
Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation: Treatment with Intragam P may be used as part of the conditioning regime and after the transplant. The optimal dose and frequency of administration of Intragam P should be individualised. A starting dose of 0.5 g IgG/kg body weight/week is recommended.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS): Intragam P should be administered at a dose of 0.4 g IgG/kg body weight/day for 5 days.
Administration: If Intragam P appears to be turbid by transmitted light or contains any sediment, it must not be used, and the bottle should be returned unopened to the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service. Intragam P contains no antimicrobial agent. It must, therefore, be used immediately after opening the bottle; any unused portion should be discarded. Do not use if the solution has been frozen. Use in 1 patient on 1 occasion only.
Intragam P should be administered separately from other IV fluids or medications the patient might be receiving.
Intragam P may be administered through any standard IV infusion giving set. The following procedure is recommended: Allow the preparation to reach room temperature before use. Remove the plastic cover from the seal. Apply a suitable antiseptic to the exposed part of the rubber stopper and allow to dry. Stand the bottle upright and insert the air vent needle vertically in one of the indentations of the stopper. It is preferable to use a long airway needle fitted with a filter. If not available, a short needle attached to a non-wettable filter may be used. Clamp the tubing of the giving set and insert the needle at the upper end of the giving set vertically through another indentation of the stopper. Should the stopper become dislodged, do not use this bottle and discard the solution appropriately. Invert the bottle and attach the hanger to a support approximately 1 meter above the patient. Allow the tubing to fill by adjusting the clamp. Attach the giving set to the venous access device (cannula) and adjust the rate of flow. When the bottle is empty, clamp the tubing and transfer the needle at the upper end of the giving set to a further bottle of Intragam P. Should leakage become evident during administration, cease the infusion and discard the solution appropriately. Recommence the infusion with a new bottle and giving set.
Overdosage
Overdosage may lead to fluid overload and hyperviscosity, particularly in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment.
Contraindications
Patients who have had a true anaphylactic reaction to a human immunoglobulin preparation.
Special Precautions
Intragam P should only be administered IV. Other routes of administration have not been evaluated. It is possible that Intragam P may, on rare occasions, cause a precipitous fall in blood pressure and a clinical picture of anaphylaxis. Therefore, adrenaline and oxygen should be available for the treatment of such an acute reaction.
Intragam P contains trace amounts of IgA which may provoke anaphylaxis in patients with IgA antibodies eg, those with selective IgA deficiency.
An aseptic meningitis syndrome (AMS) has been reported to occur infrequently in association with IVIG treatment. The syndrome usually begins within several hrs to 2 days following IVIG treatment. It is characterised by symptoms and signs, including severe headache, nuchal rigidity, drowsiness, fever, photophobia, painful eye movements, and nausea and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies are frequently positive with pleocytosis, predominantly from the granulocytic series and elevated protein levels. Patients exhibiting such symptoms and signs should receive a thorough neurological examination, including CSF studies, to rule out other causes of meningitis. AMS may occur more frequently in association with high dose (2 g/kg) IVIG treatment. Discontinuation of IVIG treatment has resulted in remission of AMS within several days without sequelae.
There have been occasional reports of renal dysfunction and acute renal failure in patients receiving IVIG products. Patients at increased risk are those with preexisting renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus (DM), >65 years, volume depletion, sepsis and paraproteinaemia, and those taking concomitant nephrotoxic drugs. The majority of such incidents have been associated with sucrose-containing products. While there is no sucrose in Intragam P, the following precautions should be followed: Patients should be adequately hydrated prior to the initiation of the IVIG infusion and the recommended dose should not be exceeded. Renal function should be monitored in patients at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. If renal function deteriorates, discontinuation of IVIG should be considered.
Positive direct antiglobulin tests and red cell haemolysis have been reported following high dose infusion of IV immunoglobulin due to the presence of anti-A, anti-B, and occasionally anti-D or other erythrocyte antibodies in the product. Such red cell sensitisation may cause cross-matching difficulties and transient haemolytic anaemia.
Physicians should maintain a heightened awareness of the potential for haemolysis in individuals receiving normal immunoglobulin products, particularly those who are determined to be at increased risk. Patients at increased risk include those with blood group A, B or AB, those who have underlying associated inflammatory conditions and those receiving high cumulative doses of IVIG over the course of several days, especially those with reduced bone marrow reserve or post haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Patients receiving normal immunoglobulin products should be monitored for haemolysis.
Patients receiving high cumulative doses of IVIG over the course of several days should have a pre-infusion ABO blood group determined and have their haemoglobin monitored in the days following therapy. Evidence of clinically significant haemolysis includes fever, chills and dark urine. If these symptoms occur, appropriate laboratory testing should be done.
Thrombotic events have been reported in association with IVIG therapy and care should be used when these products are given to individuals determined to be at increased risk. Risk factors include advanced age, immobility, estrogen use, in-dwelling vascular catheters,acquired or hereditary hypercoagulable states, a history of venous or arterial thrombosis, cardiovascular risk factors (including history of atherosclerosis and/or impaired cardiac output), and conditions associated with increased plasma viscosity eg, fasting chylomicronemia and/or hypertriglyceridaemia, cryoglobulins and monoclonal gammopathies.
Patients at risk for thrombotic events should receive product at the slowest infusion rate practicable, and should be monitored for thrombotic complications. Consideration should also be given to measurement of baseline blood viscosity in individuals at risk for hyperviscosity.
In patients with a normal acid-base compensatory mechanism, the acid load delivered by the largest dose of the preparation would be neutralised by the buffering capacity of whole blood alone, even if the dose were to be infused instantaneously. In patients with limited or compromised acid-base compensatory mechanisms including neonates, consideration should be given to the effect of the additional acid load that the preparation might present.
Prolonged administration (>6 hrs) using large doses (>0.4 g/kg) may result in thrombophlebitis at the infusion site.
Patients who receive IVIG: for the 1st time, when there has been a long interval since the previous infusion or in rare cases, when the human normal immunoglobulin product is switched, the patient may experience a higher frequency of adverse events including those of a minor nature.
Reactions to IVIG tend to be related to the infusion rate and are most likely to occur during the 1st hr of the infusion. It is recommended that the patient's vital signs and general status be monitored regularly throughout the infusion.
Pathogen Safety: Intragam P is made from human plasma. Products made from human plasma may contain infectious agents eg, viruses and theoretically Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) agents, that can cause disease. The risk that such products will transmit an infectious agent has been reduced by screening plasma donors for prior exposure to certain infectious agents and by testing for the presence of certain virus markers.
In addition, virus removal and inactivation procedures are included in the manufacturing process. The current procedures applied in the manufacture of Intragam P are effective against enveloped viruses eg, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, and the non-enveloped virus hepatitis A. These procedures may be of limited value against the non-enveloped virus, parvovirus B19. However, the product contains specific antibodies directed against parvovirus B19.
Despite these measures, such products may still potentially transmit disease. There is also the possibility that other known or unknown infectious agents may be present in such products.
Vaccination for patients in receipt of medicinal products from human plasma should be considered where appropriate.
Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity & Impairment of Fertility: No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or reproductive toxicity studies have been conducted with Intragam P. There have been no reports of such effects associated with the use of CSL's plasma-derived products.
Use in Pregnancy & Lactation: The safety of Intragam P for use in human pregnancy and lactation has not been established in controlled clinical trials. Intragam P should, therefore, only be given with caution to pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. Immunoglobulins are excreted in breast milk. Clinical experience with immunoglobulins suggests that no harmful effects on the course of pregnancy or on the fetus and the neonates are to be expected.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
The safety of Intragam P for use in human pregnancy and lactation has not been established in controlled clinical trials. Intragam P should, therefore, only be given with caution to pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. Immunoglobulins are excreted in breast milk. Clinical experience with immunoglobulins suggests that no harmful effects on the course of pregnancy or on the fetus and the neonates are to be expected.
Adverse Reactions
Patients naive to immunoglobulin may experience a higher frequency of adverse events, including those of a minor nature. Reactions to IV immunoglobulin tend to be related to the infusion rate and are most likely to occur during the 1st hour of the infusion. It is recommended that the patient's vital signs and general status be monitored regularly throughout the infusion.
Reactions Associated with Intragam P in Clinical Trials: Primary Immune Deficiency: The following adverse reactions occurred in 35 patients receiving Intragam P during the clinical trial (expressed as the number of patients experiencing the adverse reaction): Headache (8), migraine (2), anaemia (2), nausea (2), vertigo (1), neutropenia (1), thrombocytopenia (1) and fatigue (1). The dose of Intragam P ranged from 0.2-0.67 g/kg body weight/month.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): The following adverse reactions occurred in 17 patients receiving Intragam P during the clinical trial (expressed as the number of patients experiencing the adverse reaction): Headache (10), positive direct Coombs test (5), haemolysis (4), nausea (3), rigors (3), fever (2), myalgia (1), somnolence (1), abdominal pain (1), vomiting (1), hypertension (1), flushing (1), haemolytic anemia (1), leucopenia (1), reticulocytosis (1), lymphopenia (1), allergic reaction (1), hot flushes (1) and injection site inflammation (1). The dose of Intragam P ranged from 0.66-2 g/kg body weight received via infusion once daily over 1-3 consecutive days.
Reactions Associated with Intragam P Use Post-Marketing: Haemolytic anaemia associated with the presence of anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies has been reported following high cumulative doses over the course of several days with Intragam P in patients of blood group A, B or AB particularly in recipients with reduced bone marrow reserve or post haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Reactions Associated with IV Immunoglobulins: The types of reaction that may occur include: Malaise, abdominal pain, headache, chest-tightness, facial flushing or pallor, erythema, hot sensations, dyspnoea or respiratory difficulty, non-urticarial skin rash, cutaneous vasculitis, pompholyx on hands/palms, itching, tissue swelling, change in blood pressure, nausea or vomiting. Should any of these reactions develop during infusion of Intragam P, the infusion should be temporarily stopped until the patient improves clinically (5-10 min) and then cautiously recommenced at a slower rate.
Some patients may develop delayed adverse reactions to IV immunoglobulins (IVIG) eg, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, rigors, dizziness, aching legs or arthralgia. These adverse reactions occur after the infusion has stopped but usually within 24 hrs.
True hypersensitivity reactions to IVIG eg, urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm or hypotension occur very rarely. Should an anaphylactic reaction to Intragam P develop, the infusion should be stopped and treatment instituted with adrenaline, oxygen, antihistamine and steroids. Haemolytic anaemia and neutropenia have been reported in rare instances in association with IVIG treatment.
Mild and moderate elevations of serum transaminases (AST, ALT, gamma GT) have been observed in a small number of patients given IVIG. Such changes were transient and not associated with the transmission of hepatitis. Elevated liver function tests have been reported in some untreated patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS).
An aseptic meningitis syndrome (AMS) and thrombophlebitis have occurred in patients receiving IVIG (see Precautions).
Thrombotic events have been reported in association with IVIG therapy. Rarely, renal dysfunction and acute renal failure have been reported (see Precautions).
Drug Interactions
The interaction of Intragam P with other drugs has not been established in appropriate studies.
Passively acquired antibody can interfere with the response to live, attenuated vaccines. Therefore, administration of such vaccines eg, poliomyelitis or measles, should be deferred until approximately 3 months after passive immunisation. By the same token, immunoglobulins should not be administered for at least 2 weeks after a vaccine has been given.
Interference with Glucose Estimations: The maltose present in Intragam P may interfere with some blood glucose measurements, resulting in the overestimation of blood glucose results. If this glucose measurement is used to guide treatment, hypoglycaemia may occur. Only certain glucose tests using glucose dehydrogenase have been implicated, so when monitoring glucose levels in patients receiving Intragam P, information from the manufacturer of the glucose meter and/or test strips should be reviewed to ensure that maltose does not interfere with the blood glucose reading. Infusion of Intragam P may also result in transient glucosuria.
Caution For Usage
Do not use after the expiry date.
Storage
Store at 2-8°C. Refrigerate. Do not freeze. Protect from light.
ATC Classification
J06BA02 - immunoglobulins, normal human, for intravascular adm. ; Belongs to the class of normal human immunoglobulins. Used in passive immunizations.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for inj (sterile, preservative-free soln, vial) 50 mL, 200 mL.
Exclusive offer for doctors
Register for a MIMS account and receive free medical publications worth $768 a year.
Sign up for free
Already a member? Sign in