NEW
Keytruda健痊得

Keytruda Adverse Reactions

pembrolizumab

Manufacturer:

MSD

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
Adverse Reactions
Most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20% of patients) were: Keytruda as a single agent: fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, decreased appetite, pruritus, diarrhea, nausea, rash, pyrexia, cough, dyspnea, constipation, pain, and abdominal pain.
Keytruda in combination with chemotherapy: fatigue/asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, cough, dyspnea, pyrexia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, mucosal inflammation, and stomatitis.
Keytruda in combination with axitinib: diarrhea, fatigue/asthenia, hypertension, hepatotoxicity, hypothyroidism, decreased appetite, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, nausea, stomatitis/mucosal inflammation, dysphonia, rash, cough, and constipation.
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described in Precautions: Immune-mediated pneumonitis; Immune-mediated colitis; Immune-mediated hepatitis (KEYTRUDA) and hepatotoxicity (KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib); Immune-mediated endocrinopathies; Immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction; Immune-mediated skin adverse reactions; Other immune-mediated adverse reactions; Infusion-related reactions.
Clinical Trials Experience: Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described in Precautions reflect exposure to KEYTRUDA as a single agent in 2799 patients in three randomized, open-label, active-controlled trials (KEYNOTE-002, KEYNOTE-006, and KEYNOTE-010), which enrolled 912 patients with melanoma and 682 patients with NSCLC, and one single-arm trial (KEYNOTE-001), which enrolled 655 patients with melanoma and 550 patients with NSCLC. In addition to the 2799 patients, certain subsections in Precautions describe adverse reactions observed with exposure to KEYTRUDA as a single agent in two randomized, open-label, active-controlled clinical trials (KEYNOTE-042 and KEYNOTE-024), which enrolled 790 patients with NSCLC; in two non-randomized, open-label trials (KEYNOTE-013 and KEYNOTE-087), which enrolled 241 patients with cHL; in combination with chemotherapy in a randomized, active-controlled trial (KEYNOTE-189), which enrolled 405 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC; in combination with axitinib in a randomized, active-controlled trial (KEYNOTE 426), which enrolled 429 patients with RCC; and in post-marketing use. Across all trials, KEYTRUDA was administered at doses of 2 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks, 10 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks, or 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks. Among the 2799 patients, 41% were exposed for 6 months or more and 21% were exposed for 12 months or more.
The data described as follows were obtained in eight randomized, controlled trials (KEYNOTE-002, KEYNOTE-006, KEYNOTE-010, KEYNOTE-042, KEYNOTE-045, KEYNOTE-189, KEYNOTE-407, and KEYNOTE-426) and two non-randomized, open-label trials (KEYNOTE-087 and KEYNOTE-052). The data described as follows also included a single randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (KEYNOTE-054) in which KEYTRUDA was administered for the adjuvant treatment of 509 patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete surgical resection. In these trials, KEYTRUDA was administered at 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 200 mg every 3 weeks, or 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks.
Melanoma: Ipilimumab-Naive Melanoma: The safety of KEYTRUDA for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma who had not received prior ipilimumab and who had received no more than one prior systemic therapy was investigated in KEYNOTE-006. KEYNOTE-006 was a multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial where patients were randomized (1:1:1) and received KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks (n=278) or KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks (n=277) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses unless discontinued earlier for disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (n=256) [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Melanoma: Ipilimumab-Naive Melanoma under Actions]. Patients with autoimmune disease, a medical condition that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication; a history of interstitial lung disease; or active infection requiring therapy, including HIV or hepatitis B or C, were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure was 5.6 months (range: 1 day to 11.0 months) for KEYTRUDA and similar in both treatment arms. Fifty-one and 46% of patients received KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks, respectively, for ≥6 months. No patients in either arm received treatment for more than one year.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 62 years (range: 18 to 89); 60% male; 98% White; 32% had an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value at baseline; 65% had M1c stage disease; 9% with history of brain metastasis; and approximately 36% had been previously treated with systemic therapy which included a BRAF inhibitor (15%), chemotherapy (13%), and immunotherapy (6%).
In KEYNOTE-006, the adverse reaction profile was similar for the every 2 week and every 3 week schedule, therefore summary safety results are provided in a pooled analysis (n=555) of both KEYTRUDA arms. Adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA occurred in 9% of patients. Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 21% of patients; the most common (≥1%) was diarrhea (2.5%). Tables 19 and 20 summarize selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-006. (See Tables 19 and 20.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other clinically important adverse reactions occurring in ≥10% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA were diarrhea (26%), nausea (21%), and pruritus (17%).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥20% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA were increased hypoalbuminemia (27% all Grades; 2.4% Grades 3-4), increased ALT (23% all Grades; 3.1% Grades 3-4), and increased alkaline phosphatase (21% all Grades, 2% Grades 3-4).
Ipilimumab-Refractory Melanoma: The safety of KEYTRUDA in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with disease progression following ipilimumab and, if BRAF V600 mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor, was investigated in KEYNOTE-002. KEYNOTE-002 was a multicenter, partially blinded (KEYTRUDA dose), randomized (1:1:1), active-controlled trial in which 528 patients received KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg (n=178) or 10 mg/kg (n=179) every 3 weeks or investigator's choice of chemotherapy (n=171), consisting of dacarbazine (26%), temozolomide (25%), paclitaxel and carboplatin (25%), paclitaxel (16%), or carboplatin (8%) [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Melanoma: Ipilimumab-Refractory Melanoma under Actions]. Patients with autoimmune disease, severe immune-related toxicity related to ipilimumab, defined as any Grade 4 toxicity or Grade 3 toxicity requiring corticosteroid treatment (greater than 10 mg/day prednisone or equivalent dose) for greater than 12 weeks; medical conditions that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication; a history of interstitial lung disease; or an active infection requiring therapy, including HIV or hepatitis B or C, were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks was 3.7 months (range: 1 day to 16.6 months) and to KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks was 4.8 months (range: 1 day to 16.8 months). In the KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg arm, 36% of patients were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months and 4% were exposed for ≥12 months. In the KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg arm, 41% of patients were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months and 6% of patients were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥12 months.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 62 years (range: 15 to 89); 61% male; 98% White; 41% had an elevated LDH value at baseline; 83% had M1c stage disease; 73% received two or more prior therapies for advanced or metastatic disease (100% received ipilimumab and 25% a BRAF inhibitor); and 15% with history of brain metastasis.
In KEYNOTE-002, the adverse reaction profile was similar for the 2 mg/kg dose and 10 mg/kg dose, therefore summary safety results are provided in a pooled analysis (n=357) of both KEYTRUDA arms. Adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation occurred in 12% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the most common (≥1%) were general physical health deterioration (1%), asthenia (1%), dyspnea (1%), pneumonitis (1%), and generalized edema (1%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 14% of patients; the most common (≥1%) were dyspnea (1%), diarrhea (1%), and maculo-papular rash (1%). Tables 21 and 22 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-002. (See Tables 21 and 22.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other clinically important adverse reactions occurring in patients receiving KEYTRUDA were fatigue (43%), nausea (22%), decreased appetite (20%), vomiting (13%), and peripheral neuropathy (1.7%).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥20% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA were anemia (44% all Grades; 10% Grades 3-4) and lymphopenia (40% all Grades; 9% Grades 3-4).
Adjuvant Treatment of Resected Melanoma: The safety of KEYTRUDA as a single agent was investigated in KEYNOTE-054, a randomized (1:1) double-blind trial in which 1019 patients with completely resected stage IIIA (>1 mm lymph node metastasis), IIIB or IIIC melanoma received 200 mg of KEYTRUDA by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks (n=509) or placebo (n=502) for up to one year [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Melanoma: Adjuvant Treatment of Resected Melanoma under Actions]. Patients with active autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression or mucosal or ocular melanoma were ineligible. Seventy-six percent of patients received KEYTRUDA for 6 months or longer.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 54 years (range: 19 to 88), 25% age 65 or older; 62% male; and 94% ECOG PS of 0 and 6% ECOG PS of 1. Sixteen percent had stage IIIA, 46% had stage IIIB, 18% had stage IIIC (1-3 positive lymph nodes), and 20% had stage IIIC (≥4 positive lymph nodes).
Two patients treated with KEYTRUDA died from causes other than disease progression; causes of death were drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and autoimmune myositis with respiratory failure. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. Adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation occurred in 14% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the most common (≥1%) were pneumonitis (1.4%), colitis (1.2%), and diarrhea (1%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 19% of patients; the most common (≥1%) were diarrhea (2.4%), pneumonitis (2%), increased ALT (1.4%), arthralgia (1.4%), increased AST (1.4%), dyspnea (1%), and fatigue (1%). Tables 23 and 24 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-054. (See Tables 23 and 24.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

NSCLC: First-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy: The safety of KEYTRUDA in combination with pemetrexed and investigator's choice of platinum (either carboplatin or cisplatin) was investigated in KEYNOTE-189, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized (2:1), active-controlled trial in patients with previously untreated, metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: First-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy under Actions]. A total of 607 patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg, pemetrexed and platinum every 3 weeks for 4 cycles followed by KEYTRUDA and pemetrexed (n=405) or placebo, pemetrexed, and platinum every 3 weeks for 4 cycles followed by placebo and pemetrexed (n=202). Patients with autoimmune disease that required systemic therapy within 2 years of treatment; a medical condition that required immunosuppression; or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA 200 mg every 3 weeks was 7.2 months (range: 1 day to 20.1 months). Sixty percent of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months. Seventy-two percent of patients received carboplatin.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 64 years (range: 34 to 84), 49% age 65 or older; 59% male; 94% White and 3% Asian; and 18% with history of brain metastases at baseline.
KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 20% of patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3%) and acute kidney injury (2%). Adverse reactions leading to the interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 53% of patients; the most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA (≥2%) were neutropenia (13%), asthenia/fatigue (7%), anemia (7%), thrombocytopenia (5%), diarrhea (4%), pneumonia (4%), increased blood creatinine (3%), dyspnea (2%), febrile neutropenia (2%), upper respiratory tract infection (2%), increased ALT (2%), and pyrexia (2%). Tables 25 and 26 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-189. (See Tables 25 and 26.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

First-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound chemotherapy: The safety of KEYTRUDA in combination with carboplatin and investigator's choice of either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound was investigated in KEYNOTE-407, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled trial in 558 patients with previously untreated, metastatic squamous NSCLC [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: First-line treatment of metastatic squamous NSCLC with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound chemotherapy under Actions]. Safety data are available for the first 203 patients who received KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy (n=101) or placebo and chemotherapy (n=102). Patients with autoimmune disease that required systemic therapy within 2 years of treatment; a medical condition that required immunosuppression; or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA was 7 months (range: 1 day to 12 months). Sixty-one percent of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months. A total of 139 of 203 patients (68%) received paclitaxel and 64 patients (32%) received paclitaxel protein-bound in combination with carboplatin.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 65 years (range: 40 to 83), 52% age 65 or older; 78% male; 83% White; and 9% with history of brain metastases.
KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 15% of patients, with no single type of adverse reaction accounting for the majority. Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 43% of patients; the most common (≥2%) were thrombocytopenia (20%), neutropenia (11%), anemia (6%), asthenia (2%), and diarrhea (2%). The most frequent (≥2%) serious adverse reactions were febrile neutropenia (6%), pneumonia (6%), and urinary tract infection (3%).
The adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE-407 were similar to those observed in KEYNOTE-189 with the exception that increased incidences of alopecia (47% vs. 36%) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs. 25%) were observed in the KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy arm compared to the placebo and chemotherapy arm in KEYNOTE-407.
Previously Untreated NSCLC: The safety of KEYTRUDA was investigated in KEYNOTE-042, a multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled trial in 1251 patients with PD-L1 expressing, previously untreated stage III NSCLC who were not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation or metastatic NSCLC [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: First-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC as a single agent: KEYNOTE-042 under Actions]. Patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg every 3 weeks (n=636) or investigator's choice of chemotherapy (n=615), consisting of pemetrexed and carboplatin followed by optional pemetrexed (n=312) or paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by optional pemetrexed (n=303) every 3 weeks. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations; autoimmune disease that required systemic therapy within 2 years of treatment; a medical condition that required immunosuppression; or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA was 5.6 months (range: 1 day to 27.3 months). Forty-eight percent of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm were exposed to KEYTRUDA 200 mg for ≥6 months.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 63 years (range: 25 to 90), 45% age 65 or older; 71% male; and 64% White, 30% Asian, and 2% Black. Nineteen percent were Hispanic or Latino. Eighty-seven percent had metastatic disease (stage IV), 13% had stage III disease (2% stage IIIA and 11% stage IIIB), and 5% had treated brain metastases at baseline.
KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 19% of patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3.0%), death due to unknown cause (1.6%), and pneumonia (1.4%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 33% of patients; the most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA (≥2%) were pneumonitis (3.1%), pneumonia (3.0%), hypothyroidism (2.2%), and increased ALT (2.0%). The most frequent (≥2%) serious adverse reactions were pneumonia (7%), pneumonitis (3.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.4%), and pleural effusion (2.2%).
Tables 27 and 28 summarize the adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients treated with KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-042. (See Tables 27 and 28.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Previously Treated NSCLC: The safety of KEYTRUDA was investigated in KEYNOTE-010, a multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1:1), active-controlled trial, in patients with advanced NSCLC who had documented disease progression following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy and, if positive for EGFR or ALK genetic aberrations, appropriate therapy for these aberrations [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Previously treated NSCLC under Actions]. A total of 991 patients received KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg (n=339) or 10 mg/kg (n=343) every 3 weeks or docetaxel (n=309) at 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Patients with autoimmune disease, medical conditions that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, or who had received more than 30 Gy of thoracic radiation within the prior 26 weeks were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks was 3.5 months (range: 1 day to 22.4 months) and to KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks was 3.5 months (range 1 day to 20.8 months). The data described as follows reflect exposure to KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg in 31% of patients exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months. In the KEYTRUDA 10 mg/kg arm, 34% of patients were exposed to KEYTRUDA for ≥6 months.
The study population characteristics were: median age of 63 years (range: 20 to 88), 42% age 65 or older; 61% male; 72% White and 21% Asian; and 8% with advanced localized disease, 91% with metastatic disease, and 15% with history of brain metastases. Twenty-nine percent received two or more prior systemic treatments for advanced or metastatic disease.
In KEYNOTE-010, the adverse reaction profile was similar for the 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg dose, therefore summary safety results are provided in a pooled analysis (n=682). Treatment was discontinued for adverse reactions in 8% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. The most common adverse events resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.8%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 23% of patients; the most common (≥1%) were diarrhea (1%), fatigue (1.3%), pneumonia (1%), liver enzyme elevation (1.2%), decreased appetite (1.3%), and pneumonitis (1%). Tables 29 and 30 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-010. (See Tables 29 and 30.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other clinically important adverse reactions occurring in patients receiving KEYTRUDA were fatigue (25%), diarrhea (14%), asthenia (11%) and pyrexia (11%).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥20% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA were hyperglycemia (44% all Grades; 4.1% Grades 3-4), anemia (37% all Grades; 3.8% Grades 3-4), hypertriglyceridemia (36% all Grades; 1.8% Grades 3-4), lymphopenia (35% all Grades; 9% Grades 3-4), hypoalbuminemia (34% all Grades; 1.6% Grades 3-4), and hypercholesterolemia (20% all Grades; 0.7% Grades 3-4).
Urothelial Carcinoma: Cisplatin Ineligible Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma: The safety of KEYTRUDA was investigated in KEYNOTE-052, a single-arm trial that enrolled 370 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who were not eligible for cisplatin containing chemotherapy. Patients with autoimmune disease or medical conditions that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications were ineligible [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Urothelial Carcinoma: Cisplatin Ineligible Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma under Actions]. Patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxicity or either radiographic or clinical disease progression.
The median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA was 2.8 months (range: 1 day to 15.8 months).
KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of patients. Eighteen patients (5%) died from causes other than disease progression. Five patients (1.4%) who were treated with KEYTRUDA experienced sepsis which led to death, and three patients (0.8%) experienced pneumonia which led to death. Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 22% of patients; the most common (≥1%) were liver enzyme increase, diarrhea, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, fatigue, joint pain, and pneumonia. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 42% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (≥2%) were urinary tract infection, hematuria, acute kidney injury, pneumonia, and urosepsis.
Immune-related adverse reactions that required systemic glucocorticoids occurred in 8% of patients, use of hormonal supplementation due to an immune-related adverse reaction occurred in 8% of patients, and 5% of patients required at least one steroid dose ≥40 mg oral prednisone equivalent.
Table 31 summarizes adverse reactions in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-052. (See Table 31.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Previously Treated Urothelial Carcinoma: The safety of KEYTRUDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with disease progression following platinum-containing chemotherapy was investigated in KEYNOTE-045. KEYNOTE-045 was a multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled trial in which 266 patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg every 3 weeks or investigator's choice of chemotherapy (n=255), consisting of paclitaxel (n=84), docetaxel (n=84) or vinflunine (n=87) [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Urothelial Carcinoma: Previously Treated Urothelial Carcinoma under Actions]. Patients with autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications were ineligible.
The median duration of exposure was 3.5 months (range: 1 day to 20 months) in patients who received KEYTRUDA and 1.5 months (range: 1 day to 14 months) in patients who received chemotherapy.
KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of patients. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.9%). Adverse reactions leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 20% of patients; the most common (≥1%) were urinary tract infection (1.5%), diarrhea (1.5%), and colitis (1.1%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 39% of KEYTRUDA-treated patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (≥2%) in KEYTRUDA-treated patients were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, anemia, and pneumonitis. Tables 32 and 33 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-045. (See Tables 32 and 33.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

cHL: Among the 210 patients with cHL enrolled in KEYNOTE-087 [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma under Actions], the median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA was 8.4 months (range: 1 day to 15.2 months). KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 5% of patients, and treatment was interrupted due to adverse reactions in 26%. Fifteen percent (15%) of patients had an adverse reaction requiring systemic corticosteroid therapy. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 16% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (≥1%) included pneumonia, pneumonitis, pyrexia, dyspnea, graft versus host disease and herpes zoster. Two patients died from causes other than disease progression; one from GVHD after subsequent allogeneic HSCT and one from septic shock. Tables 34 and 35 summarize adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, in patients on KEYTRUDA in KEYNOTE-087. (See Tables 34 and 35.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other clinically important adverse reactions that occurred in less than 10% of patients on KEYNOTE-087 included infusion reactions (9%), hyperthyroidism (3%), pneumonitis (3%), uveitis and myositis (1% each), and myelitis and myocarditis (0.5% each).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Hyperbilirubinemia occurred in less than 15% of patients on KEYNOTE-087 (10% all Grades, 2.4% Grade 3-4).
RCC: The safety of KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib was investigated in KEYNOTE-426 [see Pharmacology: Clinical Studies: Renal Cell Carcinoma under Actions]. Patients with medical conditions that required systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications or had a history of severe autoimmune disease other than type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, Sjogren's syndrome, and hypothyroidism stable on hormone replacement were ineligible. Patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks and axitinib 5 mg orally twice daily, or sunitinib 50 mg once daily for 4 weeks and then off treatment for 2 weeks. The median duration of exposure to the combination therapy of KEYTRUDA and axitinib was 10.4 months (range: 1 day to 21.2 months).
The study population characteristics were: median age of 62 years (range: 30 to 89), 40% age 65 or older; 71% male; 80% White; and 80% Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) of 90-100 and 20% KPS of 70-80.
Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib. These included 3 cases of cardiac arrest, 2 cases of pulmonary embolism and 1 case each of cardiac failure, death due to unknown cause, myasthenia gravis, myocarditis, Fournier's gangrene, plasma cell myeloma, pleural effusion, pneumonitis, and respiratory failure.
Serious adverse reactions occurred in 40% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib. Serious adverse reactions in ≥1% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib included hepatotoxicity (7%), diarrhea (4.2%), acute kidney injury (2.3%), dehydration (1%), and pneumonitis (1%).
Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction of either KEYTRUDA or axitinib occurred in 31% of patients; 13% KEYTRUDA only, 13% axitinib only, and 8% both drugs. The most common adverse reaction (>1%) resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA, axitinib, or the combination was hepatotoxicity (13%), diarrhea/colitis (1.9%), acute kidney injury (1.6%), and cerebrovascular accident (1.2%).
Dose interruptions or reductions due to an adverse reaction, excluding temporary interruptions of KEYTRUDA infusions due to infusion-related reactions, occurred in 76% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib. This includes interruption of KEYTRUDA in 50% of patients. Axitinib was interrupted in 64% of patients and dose reduced in 22% of patients. The most common adverse reactions (>10%) resulting in interruption of KEYTRUDA were hepatotoxicity (14%) and diarrhea (11%), and the most common adverse reactions (>10%) resulting in either interruption or reduction of axitinib were hepatotoxicity (21%), diarrhea (19%), and hypertension (18%).
The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA and axitinib were diarrhea, fatigue/asthenia, hypertension, hypothyroidism, decreased appetite, hepatotoxicity, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, nausea, stomatitis/mucosal inflammation, dysphonia, rash, cough, and constipation.
Twenty-seven percent (27%) of patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib received an oral prednisone dose equivalent to ≥40 mg daily for an immune-mediated adverse reaction.
Tables 36 and 37 summarize the adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, that occurred in at least 20% of patients treated with KEYTRUDA and axitinib in KEYNOTE-426. (See Tables 36 and 37.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Immunogenicity: As with all therapeutic proteins, there is the potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of incidence of antibodies to pembrolizumab in the studies described as follows with the incidences of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
Trough levels of pembrolizumab interfere with the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay results; therefore, a subset analysis was performed in the patients with a concentration of pembrolizumab below the drug tolerance level of the anti-product antibody assay. In clinical studies in patients treated with pembrolizumab at a dose of 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 200 mg every 3 weeks, or 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks, 27 (2.1%) of 1289 evaluable patients tested positive for treatment-emergent anti-pembrolizumab antibodies of whom six (0.5%) patients had neutralizing antibodies against pembrolizumab. There was no evidence of an altered pharmacokinetic profile or increased infusion reactions with anti-pembrolizumab binding antibody development.
Exclusive offer for doctors
Register for a MIMS account and receive free medical publications worth $768 a year.
Sign up for free
Already a member? Sign in