Paracetamol B. Braun Solution for Infusion

Paracetamol B. Braun Solution for Infusion

paracetamol

Manufacturer:

B. Braun

Distributor:

DKSH
/
Four Star
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Paracetamol.
Description
One ml solution for infusion contains 10 mg paracetamol.
Each 50 ml bottle contains 500 mg paracetamol.
Each 100 ml bottle contains 1 000 mg paracetamol.
Theoretical Osmolarity: 305 mOsm/l.
pH: 4.5 - 5.5
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Mannitol, Sodium citrate dihydrate, Acetic acid glacial (for pH adjustment), Water for injections.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Analgesics; Other analgesics and antipyretics; Anilides. ATC Code: N02BE01.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: The precise mechanism of the analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol has still to be established; it may involve central and peripheral actions.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Paracetamol B. Braun provides onset of pain relief within 5 to 10 minutes after the start of administration. The peak analgesic effect is obtained in 1 hour and the duration of this effect is usually 4 to 6 hours.
Paracetamol B. Braun reduces fever within 30 minutes after the start of administration with a duration of the antipyretic effect of at least 6 hours.
Pharmacokinetics: Adults: Absorption: Paracetamol pharmacokinetics is linear up to 2 g after single administration and after repeated administration during 24 hours.
The bioavailability of paracetamol following infusion of 500 mg and 1 g of Paracetamol B. Braun is similar to that observed following infusion of 1 g and 2 g propacetamol (containing 500 mg and 1 g paracetamol respectively). The maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of paracetamol observed at the end of 15-minutes intravenous infusion of 500 mg and 1 g of Paracetamol B. Braun is about 15 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml respectively.
Distribution: The volume of distribution of paracetamol is approximately 1 l/kg.
Paracetamol is not extensively bound to plasma proteins.
Following infusion of 1 g paracetamol, significant concentrations of paracetamol (about 1.5 μg/ml) were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid at and after the 20th minute following infusion.
Biotransformation: Paracetamol is metabolised mainly in the liver following two major hepatic pathways: glucuronic acid conjugation and sulphuric acid conjugation. The latter route is rapidly saturable at doses that exceed the therapeutic doses. A small fraction (less than 4 %) is metabolised by cytochrome P450 to a reactive intermediate (N-acetyl benzoquinone imine) which, under normal conditions of use, is rapidly detoxified by reduced glutathione and eliminated in the urine after conjugation with cysteine and mercapturic acid. However, during massive overdosing, the quantity of this toxic metabolite is increased.
Elimination: The metabolites of paracetamol are mainly excreted in the urine. 90 % of the dose administered is excreted within 24 hours, mainly as glucuronide (60 - 80 %) and sulphate (20 - 30 %) conjugates. Less than 5 % is eliminated unchanged. Plasma half-life is 2.7 hours and total body clearance is 18 l/h.
Newborn infants, infants and children: The pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol observed in infants and children are similar to those observed in adults, except for the plasma half-life that is slightly shorter (1.5 to 2 h) than in adults. In newborn infants, the plasma half-life is longer than in infants i.e. around 3.5 hours. Newborn infants, infants and children up to 10 years excrete significantly less glucuronide and more sulphate conjugates than adults. (See Table 1.)

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Special populations: Renal insufficiency: In cases of severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance 10 - 30 ml/min), the elimination of paracetamol is slightly delayed, the elimination half-life ranging from 2 to 5.3 hours. For the glucuronide and sulphate conjugates, the elimination rate is 3 times slower in subjects with severe renal impairment than in healthy subjects. Therefore when giving paracetamol to patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min), the minimum interval between each administration should be increased to 6 hours (see Dosage & Administration).
Elderly subjects: The pharmacokinetics and the metabolism of paracetamol are not modified in elderly subjects. No dose adjustment is required in this population.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans beyond the information included in other sections of the SmPC.
Studies on local tolerance of paracetamol in rats and rabbits showed good tolerability. Absence of delayed contact hypersensitivity has been tested in guinea pigs.
Indications/Uses
Paracetamol B. Braun is indicated for: short-term treatment of moderate pain, especially following surgery; short-term treatment of fever, when administration by intravenous route is clinically justified by an urgent need to treat pain or hyperthermia and/or when other routes of administration are not possible.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The 100 ml bottle is restricted to adults, adolescents and children weighing more than 33 kg.
The 50 ml bottle is restricted to toddlers and children weighing more than 10 kg and up to 33 kg.
Posology: The dose to be administered and the bottle size to be used depend exclusively on the patient's weight. The volume to be administered must not exceed the determined dose. If applicable the desired volume must be diluted in a suitable solution for infusion prior to administration (see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage) or a syringe driver must be used.
Dosing based on patient weight (please see the dosing table here as follows): See Table 2.

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The minimum interval between each administration must be at least 4 hours.
The minimum interval between each administration in patients with severe renal insufficiency must be at least 6 hours.
No more than 4 doses to be given in 24 hours.
Severe renal insufficiency: It is recommended, when giving paracetamol to patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min), to reduce the dose and increase the minimum interval between each administration to 6 hours (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Adults with hepatocellular insufficiency, chronic alcoholism, chronic malnutrition (low reserves of hepatic glutathione), dehydration: The maximum daily dose must not exceed 3000 mg (see Precautions).
Method of administration: Take care when prescribing and administering Paracetamol B. Braun to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between milligram (mg) and milliliter (ml), which could result in accidental overdose and death. Take care to ensure the proper dose is communicated and dispensed. When writing prescriptions, include both the total dose in mg and the total dose in volume. Take care to ensure the dose is measured and administered accurately.
Intravenous use.
The paracetamol solution is administered as a 15-minute intravenous infusion.
Paracetamol B. Braun can be diluted in a 9 mg/ml (0.9 %) sodium chloride solution or 50 mg/ml (5 %) glucose solution or a combination of both solutions up to one tenth (one volume Paracetamol B. Braun into nine volumes diluent). In this case, use the diluted solution within the hour following its preparation (infusion time included).
For instructions on dilution of the medicinal product before administration, see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage.
For single use only. Any unused solution should be discarded.
Before administration, the product should be visually inspected for any particulate matter and discolouration. Only to be used if solution is clear, colourless to slightly pinkish-orangish (perception may vary) and the container and its closure are undamaged.
As for all solutions for infusion presented in containers with air space inside, it should be remembered that close monitoring is needed notably at the end of the infusion, regardless of administration route. This monitoring at the end of the infusion applies particularly for central route infusions, in order to avoid air embolism.
Overdosage
Symptoms: There is a risk of liver injury (including fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, cholestatic hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis), particularly in elderly subjects, in young children, in patients with liver disease, in cases of chronic alcoholism, in patients with chronic malnutrition and in patients receiving enzyme inducers. Overdosing may be fatal in these cases.
Symptoms generally appear within the first 24 hours and comprise: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, pallor and abdominal pain. Immediate emergency measures are necessary in case of paracetamol overdose, even when no symptoms are present.
Overdose, 7.5 g or more of paracetamol in a single administration in adults or 140 mg/kg of body weight in a single administration in children, causes hepatic cytolysis likely to induce complete and irreversible necrosis, resulting in hepatocellular insufficiency, metabolic acidosis and encephalopathy which may lead to coma and death. Simultaneously, increased levels of hepatic transaminases (AST, ALT), lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin are observed together with decreased prothrombin levels that may appear 12 to 48 hours after administration. Clinical symptoms of liver damage are usually evident initially after two days, and reach a maximum after 4 to 6 days.
Treatment: Immediate hospitalisation.
Before beginning treatment, take a blood sample for plasma paracetamol assay, as soon as possible after the overdose.
The treatment includes administration of the antidote, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) by the intravenous or oral route, if possible before the 10th hour. NAC can, however, give some degree of protection even after 10 hours, but in these cases prolonged treatment is given.
Symptomatic treatment.
Hepatic tests must be carried out at the beginning of treatment and repeated every 24 hours. In most cases hepatic transaminases restitution to normal in one to two weeks with full return of normal liver function. In very severe cases, however, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to paracetamol, propacetamol hydrochloride (prodrug of paracetamol) or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Cases of severe hepatocellular insufficiency.
Warnings
RISK OF MEDICATION ERRORS: Take care to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between milligram (mg) and milliliter (ml), which could result in accidental overdose and death (see Dosage & Administration).
Special Precautions
Prolonged or frequent use is discouraged. It is recommended that a suitable analgesic oral treatment will be used as soon as this route of administration is possible.
In order to avoid the risk of overdose, check that other medicines administered do not contain either paracetamol or propacetamol. The dose may require adjustment (see Dosage & Administration).
Doses higher than those recommended entail the risk of very serious liver damage. Clinical signs and symptoms of liver damage (including fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, cholestatic hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis) are usually first seen after two days of drug administration with a peak seen, usually after 4 - 6 days. Treatment with antidote should be given as soon as possible (see Overdosage).
Paracetamol should be used with caution in cases of: hepatocellular insufficiency; severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions); chronic alcoholism; chronic malnutrition (low reserves of hepatic glutathione); dehydration; patients suffering from a genetically caused G-6-PD deficiency (favism), the occurrence of a haemolytic anaemia is possible due to the reduced allocation of glutathione following the administration of paracetamol.
This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per container, i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Not relevant.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Clinical experience of the intravenous administration of paracetamol is limited. However, epidemiological data from the use of oral therapeutic doses of paracetamol indicate no undesirable effects in pregnancy or on the health of the foetus / newborn infant.
No reproductive studies with the intravenous form of paracetamol have been performed in animals. However, studies with the oral route did not show any malformation or foetotoxic effects.
Nevertheless, Paracetamol B. Braun should only be used during pregnancy after a careful benefit-risk assessment. In this case, the recommended posology and duration must be strictly observed.
Lactation: After oral administration, paracetamol is excreted into breast milk in small quantities. No undesirable effects on nursing infants have been reported. Consequently, Paracetamol B. Braun may be used in breast-feeding women.
Adverse Reactions
As with all paracetamol products, adverse drug reactions are rare (≥ 1/10 000 to <1/1 000) or very rare (<1/10 000). They are described as follows: See Table 3.

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Frequent adverse reactions at injection site have been reported during clinical trials (pain and burning sensation).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
Drug Interactions
Probenecid causes an almost two-fold reduction in clearance of paracetamol by inhibiting its conjugation with glucuronic acid. A reduction in the paracetamol dose should be considered if it is to be used concomitantly with probenecid.
Salicylamide may prolong the elimination half-life of paracetamol.
Caution should be taken with the concomitant intake of enzyme-inducing substances (see Overdosage).
Concomitant use of paracetamol (4 000 mg per day for at least 4 days) with oral anticoagulants may lead to slight variations of INR values. In this case, increased monitoring of INR values should be conducted during the period of concomitant use as well as for 1 week after paracetamol treatment has been discontinued.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: No special requirements for disposal.
Paracetamol B. Braun can be diluted in 9 mg/ml (0.9 %) sodium chloride solution for infusion or 50 mg/ml (5 %) glucose solution for infusion or a combination of both solutions up to one tenth. For shelf life after dilution see Shelf life under Storage.
Incompatibilities: Paracetamol B. Braun must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those previously mentioned in Special precautions for disposal and other handling.
Storage
Do not store above 25 °C.
Keep the container in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
For storage conditions after first opening and after dilution of the medicinal product, see Shelf life as follows.
Shelf life: Unopened: 24 months.
After first opening: The infusion should commence immediately after connecting the container to the giving set.
After dilution: Chemical and physical in use stability (including infusion time) in the solutions listed in Special precautions for disposal and other handling has been demonstrated for 48 hours at 23° C.
From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user.
ATC Classification
N02BE01 - paracetamol ; Belongs to the class of anilide preparations. Used to relieve pain and fever.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for infusion (bottle) (clear and colourless to slightly pinkish-orangish) 500 mg/50 mL x 10's. 1,000 mg/100 mL x 10's.
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