Meropenem Kabi

Meropenem Kabi

meropenem

Manufacturer:

Fresenius Kabi

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
The Glory Medicina
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Meropenem trihydrate.
Description
Meropenem Kabi 500 mg powder for solution for injection or infusion: Each vial/bottle contains meropenem trihydrate equivalent to 500 mg anhydrous meropenem.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Each 500 mg vial/bottle contains 1.96 mmol (or 45.13 mg) of sodium.
Anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: antibacterials for systemic use, carbapenems. ATC code: J01DH02.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Meropenem exerts its bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship: Similar to other beta-lactam antibacterial agents, the time that meropenem concentrations exceed the MIC (T>MIC) has been shown to best correlate with efficacy. In preclinical models meropenem demonstrated activity when plasma concentrations exceeded the MIC of the infecting organisms for approximately 40 % of the dosing interval. This target has not been established clinically.
Pharmacokinetics: In healthy subjects the mean plasma half-life is approximately 1 hour; the mean volume of distribution is approximately 0.25 l/kg (11-27 l) and the mean clearance is 287 ml/min at 250 mg falling to 205 ml/min at 2 g. Doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg doses infused over 30 minutes give mean Cmax values of approximately 23, 49 and 115 μg/ml respectively, corresponding AUC values were 39.3, 62.3 and 153 μg·h/ml. After infusion over 5 minutes Cmax values are 52 and 112 μg/ml after 500 and 1000 mg doses respectively. When multiple doses are administered 8-hourly to subjects with normal renal function, accumulation of meropenem does not occur.
A study of 12 patients administered meropenem 1000 mg 8 hourly post-surgically for intra-abdominal infections showed a comparable Cmax and half-life to normal subjects but a greater volume of distribution 27 l.
Distribution: The average plasma protein binding of meropenem was approximately 2 % and was independent of concentration. After rapid administration (5 minutes or less) the pharmacokinetics are biexponential but this is much less evident after 30 minutes infusion. Meropenem has been shown to penetrate well into several body fluids and tissues: including lung, bronchial secretions, bile, cerebrospinal fluid, gynaecological tissues, skin, fascia, muscle, and peritoneal exudates.
Metabolism: Meropenem is metabolised by hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring generating a microbiologically inactive metabolite. In vitro meropenem shows reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis by human dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I) compared to imipenem and there is no requirement to co-administer a DHP-I inhibitor.
Elimination: Meropenem is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidneys; approximately 70 % (50 - 75 %) of the dose is excreted unchanged within 12 hours. A further 28% is recovered as the microbiologically inactive metabolite. Faecal elimination represents only approximately 2% of the dose. The measured renal clearance and the effect of probenecid show that meropenem undergoes both filtration and tubular secretion.
Renal insufficiency: Renal impairment results in higher plasma AUC and longer half-life for meropenem. There were AUC increases of 2.4 fold in patients with moderate impairment (CrCL 33-74 ml/min), 5 fold in severe impairment (CrCL 4-23 ml/min) and 10 fold in haemodialysis patients (CrCL <2 ml/min) when compared to healthy subjects (CrCL >80 ml/min). The AUC of the microbiologically inactive ring opened metabolite was also considerably increased in patients with renal impairment. Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate and severe renal impairment.
Meropenem is cleared by haemodialysis with clearance during haemodialysis being approximately 4 times higher than in anuric patients.
Hepatic insufficiency: A study in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis shows no effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of meropenem after repeated doses.
Adult patients: Pharmacokinetic studies performed in patients have not shown significant pharmacokinetic differences versus healthy subjects with equivalent renal function. A population model developed from data in 79 patients with intra-abdominal infection or pneumonia, showed a dependence of the central volume on weight and the clearance on creatinine clearance and age.
Paediatrics: The pharmacokinetics in infants and children with infection at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg showed Cmax values approximating to those in adults following 500, 1000 and 2000 mg doses, respectively.
Comparison showed consistent pharmacokinetics between the doses and half-lives similar to those observed in adults in all but the youngest subjects (<6 months t1/2 1.6 hours). The mean meropenem clearance values were 5.8 ml/min/kg (6-12 years), 6.2 ml/min/kg (2-5 years), 5.3 ml/min/kg (6-23 months) and 4.3 ml/min/kg (2-5 months). Approximately 60 % of the dose is excreted in urine over 12 hours as meropenem with a further 12 % as metabolite. Meropenem concentrations in the CSF of children with meningitis are approximately 20 % of concurrent plasma levels although there is significant inter-individual variability.
The pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates requiring anti-infective treatment showed greater clearance in neonates with higher chronological or gestational age with an overall average half-life of 2.9 hours. Monte Carlo simulation based on a population PK model showed that a dose regimen of 20 mg/kg 8 hourly achieved 60 %T>MIC for P. aeruginosa in 95 % of pre-term and 91 % of full term neonates.
Elderly: Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years) have shown a reduction in plasma clearance, which correlated with age-associated reduction in creatinine clearance, and a smaller reduction in non-renal clearance. No dose adjustment is required in elderly patients, except in cases of moderate to severe renal impairment.
Microbiology: Mechanism of resistance: Bacterial resistance to meropenem may result from: (1) decreased permeability of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria (due to diminished production of porins) (2) reduced affinity of the target PBPs (3) increased expression of efflux pump components, and (4) production of betalactamases that can hydrolyse carbapenems.
There is no target-based cross-resistance between meropenem and agents of the quinolone, aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline classes. However, bacteria may exhibit resistance to more than one class of antibacterial agents when the mechanism involved include impermeability and/or an efflux pump(s).
Breakpoints: European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) clinical breakpoints for MIC testing are presented below. (See Table 1.)

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The prevalence of acquired resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable.
The following table of pathogens listed is derived from clinical experience and therapeutic guidelines. (See Table 2.)

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Indications/Uses
Meropenem Kabi is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children over 3 months of age: Severe pneumonia, including hospital and ventilator-associated pneumonia; Broncho-pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis; Complicated urinary tract infections; Complicated intra-abdominal infections; Intra- and post-partum infections; Complicated skin and soft tissue infections; Acute bacterial meningitis.
Treatment of patients with bacteraemia that occurs in association with, or is suspected to be associated with, any of the infections listed above.
Meropenem Kabi may be used in the management of neutropenic patients with fever that is suspected to be due to a bacterial infection.
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: The tables below provide general recommendations for dosing.
The dose of meropenem administered and the duration of treatment should take into account the type of infection to be treated, including its severity, and the clinical response.
A dose of up to 2 g three times daily in adults and adolescents and a dose of up to 40 mg/kg three times daily in children may be particularly appropriate when treating some types of infections, such as infections due to less susceptible bacterial species (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter spp.), or very severe infections.
Additional considerations for dosing are needed when treating patients with renal insufficiency (see further below).
Adult and adolescents: (See Table 3.)

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Meropenem is usually given by intravenous infusion over approximately 15 to 30 minutes.
Alternatively, doses up to 1 g can be given as an intravenous bolus injection over approximately 5 minutes. There are limited safety data available to support the administration of a 2 g dose in adults as an intravenous bolus injection.
Patients with renal impairment: The dose for adults and adolescents should be adjusted when creatinine clearance is less than 51 ml/min, as shown below. There are limited data to support the application of these dose adjustments for a unit dose of 2 g. (See Table 4.)

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Meropenem is cleared by haemodialysis and haemofiltration. The required dose should be administered after completion of the haemodialysis cycle.
There are no established dose recommendations for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.
Patients with hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.
Elderly patients: No dose adjustment is required for the elderly with normal renal function or creatinine clearance values above 50 ml/min.
Paediatric population: Children under 3 months of age: The safety and efficacy of meropenem in children under 3 months of age have not been established and the optimal dose regimen has not been identified. However, limited pharmacokinetic data suggest that 20 mg/kg every 8 hours may be an appropriate regimen.
Children from 3 months to 11 years of age and up to 50 kg body weight: The recommended dose regimens are shown in the table below: (See Table 5.)

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Children over 50 kg body weight: The adult dose should be administered.
There is no experience in children with renal impairment.
Meropenem is usually given by intravenous infusion over approximately 15 to 30 minutes. Alternatively, meropenem doses of up to 20 mg/kg may be given as an intravenous bolus over approximately 5 minutes. There are limited safety data available to support the administration of a 40 mg/kg dose in children as an intravenous bolus injection.
Overdosage
Relative overdose may be possible in patients with renal impairment if the dose is not adjusted as described in Dosage & Administration. Limited post-marketing experience indicates that if adverse reactions occur following overdose, they are consistent with the adverse reaction profile described in section Undesirable effects, are generally mild in severity and resolve on withdrawal or dose reduction. Symptomatic treatments should be considered.
In individuals with normal renal function, rapid renal elimination will occur.
Haemodialysis will remove meropenem and its metabolite.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Hypersensitivity to any other carbapenem antibacterial agent.
Severe hypersensitivity (eg anaphylactic reaction, severe skin reaction) to any other type of betalactam antibacterial agent (e.g. penicillins or cephalosporins).
Special Precautions
The selection of meropenem to treat an individual patient should take into account the appropriateness of using a carbapenem antibacterial agent based on factors such as severity of the infection, the prevalence of resistance to other suitable antibacterial agents and the risk of selecting for carbapenem-resistant bacteria.
Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. resistance: Prescribers are advised to take into account the local prevalence of resistance in these bacteria to penems.
Hypersensitivity reactions: As with all beta-lactam antibiotics, serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported.
Patients who have a history of hypersensitivity to carbapenems, penicillins or other beta-lactam antibiotics may also be hypersensitive to meropenem. Before initiating therapy with meropenem, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.
If a severe allergic reaction occurs, the medicinal product should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.
Antibiotic-associated colitis: Antibiotic-associated colitis and pseudomembranous colitis have been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including meropenem, and may range in severity from mild to life threatening.
Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of meropenem. Discontinuation of therapy with meropenem and the administration of specific treatment for Clostridium difficile should be considered. Medicinal products that inhibit peristalsis should not be given.
Seizures: Seizures have infrequently been reported during treatment with carbapenems, including meropenem.
Hepatic function monitoring: Hepatic function should be closely monitored during treatment with meropenem due to the risk of hepatic toxicity (hepatic dysfunction with cholestasis and cytolysis).
Use in patients with liver disease: patients with pre-existing liver disorders should have liver function monitored during treatment with meropenem. There is no dose adjustment necessary.
Direct antiglobulin test (Coombs test) seroconversion: A positive direct or indirect Coombs test may develop during treatment with meropenem.
Concomitant use with valproic acid/sodium valproate/valpromide: The concomitant use of meropenem and valproic acid/sodium valproate/valpromide is not recommended.
Meropenem Kabi contains sodium.
Meropenem Kabi 500 mg: This medicinal product contains approximately 2.0 mEq of sodium per 500 mg dose which should be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: No studies on the effect on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, when driving or operating machines, it should be taken into account that headache, paraesthesiae and convulsions have been reported for meropenem.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no or limited amount of data from the use of meropenem in pregnant women.
Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity.
As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of meropenem during pregnancy.
Breastfeeding: It is unknown whether meropenem is excreted in human milk. Meropenem is detectable at very low concentrations in animal breast milk. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from meropenem therapy taking into account the benefit of therapy for the woman.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: In a review of 4,872 patients with 5,026 meropenem treatment exposures, meropenem-related adverse reactions most frequently reported were diarrhoea (2.3 %), rash (1.4 %), nausea/vomiting (1.4 %) and injection site inflammation (1.1 %). The most commonly reported meropenem-related laboratory adverse events were thrombocytosis (1.6 %) and increased hepatic enzymes (1.5-4.3 %).
Tabulated risk of adverse reactions: In the table below all adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and frequency: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000).
Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 6.)

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Drug Interactions
No specific medicinal product interaction studies other than probenecid were conducted.
Probenecid competes with meropenem for active tubular secretion and thus inhibits the renal excretion of meropenem with the effect of increasing the elimination half-life and plasma concentration of meropenem. Caution is required if probenecid is co-administered with meropenem.
The potential effect of meropenem on the protein binding of other medicinal products or metabolism has not been studied. However, the protein binding is so low that no interactions with other compounds would be expected on the basis of this mechanism.
Decreases in blood levels of valproic acid have been reported when it is co-administered with carbapenem agents resulting in a 60-100 % decrease in valproic acid levels in about two days. Due to the rapid onset and the extent of the decrease, co-administration of valproic acid/sodium valproate/valpromide with carbapenem agents is not considered to be manageable and therefore should be avoided.
Oral anti-coagulants: Simultaneous administration of antibiotics with warfarin may augment its anti-coagulant effects.
There have been many reports of increases in the anti-coagulant effects of orally administered anticoagulant agents, including warfarin in patients who are concomitantly receiving antibacterial agents.
The risk may vary with the underlying infection, age and general status of the patient so that the contribution of the antibiotic to the increase in INR (international normalised ratio) is difficult to assess. It is recommended that the INR should be monitored frequently during and shortly after co-administration of antibiotics with an oral anti-coagulant agent.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Injection: Meropenem to be used for bolus intravenous injection should be constituted with sterile water for injection.
Infusion: For intravenous infusion meropenem vials/bottles may be directly constituted with 0.9 % sodium chloride or 5% glucose solutions for infusion.
Each vial/bottle is for single use only.
Standard aseptic techniques should be used for solution preparation and administration.
The solution should be shaken before use.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in Special precautions for disposal and other handling.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Do not freeze.
Intravenous bolus injection administration: A solution for bolus injection is prepared by dissolving the drug product in water for injection to a final concentration of 50 mg/ml. Chemical and physical in-use stability for a prepared solution for bolus injection has been demonstrated for 3 hours at up to 25°C or 12 hours under refrigerated conditions (2-8°C).
From a microbiological point of view, unless the method of opening/reconstitution/ dilution precludes the risk of microbiological contamination, the product should be used immediately.
If not used immediately in-use storage times and conditions are the responsibility of the user.
Intravenous infusion administration: A solution for infusion is prepared by dissolving the drug product in either 0.9% sodium chloride solution for infusion or 5% glucose solution for infusion to a final concentration of 1 to 20 mg/ml. Chemical and physical in-use stability for a prepared solution for infusion using 0.9% sodium chloride solution has been demonstrated for 3 hours at up to 25°C or 24 hours under refrigerated conditions (2-8°C).
From a microbiological point of view, unless the method of opening/reconstitution/ dilution precludes the risk of microbiological contamination, the product should be used immediately.
If not used immediately in-use storage times and conditions are the responsibility of the user.
The infusion solutions prepared using 5% glucose should be used immediately.
Do not freeze the reconstituted solution.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01DH02 - meropenem ; Belongs to the class of carbapenems. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for soln for inj or infusion (vial) (white or light yellow powder) 500 mg x 20 mL x 10's.
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