Mannitol


Generic Medicine Info
Indications and Dosage
Intravenous
Cerebral oedema, Reduction of raised intracranial pressure, Reduction of raised intraocular pressure
Adult: As 10, 15 or 20% solution: 1.5-2 g/kg via infusion over 30-60 minutes.

Intravenous
Oliguric phase of renal failure
Adult: As 10, 15 or 20% solution: 50-200 g in a 24 hour period. Adjust rate of infusion to maintain urine outflow of at least 30-50 mL/hour.
Child: 0.25-2 g/kg.

Intravenous
Renal function testing
Adult: 200 mg/kg via infusion over 3-5 minutes. May repeat test dose, if inadequate response.

Irrigation
Transurethral prostatic resection
Adult: Use 2.5-5% solution for bladder irrigation.
Contraindications
Pulmonary congestion or oedema; intracranial bleeding; CHF; metabolic oedema with abnormal capillary fragility; anuria due to severe renal disease; severe dehydration.
Special Precautions
Hypervolaemia; urinary tract obstruction; check for signs of fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Should not be administered with whole blood. Pregnancy, lactation.
Adverse Reactions
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance; acidosis (with high doses). Nausea, vomiting, thirst; headache, dizziness, convulsions, chills, fever; tachycardia, chest pain; blurred vision; urticaria and hypotension or hypertension; acute renal failure; skin necrosis; thrombophloebitis.
Inhalation/Respiratory/Irrigation/IV/Parenteral: C
Drug Interactions
Increased nephrotoxicity with ciclosporin.
Action
Description: Mannitol increases urinary output by inhibiting tubular reabsorption of water and electrolytes. It raises the osmotic pressure of the plasma allowing water to be drawn out of body tissues.
Onset: Diuresis: 1-3 hr. Reduction in intracerebral pressure: around 15 min.
Duration: Reduction in intracerebral pressure: 1.5-6 hr.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Small amounts are absorbed from the GI tract.
Distribution: Concentrated in extracellular compartments. It does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier nor the eye.
Metabolism: Minimal hepatic metabolism, converted to glycogen.
Excretion: Urine via the kidneys (unchanged drug).
Storage
Store at 20-25°C
MIMS Class
Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by MIMS based on Mannitol from various references and is provided for your reference only. Therapeutic uses, prescribing information and product availability may vary between countries. Please refer to MIMS Product Monographs for specific and locally approved prescribing information. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, MIMS shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise. Copyright © 2021 MIMS. All rights reserved. Powered by MIMS.com
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