Each Irbesartan Sandoz 150 mg film-coated tablet contains 150 mg irbesartan, 12.925 mg of lactose monohydrate per tablet.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Tablet core: Microcrystalline cellulose; Lactose monohydrate; Croscarmellose sodium; Silica, colloidal anhydrous; Hypromellose; Magnesium stearate.
Tablet coating: Hypromellose, Hydroxypropylcellulose, Macrogol 6000, Lactose monohydrate, Titanium dioxide (E 171), Talc.
Irbesartan is indicated in adults for the treatment of essential hypertension.
It is also indicated for the treatment of renal disease in adult patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus as part of an antihypertensive medicinal product regimen (see Contraindications, Precautions, and Interactions).
Posology: The usual recommended initial and maintenance dose is 150 mg once daily. Irbesartan at a dose of 150 mg once daily generally provides a better 24 hour blood pressure control than 75 mg.
However, initiation of therapy with 75 mg could be considered, particularly in haemodialysed patients and in the elderly over 75 years.
In patients insufficiently controlled with 150 mg once daily, the dose of irbesartan can be increased to 300 mg, or other anti-hypertensive agents can be added (see Contraindications, Precautions, and Interactions). In particular, the addition of a diuretic such as hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to have an additive effect with irbesartan (see Interactions).
In hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, therapy should be initiated at 150 mg irbesartan once daily and titrated up to 300 mg once daily as the preferred maintenance dose for treatment of renal disease.
The demonstration of renal benefit of irbesartan in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients is based on studies where irbesartan was used in addition to other antihypertensive agents, as needed, to reach target blood pressure (see Contraindications, Precautions, and Interactions).
Special populations: Renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with impaired renal function. A lower starting dose (75 mg) should be considered for patients undergoing haemodialysis (see Precautions).
Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Older people: Although consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 75 mg in patients over 75 years of age, dosage adjustment is not usually necessary for the elderly.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of Irbesartan in children aged 0 to 18 has not been established. Currently available data are described in Adverse Reactions but no recommendation on a posology can be made.
Method of administration: For oral use.
Irbesartan should be taken once daily with or without food.
Symptoms: Experience in adults exposed to doses of up to 900 mg/day for 8 weeks revealed no toxicity. The most likely manifestations of overdose are expected to be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia might also occur from overdose.
Management: No specific information is available on the treatment of overdose with irbesartan. The patient should be closely monitored, and the treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Suggested measures include induction of emesis and/or gastric lavage. Activated charcoal may be useful in the treatment of overdose. Irbesartan is not removed by haemodialysis.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients (see Description).
Second and third trimester of pregnancy (see Precautions and Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
The concomitant use of Irbesartan Sandoz Film Coated Tablet with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see Interactions).
Intravascular volume depletion: Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose, may occur in patients who are volume and/or sodium depleted by vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. Such conditions should be corrected before the administration of irbesartan.
Renovascular hypertension: There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). While this is not documented with irbesartan, a similar effect should be anticipated with angiotensin-II receptor antagonists.
Renal impairment and kidney transplantation: When irbesartan is used in patients with impaired renal function, a periodic monitoring of potassium and creatinine serum levels is recommended. There is no experience regarding the administration of irbesartan in patients with a recent kidney transplantation.
Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease: The effects of irbesartan both on renal and cardiovascular events were not uniform across all subgroups, in an analysis carried out in the study with patients with advanced renal disease. In particular, they appeared less favorable in women and non-white subjects.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS): There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see Interactions).
If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.
ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Hyperkalaemia: As with other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hyperkalaemia may occur during the treatment with irbesartan, especially in the presence of renal impairment, overt proteinuria due to diabetic renal disease, and/or heart failure. Close monitoring of serum potassium in patients at risk is recommended (see Interactions).
Lithium: The combination of lithium and irbesartan is not recommended (see Interactions).
Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Primary aldosteronism: Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to anti-hypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of irbesartan is not recommended.
General warnings: In patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor antagonists that affect this system has been associated with acute hypotension, azotaemia, oliguria, or rarely acute renal failure. As with any anti-hypertensive agent, excessive blood pressure decrease in patients with ischaemic cardiopathy or ischaemic cardiovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.
Use in black patients: As observed for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, irbesartan and the other angiotensin antagonists are apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.
Lactose: This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. Based on its pharmacodynamic properties, irbesartan is unlikely to affect this ability. When driving vehicles or operating machines, it should be taken into account that dizziness or weariness may occur during treatment.
Use in Pregnancy: Angiotensin II antagonists (AIIRAs) should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued AIIRA therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with AIIRAs should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see Contraindications and Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Use in Children: Irbesartan has been studied in paediatric population aged 6 to 16 years old but the current data are insufficient to support an extension of the use in children until further data become available (see Adverse Reactions).
Pregnancy: The use of AIIRAs is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see Precautions).The use of AIIRAs is contraindicated during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (see Contraindications and Precautions).
Epidemiological evidence regarding the risk of teratogenicity following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been conclusive; however a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Whilst there is no controlled epidemiological data on the risk with Angiotensin II Receptor Inhibitors (AIIRAs), similar risks may exist for this class of drugs.
Unless continued AIIRA therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with AIIRAs should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.
Exposure to AIIRA therapy during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human fetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia).
Should exposure to AIIRAs have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended.
Infants whose mothers have taken AIIRAs should be closely observed for hypotension (see Contraindications and Precautions).
Breast-feeding: Because no information is available regarding the use of Irbesartan during breastfeeding, Irbesartan is not recommended and alternative treatments with better established safety profiles during breast-feeding are preferable, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
It is unknown whether irbesartan or its metabolites are excreted in human milk.
Available pharmacodynamic/toxicological data in rats have shown excretion of irbesartan or its metabolites in milk.
Fertility: Irbesartan had no effect upon fertility of treated rats and their offspring up to the dose levels including the first signs of parental toxicity.
In placebo-controlled trials in patients with hypertension, the overall incidence of adverse events did not differ between the irbesartan (56.2%) and the placebo groups (56.5%). Discontinuation due to any clinical or laboratory adverse event was less frequent for irbesartan-treated patients (3.3%) than for placebo-treated patients (4.5%). The incidence of adverse events was not related to dose (in the recommended dose range), gender, age, race, or duration of treatment.
In diabetic hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria and normal renal function, orthostatic dizziness and orthostatic hypotension were reported in 0.5% of the patients (i.e., uncommon) but in excess of placebo.
The following table presents the adverse drug reactions that were reported in placebo-controlled trials in which 1,965 hypertensive patients received irbesartan. Terms marked with a star (*) refer to the adverse reactions that were additionally reported in >2% of diabetic hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency and overt proteinuria and in excess of placebo.
The frequency of adverse reactions listed below is defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Adverse reactions additionally reported from post-marketing experience are also listed. These adverse reactions are derived from spontaneous reports. (See table.)
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In a randomised trial of 318 hypertensive children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years, the following adverse reactions occurred in the 3-week double-blind phase: headache (7.9%), hypotension (2.2%), dizziness (1.9%), cough (0.9%). In the 26-week open-label period of this trial the most frequent laboratory abnormalities observed were creatinine increases (6.5%) and elevated CK values in 2% of child recipients.
Diuretics and other antihypertensive agents: Other antihypertensive agents may increase the hypotensive effects of irbesartan; however irbesartan has been safely administered with other antihypertensive agents, such as beta-blockers, long-acting calcium channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics. Prior treatment with high dose diuretics may result in volume depletion and a risk of hypotension when initiating therapy with irbesartan (see Precautions).
Clinical trial data has shown that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is associated with a higher frequency of adverse events such as hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to the use of a single RAAS-acting agent (see Contraindications and Precautions).
Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics: Based on experience with the use of other medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin system, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, salt substitutes containing potassium or other medicinal products that may increase serum potassium levels (e.g. heparin) may lead to increases in serum potassium and is, therefore, not recommended (see Precautions).
Lithium: Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Similar effects have been very rarely reported with irbesartan so far. Therefore, this combination is not recommended (see Precautions). If the combination proves necessary, careful monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: When angiotensin II antagonists are administered simultaneously with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. selective COX-2 inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (>3 g/day) and non-selective NSAIDs), attenuation of the antihypertensive effect may occur.
As with ACE inhibitors, concomitant use of angiotensin II antagonists and NSAIDs may lead to an increased risk of worsening of renal function, including possible acute renal failure, and an increase in serum potassium, especially in patients with poor pre-existing renal function. The combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy, and periodically thereafter.
Additional information on irbesartan interactions: In clinical studies, the pharmacokinetic of irbesartan is not affected by hydrochlorothiazide. Irbesartan is mainly metabolised by CYP2C9 and to a lesser extent by glucuronidation. No significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions were observed when irbesartan was coadministered with warfarin, a medicinal product metabolised by CYP2C9. The effects of CYP2C9 inducers such as rifampicin on the pharmacokinetic of irbesartan have not been evaluated. The pharmacokinetic of digoxin was not altered by coadministration of irbesartan.
C09CA04 - irbesartan ; Belongs to the class of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
FC tab 150 mg (white, oval biconvex, debossed with '150' on one side and scored on the other side) x 30's.