Co-administration of multiple doses of empagliflozin and metformin does not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of either empagliflozin or metformin in healthy subjects.
No interaction studies have been performed for Jardiance Duo. The following statements reflect the information available on the individual active substances.
Empagliflozin: Pharmacodynamic interactions: Diuretics: Empagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension (see Precautions).
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with empagliflozin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Pharmacokinetic interactions: Effects of other medicinal products on empagliflozin: In vitro data suggest that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Empagliflozin is a substrate of the human uptake transporters OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, but not OAT1 and OCT2. Empagliflozin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).
Co-administration of empagliflozin with probenecid, an inhibitor of UGT enzymes and OAT3, resulted in a 26% increase in peak empagliflozin plasma concentrations (Cmax) and a 53% increase in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
The effect of UGT induction (e.g. induction by rifampicin or phenytoin) on empagliflozin has not been studied. Co-treatment with known inducers of UGT enzymes is not recommended due to a potential risk of decreased efficacy. If an inducer of these UGT enzymes must be co-administered, monitoring of glycaemic control to assess response to Jardiance Duo is appropriate.
An interaction study with gemfibrozil, an in vitro inhibitor of OAT3 and OATP1B1/1B3 transporters, showed that empagliflozin Cmax increased by 15% and AUC increased by 59% following co-administration. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Inhibition of OATP1B1/1B3 transporters by co-administration with rifampicin resulted in a 75% increase in Cmax and a 35% increase in AUC of empagliflozin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin exposure was similar with and without co-administration with verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, indicating that inhibition of P-gp does not have any clinically relevant effect on empagliflozin.
Interaction studies suggest that the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin were not influenced by co-administration with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, verapamil, ramipril, simvastatin, torasemide and hydrochlorothiazide.
Effects of empagliflozin on other medicinal products: Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin does not inhibit, inactivate, or induce CYP450 isoforms. Empagliflozin does not inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7. Drug-drug interactions involving the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms with empagliflozin and concomitantly administered substrates of these enzymes are therefore considered unlikely.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit P-gp at therapeutic doses. Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with active substances that are P-gp substrates.
Co-administration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, with empagliflozin resulted in a 6% increase in AUC and 14% increase in Cmax of digoxin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit human uptake transporters such as OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in vitro at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and, as such, drug-drug interactions with substrates of these uptake transporters are considered unlikely.
Interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers suggest that empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, simvastatin, warfarin, ramipril, digoxin, diuretics and oral contraceptives.
Metformin: Concomitant use not recommended: Alcohol: Alcohol intoxication is associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, particularly in cases of fasting, malnutrition or hepatic impairment.
Organic cation transporters (OCT): Metformin is a substrate of both transporters OCT1 and OCT2. Co-administration of metformin with: Inhibitors of OCT1 (such as verapamil) may reduce efficacy of metformin; Inducers of OCT1 (such as rifampicin) may increase gastrointestinal absorption and efficacy of metformin; Inhibitors of OCT2 (such as cimetidine, dolutegravir, ranolazine, trimethoprim, vandetanib, isavuconazole) may decrease the renal elimination of metformin and thus lead to an increase in metformin plasma concentration; Inhibitors of both OCT1 and OCT2 (such as crizotinib, olaparib) may alter efficacy and renal elimination of metformin.
Caution is therefore advised, especially in patients with renal impairment, when these drugs are co-administered with metformin, as metformin plasma concentration may increase. If needed, dose adjustment of metformin may be considered as OCT inhibitors/inducers may alter the efficacy of metformin (see Dosage & Administration and Precautions).
Iodinated contrast agents: Metformin must be discontinued prior to or at the time of the imaging procedure and not restarted until at least 48 hours after, provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable (see Dosage & Administration and Precautions).
Combination requiring precautions for use: Some medicinal products can adversely affect renal function which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, e.g. NSAIDs, including selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) II inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diuretics, especially loop diuretics. When starting or using such products in combination with metformin, close monitoring of renal function is necessary.
Glucocorticoids (given by systemic and local routes), beta-2-agonists, and diuretics have intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity. The patient should be informed and more frequent blood glucose monitoring performed, especially at the beginning of treatment with such medicinal products. If necessary, the dose of the antihyperglycaemic medicinal product should be adjusted during therapy with the other medicinal product and on its discontinuation.
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with metformin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).