Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antiglaucoma preparations and miotics; beta-blocking agents; timolol combinations. ATC Code: S01ED51.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Latanoprost and Timolol 50 micrograms/5mg eye drops, solution consists of two components: Latanoprost and Timolol maleate. These two components decrease elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) by different mechanisms of action and the combined effect results in additional IOP reduction compared to either compound administered alone.
Latanoprost, a prostaglandin F2alpha analogue, is a selective prostanoid FP receptor agonist that reduces the IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humour. The main mechanism of action is increased uveoscleral outflow. Additionally, some increase in outflow facility (decrease in trabecular outflow resistance) has been reported in man. Latanoprost has no significant effect on the production of aqueous humour, the blood-aqueous barrier or the intraocular blood circulation. Latanoprost has not induced fluorescein leakage in the posterior segment of pseudophakic human eyes during short-treatment.
Timolol is a beta-1 and beta-2 (non-selective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent that has no significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant or membrane-stabilising activity. Timolol lowers IOP by decreasing the formation of aqueous in the ciliary epithelium. Timolol has not been found to significantly affect the permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier to plasma proteins.
Pharmacokinetics: Latanoprost: Latanoprost is an isopropyl ester prodrug, which per se is inactive, but after hydrolysis by esterases in the cornea to the acid of Latanoprost, becomes biologically active. The prodrug is well absorbed through the cornea and all drug that enters the aqueous humor is hydrolyzed during the passage through the cornea.
The acid of Latanoprost has a plasma clearance of 0.40 l/h/kg and a small volume of distribution, 0.16 l/kg, resulting in a rapid half-life in plasma, 17 minutes. After topical ocular administration the systemic bioavailability of the acid of Latanoprost is 45%. The acid of Latanoprost has a plasma protein binding of 87%.
There is practically no metabolism of the acid of Latanoprost in the eye. The main metabolism occurs in the liver. The main metabolites, the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites, exert no or only weak biological activity and are excreted primarily in the urine.
Timolol: The maximum concentration of Timolol in the aqueous humor is reached about 1 hour after topical administration of eye drops. Part of the dose is absorbed systemically and a maximum plasma concentration of 1 ng/ml is reached 10-20 minutes after topical administration of one eye drop to each eye once daily (300 micrograms/day). The half-life of Timolol in plasma is about 6 hours. Timolol is extensively metabolised in the liver. The metabolites are excreted in the urine together with some unchanged Timolol.
Latanoprost and Timolol: No pharmacokinetic interactions between Latanoprost and timolol were observed although there was an approximately 2-fold increased concentration of the acid of Latanoprost in aqueous humour 1-4 hours after administration of Latanoprost/timolol compared to monotherapy.