Each tablet contains terbinafine hydrochloride 281.25 mg equivalent to 250 mg terbinafine.
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Oral antifungal agent. ATC Code: D01B A02.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Terbinafine is an allylamine which has a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. At low concentrations terbinafine is fungicidal against dermatophytes, moulds and certain dimorphic fungi. The activity versus yeasts is fungicidal or fungistatic depending on the species.
Terbinafine interferes specifically with fungal sterol biosynthesis at an early step. This leads to a deficiency in ergosterol and to an intracellular accumulation of squalene, resulting in fungal cell death. Terbinafine acts by inhibition of squalene epoxidase in the fungal cell membrane. The enzyme squalene epoxidase is not linked to the cytochrome P450 system.
When given orally, the drug concentrates in skin at levels associated with fungicidal activity.
Pharmacokinetics: Following oral administration, terbinafine is well absorbed (>70%) and the absolute bioavailability of terbinafine from Lamisil tablets as a result of first-pass metabolism is approximately 50%. A single oral dose of terbinafine 250 mg resulted in mean peak plasma concentrations of 1.30 μg/mL within 1.5 hrs after administration. At steady-state, in comparison to a single dose, peak concentration of terbinafine was on average 25% higher and plasma AUC increased by a factor of 2.3. From the increase in plasma AUC an effective half-life of approximately 30 hours can be calculated. The bioavailability of terbinafine is moderately affected by food (increase in the AUC of less than 20%), but not sufficiently to require dose adjustments.
Terbinafine binds strongly to plasma proteins. It rapidly diffuses through the dermis and concentrates in the lipophilic stratum corneum. Terbinafine is also secreted in sebum, thus achieving high concentrations in hair follicles, hair and sebum rich skins. There is also evidence that terbinafine is distributed into the nail plate within the first few weeks of commencing therapy.
Terbinafine is metabolised rapidly and extensively by at least seven CYP isoenzymes with major contributions from CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8 and CYP2C19. Biotransformation results in metabolites with no antifungal activity, which are excreted predominantly in the urine.
No clinically-relevant age-dependent changes in pharmacokinetics have been observed but the elimination rate may be reduced in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, resulting in higher blood levels of terbinafine.
Single dose pharmacokinetic studies in patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min) or with pre-existing liver disease have shown that clearance of Lamisil may be reduced by about 50%.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: In long-term studies (up to 1 year) in rats and dogs no marked toxic effects were seen in either species up to oral doses of about 100 mg/kg a day. At high oral doses, the liver and possibly also the kidneys were identified as potential target organs.
In a two-year oral carcinogenicity study in mice, no neoplastic or other abnormal findings attributable to treatment were made up to doses of 130 (males) and 156 (females) mg/kg a day. In a two-year oral carcinogenicity study in rats, an increased incidence of liver tumours was observed in males at the highest dosage level of 69 mg/kg a day. The changes, which may be associated with peroxisome proliferation have been shown to be species-specific since they were not seen in the carcinogenicity study in mice or in other studies in mice, dogs or monkeys.
During high-dose studies in monkeys, refractile irregularities were observed in the retina at the higher doses (non-toxic effect level 50 mg/kg). These irregularities were associated with the presence of a terbinafine metabolite in ocular tissue and disappeared after drug discontinuation. They were not associated with histological changes.
A standard battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests revealed no evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential.
No adverse effects on fertility or other reproduction parameters were observed in studies in rats or rabbits.
Fungal infections of the skin and nails caused by Trichophyton (eg. T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. violaceum), Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum.
Oral Lamisil is indicated in the treatment of ringworm (Tinea corporis, Tinea cruris and Tinea pedis) where oral therapy is considered appropriate due to the site, severity or extent of the infection.
Oral Lamisil is indicated in the treatment of onychomycosis.
Adults: 250 mg once daily.
The duration of treatment varies according to the indication and the severity of the infection.
Skin Infections: Likely durations of treatment are as follows: Tinea pedis (interdigital, plantar/moccasin type): 2 to 6 weeks.
Tinea corporis: 4 weeks.
Tinea cruris: 2 to 4 weeks.
Onychomycosis: The duration of treatment for most patients is between 6 weeks and 3 months. Treatment periods of less than 3 months can be anticipated in patients with fingernail infection, toenail infection other than of the big toe, or patients of younger age. In the treatment of toenail infections, 3 months is usually sufficient although a few patients may require treatment of 6 months or longer. Poor nail outgrowth during the first weeks of treatment may enable identification of those patients in whom longer therapy is required.
Complete resolution of the signs and symptoms of infection may not occur until several weeks after mycological cure.
Additional information on special population: Liver Impairment: Lamisil tablets are contraindicated for patients with chronic or active liver disease (see Precautions).
Renal Impairment: The use of Lamisil tablets has not been adequately studied in patients with renal impairment and is therefore not recommended in this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Children: A review of safety experience with oral LAMISIL in children, which includes 314 patients involved in the UK LAMISIL Post Marketing Surveillance study, has shown that the adverse event profile in children is similar to that seen in adults. No evidence of any new, unusual or more severe reactions to those seen in the adult population have been noted. However, as data is still limited its use is not recommended.
Elderly: There is no evidence to suggest that elderly patients (aged 65 years or above) require different dosages or experience side-effects different to those of younger patients. The possibility of impairment of liver or kidney function should be considered in this age group (see Precautions).
Method of administration: The scored tablets are taken orally with water. They should preferably be taken at the same time each day and can be taken on an empty stomach or after a meal.
A few cases of overdose (up to 5 g) have been reported, giving rise to headache, nausea, upper abdominal pain and dizziness. The recommended treatment of overdosage consists of eliminating the drug primarily by the administration of activated charcoal, and giving symptomatic supportive therapy if needed.
Known hypersensitivity to Lamisil or to any of the excipients of Lamisil tablets.
Chronic or active hepatic disease.
Liver function: Lamisil tablets are contraindicated for patients with chronic or active liver disease. Before prescribing Lamisil tablets, a liver function test should be performed and any pre-existing liver disease should be assessed.
Hepatotoxicity may occur in patients with and without pre-existing liver disease therefore periodic monitoring (after 4-6 weeks of treatment) of liver function test is recommended. Lamisil tablets should be immediately discontinued in case of elevation of liver function test.
Very rare cases of serious liver failure (some with a fatal outcome, or requiring liver transplant) have been reported in patients treated with Lamisil tablets. In the majority of liver failure cases the patients had serious underlying systemic conditions (see Adverse Reactions).
Patients prescribed Lamisil tablets should be instructed to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction such as pruritus, unexplained persistent nausea, decreased appetite, anorexia, jaundice, vomiting, fatigue, right upper abdominal pain, dark urine, or pale stools. Patients with these symptoms should discontinue taking oral terbinafine and the patient's liver function should be immediately evaluated.
Dermatological effects: Serious skin reactions (e.g. Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been very rarely reported in patients taking Lamisil tablets. If progressive skin rash occurs, Lamisil tablets treatment should be discontinued.
Lamisil should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis, as very rare cases of exacerbation of psoriasis have been reported.
Haematological effects: Very rare cases of blood dyscrasias (neutropenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia) have been reported in patients treated with Lamisil tablets. Aetiology of any blood dyscrasias that occur in patients treated with Lamisil tablets should be evaluated and consideration should be given for a possible change in medication regimen, including discontinuation of treatment with Lamisil tablets.
Renal function: In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min or serum creatinine of more than 300 micro mol/L) the use of Lamisil tablets has not been adequately studied, and therefore, is not recommended (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Other: Lamisil should be used with caution in patients with lupus erythematosus as very rare cases of lupus erythematosus have been reported.
Effects on the ability to drive or operate machinery: No studies on the effects of Lamisil tablets treatment on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. Patients who experience dizziness as an undesirable effect should avoid driving vehicles or using machines.
Pregnancy: Foetal toxicity and fertility studies in animals suggest no adverse effects. Since clinical experience in pregnant women is very limited, terbinafine tablets should not be used during pregnancy unless clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with oral terbinafine and the potential benefits for the mother outweigh any potential risks for the foetus.
Lactation: Terbinafine is excreted in breast milk and therefore mothers should not receive Lamisil treatment whilst breast-feeding.
Fertility: Foetal toxicity and fertility studies in animals suggest no adverse effects.
Side effects are generally mild to moderate, and transient. The following adverse reactions have been observed in the clinical trials or during post-marketing experience.
Adverse reactions are ranked under headings of frequency, using the following convention: Very common (≥1/10); Common (≥1/100, <1/10); Uncommon (≥1/1,000, <1/100); Rare (≥1/10,000, <1/1,000); Very rare (<1/10,000), Not known (frequency cannot be estimated from available data) including isolated reports.
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Effect of other medicinal products on terbinafine: The plasma clearance of terbinafine may be accelerated by drugs which induce metabolism and may be inhibited by drugs which inhibit cytochrome P450. Where co-administration of such agents is necessary, the dosage of Lamisil may need to be adjusted accordingly.
The following medicinal products may increase the effect or plasma concentration of terbinafine: Cimetidine decreased the clearance of terbinafine by 30%. Fluconazole increased the Cmax and AUC of terbinafine by 52% and 69% respectively, due to inhibition of both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Similar increase in exposure may occur when other drugs which inhibit both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 such as ketoconazole and amiodarone are concomitantly administered with terbinafine.
The following medicinal products may decrease the effect or plasma concentration of terbinafine: Rifampicin increased the clearance of terbinafine by 100%.
Effect of terbinafine on other medicinal products: Studies undertaken in vitro and in healthy volunteers suggest that terbinafine shows negligible potential to inhibit or induce the clearance of most drugs that are metabolised via other cytochrome P450 enzymes (e.g. tolbutamine, terfenadine, triazolam, oral contraceptives) with exception of those metabolised through CYP2D6 (see text as follows).
Terbinafine does not interfere with the clearance of antipyrine or digoxin.
There was no effect of terbinafine on the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole. Further there was no clinically relevant interaction between terbinafine and the potential co-medications cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole), zidovudine or theophylline.
Some cases of menstrual disturbance (breakthrough bleeding and irregular cycle) have been reported in patients taking Lamisil concomitantly with oral contraceptives, although the incidence of these disorders remains within the background incidence of patients taking oral contraceptives alone.
Terbinafine may increase the effect or plasma concentration of the following medicinal products: Caffeine: Terbinafine decreased the clearance of caffeine administered intravenously by 21%.
Compounds predominantly metabolised by CYP2D6: In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that terbinafine inhibits the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism. This finding may be of clinical relevance for patients receiving compounds predominantly metabolised by CYP2D6, e.g. certain members of the following drug classes, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's), β-blockers, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antiarrhythmics (including class 1A, 1B and 1C) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-Is) Type B, especially if they also have a narrow therapeutic window (see Precautions).
Terbinafine decreased the clearance of desipramine by 82%.
In studies in healthy subjects characterized as extensive metabolisers of dextromethorphan (antitussive drug and CYP2D6 probe substrate), terbinafine increased the dextromethorphan/dextrorphan metabolic ratio in urine by 16- to 97-fold on average. Thus, terbinafine may convert extensive CYP2D6 metabolisers to poor metaboliser status.
Terbinafine may decrease the effect or plasma concentration of the following medicinal products: Terbinafine increased the clearance of ciclosporin by 15%.
Rare cases of changes in INR and/or prothrombin time have been reported in patients receiving terbinafine concomitantly with warfarin.
D01BA02 - terbinafine ; Belongs to the class of antifungals for systemic use.
Tab 250 mg (whitish to yellow tinged white, circular, biconvex tablets, scored on one side and coded LAMISIL 250 on the other) x 14's, 28's.