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Lenvima

Lenvima Mechanism of Action

lenvatinib

Manufacturer:

Eisai

Distributor:

DKSH
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
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Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Lenvatinib is a kinase inhibitor that inhibits the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR), and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Lenvatinib also inhibits other kinases that have been implicated in pathogenic angiogenesis, tumor growth, and cancer progression in addition to their normal cellular functions, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), KIT, and RET. Lenvatinib also exhibited antiproliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines dependent on activated FGFR signaling with a concurrent inhibition of FGF-receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α) phosphorylation.
In syngeneic mouse tumor models, lenvatinib decreased tumor-associated macrophages, increased activated cytotoxic T cells, and demonstrated greater antitumor activity in combination with an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody compared to either treatment alone.
The combination of lenvatinib and everolimus showed increased anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity as demonstrated by decreases in human endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and VEGF signaling in vitro, and by decreases in tumor volume in mouse xenograft models of human renal cell cancer that were greater than those with either drug alone.
Clinical Studies: Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A multicenter, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study (SELECT; NCT01321554) was conducted in 392 patients with locally recurrent or metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and radiographic evidence of disease progression within 12 months prior to randomization, confirmed by independent radiologic review. Radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory was defined as 1 or more measurable lesions with no iodine uptake on RAI scan, iodine uptake with progression within 12 months of RAI therapy, or having received cumulative RAI activity >600 mCi (22 GBq) with the last dose administered at least 6 months prior to study entry. Patients were randomized to receive LENVIMA 24 mg once daily (n=261) or placebo (n=131) until disease progression. Randomization was stratified by geographic region, prior VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapy, and age. The major efficacy outcome measure was progression-free survival (PFS) as determined by blinded independent radiologic review using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. Independent review confirmation of disease progression was required prior to discontinuing patients from the randomization phase of the study. Other efficacy outcome measures included objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). Patients in the placebo arm could receive lenvatinib following independent review confirmation of disease progression.
Of the 392 patients randomized, 51% were male, the median age was 63 years, 40% were 65 years or older, 79% were White, 54% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0, and 24% had received 1 prior VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapy. Metastases were present in 99% of the patients: lungs in 89%, lymph nodes in 52%, bone in 39%, liver in 18%, and brain in 4%. The histological diagnoses were papillary thyroid cancer (66%) and follicular thyroid cancer (34%); of those with follicular histology, 44% had Hürthle cell and 11% had clear cell subtypes. In the LENVIMA arm, 67% of patients did not demonstrate iodine uptake on any RAI scan compared to 77% in the placebo arm. Additionally, 59% of patients on the LENVIMA arm and 61% of patients on placebo arm progressed, according to RECIST 1.1, within 12 months of prior I 131 therapy; 19.2% of patients on the LENVIMA arm and 17.6% of patients on placebo arm received prior cumulative activity of >600 mCi or 22 GBq I 131, with the last dose administered at least 6 months prior to study entry. The median cumulative RAI activity administered prior to study entry was 350 mCi (12.95 GBq).
A statistically significant prolongation in PFS was demonstrated in LENVIMA-treated patients compared to those receiving placebo (see Table 1 and Figure 1). Upon confirmation of progression, 83% of patients that were randomly assigned to placebo crossed over to receive open-label LENVIMA. (See Table 1 and Figure 1.)

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Renal Cell Carcinoma: The efficacy was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized (1:1:1) study (Study 205: NCT01136733), in which 153 patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma who have previously received anti-angiogenic therapy received LENVIMA 18 mg orally once daily with everolimus 5 mg orally once daily, LENVIMA 24 mg orally once daily, or everolimus 10 mg orally once daily. Patients were required to have histological confirmation of clear cell RCC and ECOG PS of 0 or 1. Patients were stratified by hemoglobin level (≤ or > 13 g/dL for males and ≤ or > 11.5 g/dL for females) and corrected serum calcium (≥10 mg/dL vs. <10 mg/dL). The major efficacy outcome measure was investigator-assessed PFS evaluated according to RECIST 1.1.
Of the 101 patients randomized to the LENVIMA with everolimus arm or everolimus arm, 72% were male, the median age was 60 years, 31% were older than 65 years, and 96% were White. Metastases were present in 95% of the patients and unresectable advanced disease was present in 5%. All patients had a baseline ECOG PS of either 0 (54%) or 1 (46%) with similar distribution across these two treatment arms. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) favorable, intermediate, and poor risk categories were observed respectively, in 24%, 37%, and 39% of patients in the LENVIMA with everolimus arm, and 24%, 38%, and 38% of patients in the everolimus arm.
Efficacy results from Study 205 are summarized in Table 2 and Figures 2 and 3. The treatment effect of the combination on PFS was supported by a retrospective independent review of radiographs with an observed hazard ratio (HR) of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.75) compared with the everolimus arm. (See Table 2 and Figures 2 and 3.)

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The efficacy of LENVIMA was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, multicenter, international study (REFLECT; NCT01761266) conducted in patients with previously untreated unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study enrolled adults with Child-Pugh A and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage C or B HCC who were ineligible for local liver-directed therapy; had an ECOG PS of 0 or 1; had received no prior systemic therapy for HCC; and had at least one measurable target lesion according to modified RECIST for HCC.
Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive LENVIMA (12 mg for baseline body weight ≥60 kg or 8 mg for baseline body weight <60 kg) orally once daily or sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily until radiological disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomization was stratified by region (Western vs Asia Pacific), presence of macroscopic portal vein invasion or extrahepatic spread (yes vs no), ECOG PS (0 vs 1), and body weight (<60 kg vs ≥60 kg). The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS). REFLECT was designed to show the non-inferiority of LENVIMA to sorafenib for OS. Additional efficacy outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) according to modified RECIST for HCC.
A total of 954 patients were randomized, 478 to the LENVIMA arm and 476 to the sorafenib arm. The demographics of the study population were: median age of 62 years (range: 20 to 88 years); 84% male; 69% Asian and 29% White; 63% ECOG PS of 0; and 69% weighed ≥60 kg. Of the 590 (62%) patients with at least one site of documented distant metastatic disease, 52% had lung metastasis, 45% had lymph node metastasis, and 16% had bone metastasis.
Macroscopic portal vein invasion, extra-hepatic spread, or both were present in 70% of patients. HCC was categorized as Child-Pugh A and BCLC Stage C in 79% and Child-Pugh A and BCLC Stage B in 21% of patients. Seventy-five percent (75%) of patients had radiographic evidence of cirrhosis at baseline. Investigator-documented primary risk factors for the development of HCC were hepatitis B (50%), hepatitis C (23%), alcohol use (6%), other (7%), and unknown (14%).
REFLECT demonstrated that LENVIMA was non-inferior to sorafenib for OS. REFLECT did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in OS for patients randomized to LENVIMA as compared to those in the sorafenib arm. LENVIMA was statistically significantly superior to sorafenib for PFS and ORR. Efficacy results are summarized in Table 3 and Figure 4. (See Table 3 and Figure 4.)

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Endometrial Carcinoma (EC): The efficacy of LENVIMA in combination with pembrolizumab was investigated in Study 111 (NCT02501096), a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, multi-cohort trial that enrolled 108 patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma that had progressed following at least one prior systemic therapy in any setting. Patients with active autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression were ineligible. Patients were treated with LENVIMA 20 mg orally once daily in combination with pembrolizumab 200 mg administered intravenously every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression as determined by the investigator. The major efficacy outcome measures were objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR) by independent radiologic review committee (IRC) using RECIST 1.1.
Administration of LENVIMA and pembrolizumab was permitted beyond RECIST-defined disease progression if the patient was clinically stable and considered by the investigator to be deriving clinical benefit. Pembrolizumab was continued for a maximum of 24 months; however, treatment with LENVIMA could be continued beyond 24 months. Assessment of tumor status was performed at baseline and then every 6 weeks until week 24, followed by every 9 weeks thereafter.
Among the 108 patients, 87% (n= 94) had tumors that were not MSI-H or dMMR; 10% (n=11) had tumors that were MSI-H or dMMR; and in 3% (n=3) the status was not known. Tumor MSI status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Tumor MMR status was determined using an immunohistochemistry (IHC) test. The baseline characteristics of the 94 patients with tumors that were not MSI-H or dMMR were: median age of 66 years with 62% 65 years or older; 86% White, 6% Black, 4% Asian, 3% other races; and ECOG PS of 0 (52%) or 1 (48%). All 94 of these patients received prior systemic therapy for endometrial carcinoma: 51% had one, 38% had two, and 11% had three or more prior systemic therapies. Efficacy results are summarized in Table 4. (See Table 4.)

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Pharmacokinetics: In patients with solid tumors administered single and multiple doses of LENVIMA once daily, the maximum lenvatinib plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased proportionally over the dose range of 3.2 mg (0.1 times the recommended clinical dose of 24 mg) to 32 mg (1.33 times the recommended clinical dose of 24 mg) with a median accumulation index of 0.96 (20 mg) to 1.54 (6.4 mg).
Absorption: The time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) typically occurred from 1 to 4 hours post-dose.
Food Effect: Administration with a high fat meal (approximately 900 calories of which approximately 55% were from fat, 15% from protein, and 30% from carbohydrates) did not affect the extent of absorption, but decreased the rate of absorption and delayed the median Tmax from 2 hours to 4 hours.
Distribution: In vitro binding of lenvatinib to human plasma proteins ranged from 98% to 99% at concentrations of 0.3 - 30 μg/mL. The blood-to-plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 at concentrations of 0.1 to 10 μg/mL in vitro.
Elimination: The terminal elimination half-life of lenvatinib was approximately 28 hours.
Metabolism: The main metabolic pathways for lenvatinib in humans were identified as enzymatic (CYP3A and aldehyde oxidase) and non-enzymatic processes.
Excretion: Ten days after a single administration of radiolabeled lenvatinib, approximately 64% and 25% of the radiolabel were eliminated in the feces and urine, respectively.
Specific Populations: Age, sex and race did not have a significant effect on apparent oral clearance (CL/F).
Patients with Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of lenvatinib following a single 24 mg dose were evaluated in subjects with mild (CLcr 60-89 mL/min), moderate (CLcr 30-59 mL/min), or severe (CLcr <30 mL/min) renal impairment, and compared to healthy subjects. Subjects with end stage renal disease were not studied. The AUC0-inf for subjects with renal impairment were similar compared to those for healthy subjects.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of lenvatinib following a single 10 mg dose were evaluated in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh A) or moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of a single 5 mg dose were evaluated in subjects with severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment. Compared to subjects with normal hepatic function, the dose-adjusted AUC0-inf of lenvatinib for subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment were 119%, 107%, and 180%, respectively.
Apparent oral clearance of lenvatinib in patients with HCC and mild hepatic impairment was similar to patients with HCC and moderate hepatic impairment.
Tumor: Patients with HCC in REFLECT had a 13% lower lenvatinib CL/F than patients with other cancer types.
Body Weight: Lenvatinib exposures in patients with HCC in REFLECT were comparable between those weighing <60 kg who received a starting dose of 8 mg and those ≥60 kg who received a starting dose of 12 mg.
Drug Interaction Studies: Effect of Other Drugs on Lenvatinib: CYP3A, P-gp, and BCRP Inhibitors: Ketoconazole (400 mg daily for 18 days) increased lenvatinib (administered as a single 5 mg dose on Day 5) AUC by 15% and Cmax by 19%.
P-gp Inhibitors: Rifampicin (600 mg as a single dose) increased lenvatinib (24 mg as a single dose) AUC by 31% and Cmax by 33%.
CYP3A and P-gp Inducers: Rifampicin (600 mg daily for 21 days) decreased lenvatinib (24 mg as a single dose on Day 15) AUC by 18%. The Cmax was unchanged.
In Vitro Studies with Transporters: Lenvatinib is a substrate of P-gp and BCRP but not a substrate for organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1, MATE2-K, or the bile salt export pump (BSEP).
Effect of Lenvatinib on Other Drugs: Clinical Studies with Substrates of CYP3A4 or CYP2C8: There is no projected significant drug-drug interaction risk between lenvatinib and midazolam (a CYP3A4 substrate) or repaglinide (a CYP2C8 substrate).
In Vitro Studies with Substrates of CYP or UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT): Lenvatinib inhibits CYP2C8, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. Lenvatinib does not inhibit CYP2A6 and CYP2E1. Lenvatinib induces CYP3A, but it does not induce CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9.
Lenvatinib inhibits UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT1A9 in vitro, but likely only inhibits UGT1A1 in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract based on the expression of the enzyme in tissues. Lenvatinib does not inhibit UGT1A6, UGT2B7, or aldehyde oxidase. Lenvatinib does not induce UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7.
In Vitro Studies with Substrates of Transporters: Lenvatinib does not have the potential to inhibit MATE1, MATE2-K, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, BSEP, OATP1B1, or OATP1B3 in vivo.
Toxicology: Nonclinical Toxicology: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with lenvatinib. Lenvatinib mesylate was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay. Lenvatinib was not clastogenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay or the in vivo rat micronucleus assay.
No specific studies with lenvatinib have been conducted in animals to evaluate the effect on fertility; however, results from general toxicology studies in rats, monkeys, and dogs suggest there is a potential for lenvatinib to impair fertility. Male dogs exhibited testicular hypocellularity of the seminiferous epithelium and desquamated seminiferous epithelial cells in the epididymides at lenvatinib exposures approximately 0.02 to 0.09 times the AUC at the recommended clinical dose of 24 mg once daily. Follicular atresia of the ovaries was observed in monkeys and rats at exposures 0.2 to 0.8 times and 10 to 44 times the AUC at the recommended clinical dose of 24 mg once daily, respectively. In addition, in monkeys, a decreased incidence of menstruation was reported at lenvatinib exposures lower than those observed in humans at the recommended clinical dose of 24 mg once daily.
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