Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with beta-lactams. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions when treated with another beta-lactam. Before initiating therapy with INVANZ, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, other beta-lactams and other allergens. If an allergic reaction to INVANZ occurs, discontinue the drug immediately. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment.
Seizures and other central nervous system (CNS) adverse experiences have been reported during treatment with INVANZ (see Adverse Reactions). During clinical investigations in adult patients treated with INVANZ (1 g once a day), seizures, irrespective of drug relationship, occurred in 0.5% of patients during study therapy plus 14 day follow-up period. These experiences have occurred most commonly in patients with CNS disorders (e.g., brain lesions or history of seizures) and/or compromised renal function. Close adherence to the recommended dosage regimen is urged, especially in patients with known factors that predispose to convulsive activity. Anticonvulsant therapy should be continued in patients with known seizure disorders. If focal tremors, myoclonus, or seizures occur, patients should be evaluated neurologically and the dosage of INVANZ re-examined to determine whether it should be decreased or discontinued.
Case reports in the literature have shown that co-administration of carbapenems, including ertapenem, to patients receiving valproic acid or divalproex sodium results in a reduction in valproic acid concentrations. The valproic acid concentrations may drop below the therapeutic range as a result of this interaction, therefore increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. Increasing the dose of valproic acid or divalproex sodium may not be sufficient to overcome this interaction. The concomitant use of ertapenem and valproic acid/divalproex sodium is generally not recommended. Anti-bacterials other than carbapenems should be considered to treat infections in patients whose seizures are well controlled on valproic acid or divalproex sodium. If administration of INVANZ is necessary, supplemental anti-convulsant therapy should be considered. (See Interactions.)
As with other antibiotics, prolonged use of INVANZ may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient's condition is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including ertapenem, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of "antibiotic-associated colitis".
Caution should be taken when administering INVANZ intramuscularly, to avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel (see Dosage & Administration).
Lidocaine HCl is the diluent for intramuscular administration of INVANZ.
Use in Children: Safety and effectiveness of INVANZ in pediatric patients 3 months to 17 years of age are supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults, pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients, and additional data from comparator-controlled studies in pediatric patients 3 months to 17 years of age with the following infections (see Indications/Uses).
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections; Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections; Community Acquired Pneumonia; Complicated Urinary Tract Infections; Acute Pelvic Infections.
INVANZ is not recommended in infants under 3 months of age as no data are available.
Use in the Elderly: In clinical studies, the efficacy and safety of INVANZ in the elderly (≥65 years) was comparable to that seen in younger patients (<65 years).