Noxafil

Noxafil

posaconazole

Manufacturer:

MSD

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Posaconazole.
Description
Each ml of oral suspension contains 40 mg of posaconazole.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Polysorbate 80, Simeticone, Sodium benzoate (E211), Sodium citrate dihydrate, Citric acid monohydrate, Glycerol, Xanthan gum, Liquid glucose, Titanium dioxide (E171), Artificial cherry flavour containing benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol, Purified water.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antimycotics for systemic use, Triazole derivatives. ATC code: J02AC04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Posaconazole inhibits the enzyme lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), which catalyses an essential step in ergosterol biosynthesis.
Combination with other antifungal agents: The use of combination antifungal therapies should not decrease the efficacy of either posaconazole or the other therapies; however, there is currently no clinical evidence that combination therapy will provide an added benefit.
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic relationships: A correlation between total medicinal product exposure divided by MIC (AUC/MIC) and clinical outcome was observed. The critical ratio for subjects with Aspergillus infections was ~200. It is particularly important to try to ensure that maximal plasma levels are achieved in patients infected with Aspergillus (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacokinetics as follows on recommended dose regimens and the effects of food on absorption).
Clinical experience: Invasive aspergillosis: Oral posaconazole 800 mg/day in divided doses was evaluated for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients with disease refractory to amphotericin B (including liposomal formulations) or itraconazole or in patients who were intolerant of these medicinal products in a non-comparative salvage therapy trial. Clinical outcomes were compared with those in an external control group derived from a retrospective review of medical records. The external control group included 86 patients treated with available therapy (as previously mentioned) mostly at the same time and at the same sites as the patients treated with posaconazole. Most of the cases of aspergillosis were considered to be refractory to prior therapy in both the posaconazole group (88%) and in the external control group (79%).
As shown in Table 1, a successful response (complete or partial resolution) at the end of treatment was seen in 42% of posaconazole-treated patients compared to 26% of the external group. However, this was not a prospective, randomised controlled study and so all comparisons with the external control group should be viewed with caution. (See Table 1.)

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Other Serious Fungal Pathogens: Posaconazole has been shown to be effective against the following additional pathogens when other therapy had been ineffective or when the patient had developed intolerance of the prior therapy: Zygomycosis: Successful responses to posaconazole therapy were noted in 7/13 (54%) of patients with zygomycete infections. Sites of infection included the sinuses, lung, and skin. Organisms included Rhizopus, Mucor and Rhizomucor. Most of the patients had underlying haematological malignancies, half of which required a bone marrow transplant. Half of the patients were enrolled with intolerance to previous therapy and the other half as a result of disease that was refractory to prior therapy. Three patients were noted to have disseminated disease, one of which had a successful outcome after failing amphotericin B therapy.
Fusarium spp.: 11 of 24 (46%) patients who had proven or probable fusariosis were successfully treated with posaconazole 800 mg/day in divided doses for a median of 124 days and up to 212 days. Among eighteen patients who were intolerant or had infections refractory to amphotericin B or itraconazole, seven patients were classed as responders.
Chromoblastomycosis/Mycetoma: 9 of 11 (82%) patients were successfully treated with posaconazole 800 mg/day in divided doses for a median of 268 days and up to 377 days. Five of these patients had chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi and 4 had mycetoma, mostly due to Madurella species.
Coccidioidomycosis: 11 of 16 (69%) patients were successfully treated (at the end of treatment complete or partial resolution of signs and symptoms present at baseline) with posaconazole 800 mg/day in divided doses for a median of 296 days and up to 460 days.
Treatment of azole-susceptible Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC): A randomised, evaluator-blind, controlled study was completed in HIV-infected patients with azole-susceptible oropharyngeal candidiasis (most patients studied had C. albicans isolated at baseline). The primary efficacy variable was the clinical success rate (defined as cure or improvement) after 14 days of treatment. Patients were treated with posaconazole or fluconazole oral suspension (both posaconazole and fluconazole were given as follows: 100 mg twice a day for 1 day followed by 100 mg once a day for 13 days).
The clinical response rates from the previous study are shown in Table 2.
Posaconazole was shown to be non-inferior to fluconazole for clinical success rates at Day 14 as well as 4 weeks after the end of treatment. (See Table 2.)

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Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs) (Studies 316 and 1899): Two randomised, controlled prophylaxis studies were conducted among patients at high risk for developing invasive fungal infections.
Study 316 was a randomised, double-blind trial of posaconazole oral suspension (200 mg three times a day) versus fluconazole capsules (400 mg once daily) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFIs at 16 weeks post-randomization as determined by an independent, blinded external expert panel. A key secondary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFIs during the on-treatment period (first dose to last dose of study medicinal product + 7 days). The majority (377/600, [63%]) of patients included had Acute Grade 2 or 3 or chronic extensive (195/600, [32.5%]) GVHD at study start. The mean duration of therapy was 80 days for posaconazole and 77 days for fluconazole.
Study 1899 was a randomised, evaluator-blinded study of posaconazole oral suspension (200 mg three times a day) versus fluconazole suspension (400 mg once daily) or itraconazole oral solution (200 mg twice a day) in neutropenic patients who were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFIs as determined by an independent, blinded external expert panel during the on-treatment period. A key secondary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFIs at 100 days post-randomization. New diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia was the most common underlying condition (435/602, [72%]). The mean duration of therapy was 29 days for posaconazole and 25 days for fluconazole/itraconazole.
In both prophylaxis studies, aspergillosis was the most common breakthrough infection. See Table 3 and 4 for results from both studies. There were fewer breakthrough Aspergillus infections in patients receiving posaconazole prophylaxis when compared to control patients. (See Tables 3 and 4.)

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In Study 1899, a significant decrease in all cause mortality in favour of posaconazole was observed [POS 49/304 (16%) vs. FLU/ITZ 67/298 (22%) p=0.048]. Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the probability of survival up to day 100 after randomization, was significantly higher for posaconazole recipients; this survival benefit was demonstrated when the analysis considered all causes of death (P=0.0354) as well as IFI-related deaths (P=0.0209).
In Study 316, overall mortality was similar (POS, 25%; FLU, 28%); however, the proportion of IFI-related deaths was significantly lower in the POS group (4/301) compared with the FLU group (12/299; P=0.0413).
Use in paediatric patients: Sixteen patients 8-17 years of age were treated with 800 mg/day in a study for invasive fungal infections (Study 0041). Based on the available data in 16 of these paediatric patients, the safety profile appears to be similar to patients ≥18 years of age.
Additionally, twelve patients 13-17 years of age received 600 mg/day for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections (Studies 316 and 1899). The safety profile in these patients <18 years of age appears similar to the safety profile observed in adults. Based on pharmacokinetic data in 10 of these paediatric patients, the pharmacokinetic profile appears to be similar to patients ≥18 years of age. In a study (Study 03579) of 136 neutropenic paediatric patients 11 months-17 years treated with posaconazole oral suspension at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day divided TID, approximately 50% met the prespecified target (Day 7 Cav between 500 ng/mL-2,500 ng/mL) (see Pharmacokinetics as follows).
Safety and efficacy in paediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.
Electrocardiogram evaluation: Multiple, time-matched ECGs collected over a 12 hour period were obtained before and during administration of posaconazole (400 mg twice daily with high fat meals) from 173 healthy male and female volunteers aged 18 to 85 years. No clinically relevant changes in the mean QTc (Fridericia) interval from baseline were observed.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Posaconazole is absorbed with a median tmax of 3 hours (fed patients). The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole are linear following single and multiple dose administration of up to 800 mg when taken with a high fat meal. No further increases in exposure were observed when doses above 800 mg daily were administered to patients and healthy volunteers. In the fasting state, AUC increased less than in proportion to dose above 200 mg. In healthy volunteers under fasting conditions, dividing the total daily dose (800 mg) into 200 mg four times daily compared to 400 mg twice daily, was shown to increase posaconazole exposure by 58% over 48 hours.
Effect of food on oral absorption in healthy volunteers: The AUC of posaconazole is about 2.6 times greater when administered with a non-fat meal or nutritional supplement (14 grams fat) and 4 times greater when administered with a high-fat meal (~50 grams fat) relative to the fasted state. Posaconazole should be administered with food or a nutritional supplement (see Dosage & Administration).
Distribution: Posaconazole is slowly absorbed and slowly eliminated with a large apparent volume of distribution (1,774 litres) and is highly protein bound (>98%), predominantly to serum albumin.
Metabolism: Posaconazole does not have any major circulating metabolites and its concentrations are unlikely to be altered by inhibitors of CYP450 enzymes. Of the circulating metabolites, the majority are glucuronide conjugates of posaconazole with only minor amounts of oxidative (CYP450 mediated) metabolites observed. The excreted metabolites in urine and faeces account for approximately 17% of the administered radiolabelled dose.
Excretion: Posaconazole is slowly eliminated with a mean half-life (t½) of 35 hours (range 20 to 66 hours). After administration of 14C-posaconazole, radioactivity was predominantly recovered in the faeces (77% of the radiolabelled dose) with the major component being parent compound (66% of the radiolabelled dose). Renal clearance is a minor elimination pathway, with 14% of the radiolabelled dose excreted in urine (<0.2% of the radiolabelled dose is parent compound). Steady-state is attained following 7 to 10 days of multiple-dose administration.
Pharmacokinetics in special populations: Children (<18 years): Following administration of 800 mg per day of posaconazole as a divided dose for treatment of invasive fungal infections, mean trough plasma concentrations from 12 patients 8-17 years of age (776 ng/ml) were similar to concentrations from 194 patients 18-64 years of age (817 ng/ml). Similarly, in the prophylaxis studies, the mean steady-state posaconazole average concentration (Cav) was comparable among ten adolescents (13-17 years of age) to Cav achieved in adults (≥18 years of age). In a study of 136 neutropenic paediatric patients 11 months-17 years treated with posaconazole oral suspension at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day divided TID, approximately 50% met the prespecified target (Day 7 Cav between 500 ng/mL-2,500 ng/mL). In general, exposures tended to be higher in the older patients (7 to <18 years) than in younger patients (2 to <7 years).
Gender: The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole are comparable in men and women.
Elderly (≥65 years): An increase in Cmax (26%) and AUC (29%) was observed in elderly subjects (24 subjects ≥65 years of age) relative to younger subjects (24 subjects 18-45 years of age). However, in clinical efficacy trials, the safety profile of posaconazole between the young and elderly patients was similar.
Race: There was a slight decrease (16%) in the AUC and Cmax of posaconazole in Black subjects relative to Caucasian subjects. However, the safety profile of posaconazole between the Black and Caucasian subjects was similar.
Weight: Pharmacokinetic modeling with an oral tablet formulation suggests that patients weighing greater than 120 kg may have lower posaconazole exposure. It is, therefore, suggested to closely monitor for breakthrough fungal infections in patients weighing more than 120 kg. Patients with a low body weight (<60 kg) are more likely to experience higher plasma concentrations of posaconazole and should be closely monitored for adverse events.
Renal impairment: Following single-dose administration, there was no effect of mild and moderate renal impairment (n=18, Clcr ≥20 ml/min/1.73 m2) on posaconazole pharmacokinetics; therefore, no dose adjustment is required. In subjects with severe renal impairment (n=6, Clcr <20 ml/min/1.73 m2), the AUC of posaconazole was highly variable [>96% CV (coefficient of variance)] compared to other renal groups [<40% CV]. However, as posaconazole is not significantly renally eliminated, an effect of severe renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole is not expected and no dose adjustment is recommended. Posaconazole is not removed by haemodialysis.
Hepatic impairment: After a single oral dose of 400 mg posaconazole oral suspension to patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment (six per group), the mean AUC was 1.3 to 1.6-fold higher compared to that for matched control subjects with normal hepatic function. Unbound concentrations were not determined and it cannot be excluded that there is a larger increase in unbound posaconazole exposure than the observed 60% increase in total AUC. The elimination half-life (t½) was prolonged from approximately 27 hours up to ~43 hours in respective groups. No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild to severe hepatic impairment but caution is advised due to the potential for higher plasma exposure.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: As observed with other azole antifungal agents, effects related to inhibition of steroid hormone synthesis were seen in repeated-dose toxicity studies with posaconazole. Adrenal suppressive effects were observed in toxicity studies in rats and dogs at exposures equal to or greater than those obtained at therapeutic doses in humans.
Neuronal phospholipidosis occurred in dogs dosed for ≥3 months at lower systemic exposures than those obtained at therapeutic doses in humans. This finding was not seen in monkeys dosed for one year. In twelve-month neurotoxicity studies in dogs and monkeys, no functional effects were observed on the central or peripheral nervous systems at systemic exposures greater than those achieved therapeutically.
Pulmonary phospholipidosis resulting in dilatation and obstruction of the alveoli was observed in the 2-year study in rats. These findings are not necessarily indicative of a potential for functional changes in humans.
No effects on electrocardiograms, including QT and QTc intervals, were seen in a repeat dose safety pharmacology study in monkeys at systemic exposures 4.6-fold greater than the exposures obtained at therapeutic doses in humans. Echocardiography revealed no indication of cardiac decompensation in a repeat dose safety pharmacology study in rats at a systemic exposure 1.4-fold greater than that achieved therapeutically. Increased systolic and arterial blood pressures (up to 29 mm-Hg) were seen in rats and monkeys at systemic exposures 1.4-fold and 4.6-fold greater, respectively, than those achieved with therapeutic doses.
Reproduction, peri- and postnatal development studies were conducted in rats. At exposures lower than those obtained at therapeutic doses in humans, posaconazole caused skeletal variations and malformations, dystocia, increased length of gestation, reduced mean litter size and postnatal viability. In rabbits, posaconazole was embryotoxic at exposures greater than those obtained at therapeutic doses. As observed with other azole antifungal agents, these effects on reproduction were considered to be due to a treatment-related effect on steroidogenesis.
Posaconazole was not genotoxic in in vitro and in vivo studies. Carcinogenicity studies did not reveal special hazards for humans.
Microbiology: Posaconazole has been shown in vitro to be active against the following microorganisms: Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. ustus), Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. inconspicua, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pseudotropicalis), Coccidioides immitis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, and species of Fusarium, Rhizomucor, Mucor, and Rhizopus. The microbiological data suggest that posaconazole is active against Rhizomucor, Mucor, and Rhizopus, however the clinical data are currently too limited to assess the efficacy of posaconazole against these causative agents.
NOXAFIL exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity against some yeasts and moulds not generally responsive to azoles, or resistant to other azoles: species of Candida (including C. albicans isolates resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole; C. krusei and C. glabrata which are inherently less susceptible to fluconazole; C. lusitaniae which is inherently less susceptible to amphotericin B); Aspergillus (including isolates resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B); organisms not previously regarded as being susceptible to azoles such as the zygomycetes (e.g. species of Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus and Rhizomucor).
In vitro NOXAFIL exhibited fungicidal activity against species of: Aspergillus; dimorphic fungi (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Penicillium marneffei, Coccidioides immitis); some species of Candida.
In animal infection models NOXAFIL was active against a wide variety of fungal infections caused by moulds or yeasts. However, there was no consistent correlation between minimum inhibitory concentration and efficacy.
Resistance: Clinical isolates with decreased susceptibility to posaconazole have been identified. The principle mechanism of resistance is the acquisition of substitutions in the target protein, CYP51.
Indications/Uses
Noxafil is indicated for use in the treatment of the following fungal infections in adults (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions): Invasive aspergillosis in patients with disease that is refractory to amphotericin B or itraconazole or in patients who are intolerant of these medicinal products.
Fusariosis in patients with disease that is refractory to amphotericin B or in patients who are intolerant of amphotericin B.
Chromoblastomycosis and mycetoma in patients with disease that is refractory to itraconazole or in patients who are intolerant of itraconazole.
Coccidioidomycosis in patients with disease that is refractory to amphotericin B, itraconazole or fluconazole or in patients who are intolerant of these medicinal products.
Zygomycosis, in patients intolerant of, or with disease that is refractory to, alternative therapy.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis: as first-line therapy in patients who have severe disease or are immunocompromised, in whom response to topical therapy is expected to be poor.
Refractoriness is defined as progression of infection or failure to improve after a minimum of 7 days of prior therapeutic doses of effective antifungal therapy.
Noxafil is also indicated for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in the following patients: Patients receiving remission-induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) expected to result in prolonged neutropenia and who are at high risk of developing invasive fungal infections.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients who are undergoing high-dose immunosuppressive therapy for graft versus host disease and who are at high risk of developing invasive fungal infections.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Treatment should be initiated by a physician experienced in the management of fungal infections or in the supportive care in the high risk patients for which posaconazole is indicated as prophylaxis.
Recommended dosage is shown in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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There are limited pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe gastrointestinal dysfunction (such as severe diarrhoea). Patients who have severe diarrhoea or vomiting should be monitored closely for breakthrough fungal infections.
The oral suspension must be shaken well before use.
Use in renal impairment: An effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole is not expected and no dose adjustment is recommended (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use in hepatic impairment: There are limited pharmacokinetic data in patients with hepatic impairment; therefore, no recommendation for dose adjustment can be made. In the small number of subjects studied who had hepatic impairment, there was an increase in exposure and half-life with a decrease in hepatic function (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use in children: Safety and efficacy in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. Therefore posaconazole is not recommended for use in patients below 18 years of age (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Overdosage
During clinical trials, patients who received posaconazole doses up to 1,600 mg/day experienced no different adverse reactions from those reported with patients at the lower doses. Accidental overdose was noted in one patient who took 1,200 mg twice a day for 3 days. No adverse reactions were noted by the investigator.
Posaconazole is not removed by haemodialysis.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Co-administration with ergot alkaloids (see Interactions).
Co-administration with the CYP3A4 substrates terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozide, halofantrine or quinidine since this may result in increased plasma concentrations of these medicinal products, leading to QTc prolongation and rare occurrences of torsades de pointes (see Precautions and Interactions).
Co-administration with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin (see Interactions).
Special Precautions
Hypersensitivity: There is no information regarding cross-sensitivity between posaconazole and other azole antifungal agents. Caution should be used when prescribing Noxafil to patients with hypersensitivity to other azoles.
Hepatic toxicity: In clinical trials, there were reports of hepatic reactions (e.g. mild to moderate elevations in ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and/or clinical hepatitis) during treatment with posaconazole. Elevated liver function tests were generally reversible on discontinuation of therapy and in some instances these tests normalised without interruption of therapy. Rarely, more severe hepatic reactions including cholestasis or hepatic failure were reported in patients with serious underlying medical conditions (e.g. hematologic malignancy) during treatment with posaconazole.
Posaconazole should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment. In these patients, the prolonged elimination half-life may lead to increased exposure.
Monitoring of hepatic function: Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during Noxafil therapy must be routinely monitored for the development of more severe hepatic injury. Patient management should include laboratory evaluation of hepatic function (particularly liver function tests and bilirubin). Discontinuation of Noxafil should be considered if clinical signs and symptoms are consistent with development of liver disease.
QTc prolongation: Some azoles have been associated with prolongation of the QTc interval. Noxafil must not be administered with medicinal products that are substrates for CYP3A4 and are known to prolong the QTc interval (see Contraindications and Interactions). Noxafil should be administered with caution to patients with pro-arrhythmic conditions such as: Congenital or acquired QTc prolongation; Cardiomyopathy, especially in the presence of cardiac failure; Sinus bradycardia; Existing symptomatic arrhythmias; Concomitant use with medicinal products known to prolong the QTc interval (other than those mentioned in Contraindications).
Electrolyte disturbances, especially those involving potassium, magnesium or calcium levels, should be monitored and corrected as necessary before and during posaconazole therapy.
Posaconazole is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and should only be used under specific circumstances during treatment with other medicinal products that are metabolised by CYP3A4 (see Interactions).
Vincristine Toxicity: Concomitant administration of azole antifungals, including posaconazole, with vincristine has been associated with neurotoxicity and other serious adverse reactions, including seizures, peripheral neuropathy, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and paralytic ileus. Reserve azole antifungals, including posaconazole, for patients receiving a vinca alkaloid, including vincristine, who have no alternative antifungal treatment options (see Interactions).
Rifabutin: Concomitant use with posaconazole should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk (see Interactions).
Rifamycin antibacterials (rifampicin, rifabutin), certain anticonvulsants (phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, primidone), efavirenz and cimetidine: Posaconazole concentrations may be significantly lowered in combination; therefore, concomitant use with posaconazole should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk (see Interactions).
Gastrointestinal dysfunction: There are limited pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe gastrointestinal dysfunction (such as severe diarrhoea). Patients who have severe diarrhoea or vomiting should be monitored closely for breakthrough fungal infections.
This medicinal product contains approximately 1.75 g of glucose per 5 ml of suspension. Patients with glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Since certain adverse reactions (e.g. dizziness, somnolence, etc.) have been reported with posaconazole use, which potentially may affect driving/operating machinery, caution needs to be used.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
There is insufficient information on the use of posaconazole in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown.
Women of childbearing potential have to use effective contraception during treatment. Posaconazole must not be used during pregnancy unless the benefit to the mother clearly outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.
Posaconazole is excreted into the milk of lactating rats (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). The excretion of posaconazole in human breast milk has not been investigated. Breast-feeding must be stopped on initiation of treatment with posaconazole.
Adverse Reactions
The safety of posaconazole oral suspension has been assessed in >2,400 patients and healthy volunteers enrolled in clinical trials and from post-marketing experience. The most frequently reported serious related adverse reactions included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pyrexia, and increased bilirubin.
The safety of posaconazole tablet has been assessed in 336 patients and healthy volunteers enrolled in clinical trials. The safety profile of tablets was similar to that of the oral suspension. (See Table 6.)

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Hepatobiliary disorders: During post-marketing surveillance of posaconazole oral suspension, severe hepatic injury with fatal outcome has been reported (see Precautions).
Drug Interactions
Effects of other medicinal products on posaconazole: Posaconazole is metabolised via UDP glucuronidation (phase 2 enzymes) and is a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in vitro. Therefore, inhibitors (e.g. verapamil, ciclosporin, quinidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin, etc.) or inducers (e.g. rifampicin, rifabutin, certain anticonvulsants, etc.) of these clearance pathways may increase or decrease posaconazole plasma concentrations, respectively.
Rifabutin (300 mg once a day) decreased the Cmax (maximum plasma concentration) and AUC (area under the plasma concentration time curve) of posaconazole to 57% and 51%, respectively. Concomitant use of posaconazole and rifabutin and similar inducers (e.g. rifampicin) should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk. See also as follows regarding the effect of posaconazole on rifabutin plasma levels.
Efavirenz (400 mg once a day) decreased the Cmax and AUC of posaconazole by 45% and 50%, respectively. Concomitant use of posaconazole and efavirenz should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk.
Fosamprenavir: Combining fosamprenavir with posaconazole may lead to decreased posaconazole plasma concentrations. If concomitant administration is required, close monitoring for breakthrough fungal infections is recommended. Repeat dose administration of fosamprenavir (700 mg BID x 10 days) decreased the Cmax and AUC of posaconazole (200 mg QD on the 1st day, 200 mg BID on the 2nd day, then 400 mg BID x 8 Days) by 21% and 23%, respectively.
Phenytoin (200 mg once a day) decreased the Cmax and AUC of posaconazole by 41% and 50%, respectively. Concomitant use of posaconazole and phenytoin and similar inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, primidone) should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk.
H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors: Posaconazole plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC) were reduced by 39% when posaconazole was administered with cimetidine (400 mg twice a day) due to reduced absorption possibly secondary to a decrease in gastric acid production. Concomitant use of posaconazole and cimetidine should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk. The effect of other H2 receptor antagonists (e.g. famotidine, ranitidine) and proton pump inhibitors (e.g. omeprazole) that may suppress gastric acidity for several hours on plasma levels of posaconazole has not been studied but a reduction in bioavailability may occur so that co-administration should be avoided if possible.
Effects of posaconazole on other medicinal products: Posaconazole is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. Posaconazole 200 mg once daily increased the exposure (AUC) of the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam after intravenous administration by 83%. Caution is advised during co-administration of CYP3A4 substrates administered intravenously and the dose of the CYP3A4 substrate may need to be reduced. The effect of posaconazole on plasma concentrations of orally administered CYP3A4 substrates is not known, but a much larger effect than that observed for intravenously administered substrates could be expected. If Noxafil is used concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates that are administered orally, and for which an increase in plasma concentrations may be associated with unacceptable adverse events, plasma concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate or adverse events should be closely monitored and the dose adjusted as needed.
Terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozide, halofantrine and quinidine (CYP3A4 substrates): Co-administration of posaconazole and terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozide, halofantrine or quinidine is contraindicated. Co-administration may result in increased plasma concentrations of these medicinal products, leading to QTc prolongation and rare occurrences of torsades de pointes (see Contraindications).
Ergot alkaloids: Posaconazole may increase the plasma concentration of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine and dihydroergotamine), which may lead to ergotism. Co-administration of posaconazole and ergot alkaloids is contraindicated (see Contraindications).
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors metabolised through CYP3A4 (e.g. simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin): Posaconazole may substantially increase plasma levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are metabolised by CYP3A4. Treatment with these HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be discontinued during treatment with posaconazole as increased levels have been associated with rhabdomyolysis (see Contraindications).
Vinca alkaloids: Most of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) are substrates of CYP3A4. Concomitant administration of azole antifungals, including posaconazole, with vincristine has been associated with serious adverse reactions (see Precautions). Posaconazole may increase the plasma concentrations of vinca alkaloids which may lead to neurotoxicity and other serious adverse reactions. Therefore, reserve azole antifungals, including posaconazole, for patients receiving a vinca alkaloid, including vincristine, who have no alternative antifungal treatment options.
Rifabutin: Posaconazole increased the Cmax and AUC of rifabutin by 31% and 72%, respectively. Concomitant use of posaconazole and rifabutin should be avoided unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the risk (see also as previously mentioned regarding the effect of rifabutin on plasma levels of posaconazole). If these medicinal products are co-administered, careful monitoring of full blood counts and adverse events related to increased rifabutin levels (e.g. uveitis) is recommended.
Ciclosporin: In heart transplant patients on stable doses of ciclosporin, posaconazole 200 mg once daily increased ciclosporin concentrations requiring dose reductions. Cases of elevated ciclosporin levels resulting in serious adverse events, including nephrotoxicity and one fatal case of leukoencephalopathy, were reported in clinical efficacy studies. When initiating treatment with posaconazole in patients already receiving ciclosporin, the dose of ciclosporin should be reduced (e.g. to about three quarters of the current dose). Thereafter blood levels of ciclosporin should be monitored carefully during co-administration, and upon discontinuation of posaconazole treatment, and the dose of ciclosporin should be adjusted as necessary.
Tacrolimus: Posaconazole increased Cmax and AUC of tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg body weight single dose) by 121% and 358%, respectively. Clinically significant interactions resulting in hospitalisation and/or posaconazole discontinuation were reported in clinical efficacy studies. When initiating posaconazole treatment in patients already receiving tacrolimus, the dose of tacrolimus should be reduced (e.g. to about one third of the current dose). Thereafter blood levels of tacrolimus should be monitored carefully during co-administration, and upon discontinuation of posaconazole, and the dose of tacrolimus should be adjusted as necessary.
Sirolimus: Repeat dose administration of posaconazole oral suspension (400 mg twice daily for 16 days) increased the Cmax and AUC of sirolimus (2 mg single dose) an average of 6.7-fold and 8.9-fold (range 3.1 to 17.5-fold), respectively, in healthy subjects. The effect of posaconazole on sirolimus in patients is unknown, but is expected to be variable due to the variable posaconazole exposure in patients. Coadministration of posaconazole with sirolimus is not recommended and should be avoided whenever possible. If it is considered that co-administration is unavoidable, then it is recommended that the dose of sirolimus should be greatly reduced at the time of initiation of posaconazole therapy and that there should be very frequent monitoring of trough concentrations of sirolimus in whole blood. Sirolimus concentrations should be measured upon initiation, during co-administration, and at discontinuation of posaconazole treatment, with sirolimus doses adjusted accordingly. It should be noted that the relationship between sirolimus trough concentration and AUC is changed during coadministration with posaconazole. As a result, sirolimus trough concentrations that fall within the usual therapeutic range may result in sub-therapeutic levels. Therefore trough concentrations that fall in the upper part of the usual therapeutic range should be targeted and careful attention should be paid to clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters and tissue biopsies.
HIV Protease inhibitors: As HIV protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 substrates, it is expected that posaconazole will increase plasma levels of these antiretroviral agents. Following co-administration of posaconazole oral suspension (400 mg twice daily) with atazanavir (300 mg once daily) for 7 days in healthy subjects Cmax and AUC of atazanavir increased by an average of 2.6-fold and 3.7-fold (range 1.2 to 26-fold), respectively. Following co-administration of posaconazole oral suspension (400 mg twice daily) with atazanavir and ritonavir (300/100 mg once daily) for 7 days in healthy subjects Cmax and AUC of atazanavir increased by an average of 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold (range 0.9 to 4.1-fold), respectively. The addition of posaconazole to therapy with atazanavir or with atazanavir plus ritonavir was associated with increases in plasma bilirubin levels. Frequent monitoring for adverse reactions and toxicity related to antiretroviral agents that are substrates of CYP3A4 is recommended during coadministration with posaconazole.
Midazolam and other benzodiazepines metabolised by CYP3A4: In a study in healthy volunteers posaconazole oral suspension (200 mg once daily for 10 days) increased the exposure (AUC) of intravenous midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) by 83%. In another study in healthy volunteers, repeat dose administration of posaconazole oral suspension (200 mg twice daily for 7 days) increased the Cmax and AUC of intravenous midazolam (0.4 mg single dose) by an average of 1.3- and 4.6-fold (range 1.7 to 6.4-fold), respectively; Posaconazole oral suspension 400 mg twice daily for 7 days increased the intravenous midazolam Cmax and AUC by 1.6 and 6.2-fold (range 1.6 to 7.6-fold), respectively. Both doses of posaconazole increased Cmax and AUC of oral midazolam (2 mg single oral dose) by 2.2 and 4.5-fold, respectively. In addition, posaconazole oral suspension (200 mg or 400 mg) prolonged the mean terminal half-life of midazolam from approximately 3-4 hours to 8-10 hours during co-administration.
Due to the risk of prolonged sedation it is recommended that dose adjustments should be considered when posaconazole is administered concomitantly with any benzodiazepine that is metabolised by CYP3A4 (e.g. midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam).
Calcium channel blockers metabolised through CYP3A4 (e.g. diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine, nisoldipine): Frequent monitoring for adverse events and toxicity related to calcium channel blockers is recommended during co-administration with posaconazole. Dose adjustment of calcium channel blockers may be required.
Digoxin: Administration of other azoles has been associated with increases in digoxin levels. Therefore, posaconazole may increase plasma concentration of digoxin and digoxin levels need to be monitored when initiating or discontinuing posaconazole treatment.
Sulfonylureas: Glucose concentrations decreased in some healthy volunteers when glipizide was co-administered with posaconazole. Monitoring of glucose concentrations is recommended in diabetic patients.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal: No special requirements.
Storage
Shelf life: After first opening the container: 4 weeks.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J02AC04 - posaconazole ; Belongs to the class of triazole derivatives. Used in the systemic treatment of mycotic infections.
Presentation/Packing
Oral susp 40 mg/mL (white suspension) x 105 mL.
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