Prezista

Prezista Mechanism of Action

darunavir

Manufacturer:

Janssen

Distributor:

DCH Auriga - Healthcare
/
Four Star
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Darunavir is an HIV-1 antiviral drug [see Microbiology as follows].
Pharmacodynamics: In an open-label, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, four-way crossover trial, 40 healthy subjects were administered supratherapeutic doses of darunavir/ritonavir 1600/100 mg once daily and 800/100 mg twice daily for seven days.
At the mean maximum darunavir concentration of 6599 ng/mL observed in this study, the mean increase in QTcF was 2.2 ms with a 90% two-sided confidence interval (CI) of -2.0 to 6.3 ms. When evaluating the 2-sided 90% CI on the time-matched mean changes in QTcF versus placebo control, the upper bounds of both darunavir/ritonavir groups never exceeded the 10 ms boundary. In the setting of this trial, darunavir/ritonavir did not appear to prolong the QTc interval.
Clinical Studies: Description of Adult Clinical Studies: The evidence of efficacy of PREZISTA/ritonavir is based on the analyses of 192-week data from a randomized, controlled open-label Phase 3 trial in treatment-naïve (TMC114-C211) HIV-1-infected adult subjects and 96-week data from a randomized, controlled, open-label Phase 3 trial in antiretroviral treatment-experienced (TMC114-C214) HIV-1-infected adult subjects. In addition, 96-week data are included from 2 randomized, controlled Phase 2b trials, TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202, in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adult subjects.
Treatment-Naïve Adult Subjects: Study TMC114-C211: Study TMC114-C211 is a randomized, controlled, open-label Phase 3 trial comparing PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily versus lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg per day (given as a twice daily or as a once daily regimen) in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adult subjects. Both arms used a fixed background regimen consisting of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg once daily (TDF) and emtricitabine 200 mg once daily (FTC).
HIV-1-infected subjects who were eligible for this trial had plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than or equal to 5000 copies/mL. Randomization was stratified by screening plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA less than 100,000 copies/mL or greater than or equal to 100,000 copies/mL) and screening CD4+ cell count (less than 200 cells/mm3 or greater than or equal to 200 cells/mm3). Virologic response was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies/mL. Analyses included 689 subjects in Study TMC114-C211 who had completed 192 weeks of treatment or discontinued earlier.
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the PREZISTA/ritonavir arm and the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (see Table 1). Table 1 compares the demographic and baseline characteristics between subjects in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily arm and subjects in the lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg per day arm in Study TMC114-C211. (See Table 1.)

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Week 192 outcomes for subjects on PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily from Study TMC114-C211 are shown in Table 2. (See Table 2.)

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In Study TMC114-C211 at 192 weeks of treatment, the median increase from baseline in CD4+ cell counts was 258 cells/mm3 in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily arm and 263 cells/mm3 in the lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg per day arm. Of the PREZISTA/ritonavir subjects with a confirmed virologic response of < 50 copies/mL at Week 48, 81% remained undetectable at Week 192 versus 68% with lopinavir/ritonavir. In the 192 week analysis, statistical superiority of the PREZISTA/ritonavir regimen over the lopinavir/ritonavir regimen was demonstrated for both ITT and OP populations.
Treatment-Experienced Adult Subjects: Study TMC114-C229: Study TMC114-C229 is a randomized, open-label trial comparing PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily to PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with screening genotype resistance test showing no darunavir resistance associated substitutions (i.e. V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L, I54M, T74P, L76V, I84V, L89V) and a screening viral load of greater than 1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Both arms used an optimized background regimen consisting of greater than or equal to 2 NRTIs selected by the investigator.
HIV-1-infected subjects who were eligible for this trial were on a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen (HAART) for at least 12 weeks. Virologic response was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies/mL. Analyses included 590 subjects who had completed 48 weeks of treatment or discontinued earlier.
Table 3 compares the demographic and baseline characteristics between subjects in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily arm and subjects in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm in Study TMC114-C229. No imbalances between the 2 arms were noted. (See Table 3.)

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Week 48 outcomes for subjects on PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily from Study TMC114-C229 are shown in Table 4. (See Table 4.)

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The mean increase from baseline in CD4+ cell counts was comparable for both treatment arms (108 cells/mm3 and 112 cells/mm3 in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily arm and the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm, respectively).
Study TMC114-C214: Study TMC114-C214 is a randomized, controlled, open-label Phase 3 trial comparing PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily versus lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily in antiretroviral treatment-experienced, lopinavir/ritonavir-naïve HIV-1-infected adult subjects. Both arms used an optimized background regimen (OBR) consisting of at least 2 antiretrovirals (NRTIs with or without NNRTIs).
HIV-1-infected subjects who were eligible for this trial had plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than 1000 copies/mL and were on a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen (HAART) for at least 12 weeks. Virologic response was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 400 copies/mL. Analyses included 595 subjects in Study TMC114-C214 who had completed 96 weeks of treatment or discontinued earlier.
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the PREZISTA/ritonavir arm and the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (see Table 5). Table 5 compares the demographic and baseline characteristics between subjects in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm and subjects in the lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily arm in Study TMC114-C214. (See Table 5.)

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Week 96 outcomes for subjects on PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily from Study TMC114-C214 are shown in Table 6. (See Table 6.)

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In Study TMC114-C214 at 96 weeks of treatment, the median increase from baseline in CD4+ cell counts was 81 cells/mm3 in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm and 93 cells/mm3 in the lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily arm.
Studies TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202: Studies TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202 are randomized, controlled, Phase 2b trials in adult subjects with a high level of PI resistance consisting of 2 parts: an initial partially-blinded, dose-finding part and a second long-term part in which all subjects randomized to PREZISTA/ritonavir received the recommended dose of 600/100 mg twice daily.
HIV-1-infected subjects who were eligible for these trials had plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than 1000 copies/mL, had prior treatment with PI(s), NNRTI(s) and NRTI(s), had at least one primary PI mutation (D30N, M46I/L, G48V, I50L/V, V82A/F/S/T, I84V, L90M) at screening, and were on a stable PI-containing regimen at screening for at least 8 weeks. Randomization was stratified by the number of PI mutations, screening viral load, and the use of enfuvirtide.
The virologic response rate was evaluated in subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir plus an OBR versus a control group receiving an investigator-selected PI(s) regimen plus an OBR. Prior to randomization, PI(s) and OBR were selected by the investigator based on genotypic resistance testing and prior ARV history. The OBR consisted of at least 2 NRTIs with or without enfuvirtide. Selected PI(s) in the control arm included: lopinavir in 36%, (fos)amprenavir in 34%, saquinavir in 35% and atazanavir in 17%; 98% of control subjects received a ritonavir boosted PI regimen out of which 23% of control subjects used dual-boosted PIs. Approximately 47% of all subjects used enfuvirtide, and 35% of the use was in subjects who were ENF-naïve. Virologic response was defined as a decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load of at least 1 log10 versus baseline.
In the pooled analysis for TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202, demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the PREZISTA/ritonavir arm and the comparator PI arm (see Table 7). Table 7 compares the demographic and baseline characteristics between subjects in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm and subjects in the comparator PI arm in the pooled analysis of Studies TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202. (See Table 7.)

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Week 96 outcomes for subjects on the recommended dose PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily from the pooled Studies TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202 are shown in Table 8. (See Table 8.)

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In the pooled Studies TMC114-C213 and TMC114-C202 through 48 weeks of treatment, the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies/mL in the arm receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily compared to the comparator PI arm was 55.0% and 14.5%, respectively. In addition, the mean changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline were -1.69 log10 copies/mL in the arm receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily and -0.37 log10 copies/mL for the comparator PI arm. The mean increase from baseline in CD4+ cell counts was higher in the arm receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily (103 cells/mm3) than in the comparator PI arm (17 cells/mm3).
Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetic profile, safety and antiviral activity of PREZISTA/ritonavir were evaluated in 3 randomized, open-label, multicenter studies.
Study TMC114-C212: Treatment-experienced pediatric subjects between the ages of 6 and less than 18 years and weighing at least 20 kg were stratified according to their weight (greater than or equal to 20 kg to less than 30 kg, greater than or equal to 30 kg to less than 40 kg, greater than or equal to 40 kg) and received PREZISTA tablets with either ritonavir capsules or oral solution plus background therapy consisting of at least two non-protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. Eighty patients were randomized and received at least one dose of PREZISTA/ritonavir. Pediatric subjects who were at risk of discontinuing therapy due to intolerance of ritonavir oral solution (e.g., taste aversion) were allowed to switch to the capsule formulation. Of the 44 pediatric subjects taking ritonavir oral solution, 23 subjects switched to the 100 mg capsule formulation and exceeded the weight-based ritonavir dose without changes in observed safety.
The 80 randomized pediatric subjects had a median age of 14 (range 6 to less than 18 years), and were 71% male, 54% Caucasian, 30% Black, 9% Hispanic and 8% other. The mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.64 log10 copies/mL, and the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 330 cells/mm3 (range: 6 to 1505 cells/mm3). Overall, 38% of pediatric subjects had baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL. Most pediatric subjects (79%) had previous use of at least one NNRTI and 96% of pediatric subjects had previously used at least one PI.
Seventy-seven pediatric subjects (96%) completed the 24-week period. Of the patients who discontinued, one patient discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. An additional 2 patients discontinued for other reasons, one patient due to compliance and another patient due to relocation.
The proportion of pediatric subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies/mL and less than 50 copies/mL was 64% and 50%, respectively. The mean increase in CD4+ cell count from baseline was 117 cells/mm3.
Study TMC114-C228: Treatment-experienced pediatric subjects between the ages of 3 and less than 6 years and weighing greater than or equal to 10 kg to less than 20 kg received PREZISTA oral suspension with ritonavir oral solution plus background therapy consisting of at least two active non-protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. Twenty-one subjects received at least one dose of PREZISTA/ritonavir.
The 21 subjects had a median age of 4.4 years (range 3 to less than 6 years), and were 48% male, 57% Black, 29%, Caucasian and 14% other. The mean baseline plasma HIV-1 was 4.34 log10 copies/mL, the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 927 x 106 cells/l (range: 209 to 2,429 x 106 cells/l) and the median baseline CD4+ percentage was 27.7% (range: 15.6% to 51.1%). Overall, 24% of subjects had a baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than or equal to 100,000 copies/mL. All subjects had used greater than or equal to 2 NRTIs, 62% of subjects had used greater than or equal to 1 NNRTI and 76% had previously used at least one HIV PI.
Twenty subjects (95%) completed the 48 week period. One subject prematurely discontinued treatment due to vomiting assessed as related to ritonavir.
The proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL at Week 48 was 71%.. The mean increase in CD4+ percentage from baseline was 4%. The mean change in CD4+ cell count from baseline was 187 x 106 cells/L.
Study TMC114-C230: Treatment-naïve pediatric subjects between the ages of 12 and less than 18 years and weighing at least 40 kg received the adult recommended dose of PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily plus background therapy consisting of at least two non-protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs.
The 12 randomized pediatric subjects had a median age of 14.4 years (range 12.6 to 17.3 years), and were 33.3% male, 58.3% Caucasian and 41.7% Black. The mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.72 log10 copies/mL, and the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 282 cells/mm3 (range: 204 to 515 cells/mm3). Overall, 41.7% of pediatric subjects had baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL.
All subjects completed the 48 week treatment period.
The proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL and less than 400 copies/mL was 83.3% and 91.7%, respectively. The mean increase in CD4+ cell count from baseline was 221 x 106 cells/L.
Pharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics in Adults: General: Darunavir is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. Ritonavir inhibits CYP3A, thereby increasing the plasma concentrations of darunavir. When a single dose of PREZISTA 600 mg was given orally in combination with 100 mg ritonavir twice daily, there was an approximate 14-fold increase in the systemic exposure of darunavir. Therefore, PREZISTA should only be used in combination with 100 mg of ritonavir to achieve sufficient exposures of darunavir.
The pharmacokinetics of darunavir, co-administered with low dose ritonavir (100 mg), has been evaluated in healthy adult volunteers and in HIV-1-infected subjects. Table 9 displays the population pharmacokinetic estimates of darunavir after oral administration of PREZIST A/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily [based on sparse sampling in 285 patients in study TMC114-C214, 278 patients in Study TMC114-C229 and 119 patients (integrated data) from Studies TMC114-C202 and TMC114-C213] and PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily [based on sparse sampling in 335 patients in Study TMC114-C211 and 280 patients in Study TMC114-C229] to HIV-1-infected patients. (See Table 9.)

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Absorption and Bioavailability: Darunavir, co-administered with 100 mg ritonavir twice daily, was absorbed following oral administration with a Tmax of approximately 2.5-4 hours. The absolute oral bioavailability of a single 600 mg dose of darunavir alone and after co-administration with 100 mg ritonavir twice daily was 37% and 82%, respectively. In vivo data suggest that darunavir/ritonavir is an inhibitor of the p-glycoprotein (p-gp) transporters.
Effects of Food on Oral Absorption: When PREZISTA tablets were administered with food, the Cmax and AUC of darunavir, co-administered with ritonavir, is approximately 40% higher relative to the fasting state. Therefore, PREZISTA tablets, co-administered with ritonavir, should always be taken with food. Within the range of meals studied, darunavir exposure is similar. The total caloric content of the various meals evaluated ranged from 240 Kcal (12 gms fat) to 928 Kcal (56 gms fat).
Distribution: Darunavir is approximately 95% bound to plasma proteins. Darunavir binds primarily to plasma alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG).
Metabolism: In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes (HLMs) indicate that darunavir primarily undergoes oxidative metabolism. Darunavir is extensively metabolized by CYP enzymes, primarily by CYP3A. A mass balance study in healthy volunteers showed that after a single dose administration of 400 mg 14C-darunavir, co-administered with 100 mg ritonavir, the majority of the radioactivity in the plasma was due to darunavir. At least 3 oxidative metabolites of darunavir have been identified in humans; all showed activity that was at least 90% less than the activity of darunavir against wild-type HIV-1.
Elimination: A mass balance study in healthy volunteers showed that after single dose administration of 400 mg 14C-darunavir, co-administered with 100 mg ritonavir, approximately 79.5% and 13.9% of the administered dose of 14C-darunavir was recovered in the feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged darunavir accounted for approximately 41.2% and 7.7% of the administered dose in feces and urine, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life of darunavir was approximately 15 hours when co-administered with ritonavir. After intravenous administration, the clearance of darunavir, administered alone and co-administered with 100 mg twice daily ritonavir, was 32.8 L/h and 5.9 L/h, respectively.
Special Populations: Hepatic Impairment: Darunavir is primarily metabolized by the liver. The steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of darunavir were similar after multiple dose co-administration of PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily to subjects with normal hepatic function (n=16), mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, n=8), and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B, n=8). The effect of severe hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of darunavir has not been evaluated [see Patients with Hepatic Impairment under Dosage & Administration and Hepatic Impairment under Precautions].
Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection: The 48-week analysis of the data from Studies TMC114-C211 and TMC114-C214 in HIV-1-infected subjects indicated that hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection status had no apparent effect on the exposure of darunavir.
Renal Impairment: Results from a mass balance study with 14C-darunavir/ritonavir showed that approximately 7.7% of the administered dose of darunavir is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. As darunavir and ritonavir are highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that they will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the pharmacokinetics of darunavir were not significantly affected in HIV-1-infected subjects with moderate renal impairment (CrCL between 30-60 mL/min, n=20). There are no pharmacokinetic data available in HIV-1-infected patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease [see Renal Impairment under Precautions].
Gender: Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed higher mean darunavir exposure in HIV-1-infected females compared to males. This difference is not clinically relevant.
Race: Population pharmacokinetic analysis of darunavir in HIV-1-infected subjects indicated that race had no apparent effect on the exposure to darunavir.
Geriatric Patients: Population pharmacokinetic analysis in HIV-1-infected subjects showed that darunavir pharmacokinetics are not considerably different in the age range (18 to 75 years) evaluated in HIV-1-infected subjects (n=12, age greater than or equal to 65) [see Use in Elderly under Precautions].
Pediatric Patients: PREZISTA/ritonavir administered twice daily: The pharmacokinetics of darunavir in combination with ritonavir in 93 antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg showed that the administered weight-based dosages resulted in similar darunavir exposure when compared to the darunavir exposure achieved in treatment-experienced adults receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily [see Pediatric Patients (age 6 to less than 18 years) under Dosage & Administration].
PREZISTA/ritonavir administered once daily: The pharmacokinetics of darunavir in combination with ritonavir in 12 antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 40 kg receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily resulted in similar darunavir exposures when compared to the darunavir exposure achieved in treatment-naïve adults receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily [see Pediatric Patients (age 6 to less than 18 years) under Dosage & Administration].
The population pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric subjects with PREZISTA/ritonavir administered once or twice daily are summarized in the following table. (See Table 10.)

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Drug Interactions: [See also Contraindications, Risk of Serious Adverse Reactions due to Drug Interactions under Precautions, and Interactions.]
Darunavir co-administered with ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and P-gp. Co-administration of darunavir and ritonavir with drugs primarily metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2D6, or are transported by P-gp, may result in increased plasma concentrations of such drugs, which could increase or prolong their therapeutic effect and adverse events.
Darunavir and ritonavir are metabolized by CYP3A. In vitro data indicate that darunavir may be a P-gp substrate. Drugs that induce CYP3A activity would be expected to increase the clearance of darunavir and ritonavir, resulting in lowered plasma concentrations of darunavir and ritonavir. Co-administration of darunavir and ritonavir and other drugs that inhibit CYP3A or P-gp may decrease the clearance of darunavir and ritonavir and may result in increased plasma concentrations of darunavir and ritonavir.
Drug interaction studies were performed with darunavir and other drugs likely to be co-administered and some drugs commonly used as probes for pharmacokinetic interactions. The effects of co-administration of darunavir on the AUC, Cmax, and Cmin values are summarized in Table 11 (effect of other drugs on darunavir) and Table 12 (effect of darunavir on other drugs). For information regarding clinical recommendations, see Interactions.
Several interaction studies have been performed with a dose other than the recommended dose of the co-administered drug or darunavir; however, the results are applicable to the recommended dose of the co-administered drug and/or darunavir. (See Tables 11, 12a and 12b.)

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Toxicology: Nonclinical Toxicology: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis: Darunavir was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats up to 104 weeks. Daily doses of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg were administered to mice and doses of 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg was administered to rats. A dose-related increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were observed in males and females of both species as well as an increase in thyroid follicular cell adenomas in male rats. The observed hepatocellular findings in rodents are considered to be of limited relevance to humans. Repeated administration of darunavir to rats caused hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and increased thyroid hormone elimination, which predispose rats, but not humans, to thyroid neoplasms. At the highest tested doses, the systemic exposures to darunavir (based on AUC) were between 0.4- and 0.7-fold (mice) and 0.7- and 1-fold (rats), relative to those observed in humans at the recommended therapeutic doses (600/100 mg twice daily or 800/100 mg once daily).
Darunavir was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays including bacterial reserve mutation (Ames), chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes and in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment of Fertility: No effects on fertility or early embryonic development were observed with darunavir in rats and darunavir has shown no teratogenic potential in mice or rats (in the presence or absence of ritonavir), and rabbits.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: In juvenile rats single doses of darunavir (20 mg/kg to 160 mg/kg at ages 5-11 days) or multiple doses of darunavir (40 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg at age 12 days) caused mortality. The mortalities were associated with convulsions in some of the animals. Within this age range exposures in plasma, liver and brain were dose and age dependent and were considerably greater than those observed in adult rats. These findings were attributed to the ontogeny of the CYP450 liver enzymes involved in the metabolism of darunavir and the immaturity of the blood-brain barrier. No treatment-related mortalities were noted in juvenile rats after a single dose of darunavir at 1000 mg/kg on day 26 of age or after repeat dosing at 500 mg/kg from day 23 to 50 of age. The exposures and toxicity profile in the older animals (day 23 or day 26) were comparable to those observed in adult rats. Due to uncertainties regarding the rate of development of the human blood-brain barrier and liver enzymes, do not administer PREZISTA/ritonavir in pediatric patients below 3 years of age.
Microbiology: Mechanism of Action: Darunavir is an inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease. It selectively inhibits the cleavage of HIV-1 encoded Gag-Pol polyproteins in infected cells, thereby preventing the formation of mature virus particles.
Antiviral Activity: Darunavir exhibits activity against laboratory strains and clinical isolates of HIV-1 and laboratory strains of HIV-2 in acutely infected T-cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human monocytes/macrophages with median EC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 8.5 nM (0.7 to 5.0 ng/mL). Darunavir demonstrates antiviral activity in cell culture against a broad panel of HIV-1 group M (A, B, C, D, E, F, G), and group O primary isolates with EC50 values ranging from less than 0.1 to 4.3 nM. The EC50 value of darunavir increases by a median factor of 5.4 in the presence of human serum. Darunavir did not show antagonism when studied in combination with the PIs amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, or tipranavir, the N(t)RTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine, or zidovudine, the NNRTIs delavirdine, rilpivirine, efavirenz, etravirine, or nevirapine, and the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide.
Resistance: Cell Culture: HIV-1 isolates with a decreased susceptibility to darunavir have been selected in cell culture and obtained from subjects treated with darunavir/ritonavir. Darunavir-resistant virus derived in cell culture from wild-type HIV-1 had 21- to 88-fold decreased susceptibility to darunavir and developed 2 to 4 of the following amino acid substitutions S37D, R41E/T, K55Q, H69Q, K70E, T74S, V77I, or I85V in the protease. Selection in cell culture of darunavir resistant HIV-1 from nine HIV-1 strains harboring multiple PI resistance-associated mutations resulted in the overall emergence of 22 mutations in the protease gene, coding for amino acid substitutions L10F, V11I, I13V, I15V, G16E, L23I, V32I, L33F, S37N, M46I, I47V, I50V, F53L, L63P, A71V, G73S, L76V, V82I, I84V, T91A/S, and Q92R, of which L10F, V32I, L33F, S37N, M46I, I47V, I50V, L63P, A71V, and I84V were the most prevalent. These darunavir-resistant viruses had at least eight protease substitutions and exhibited 50- to 641-fold decreases in darunavir susceptibility with final EC50 values ranging from 125 nM to 3461 nM.
Clinical studies of PREZISTA/ritonavir in treatment-experienced subjects: In a pooled analysis of the 600/100 mg PREZISTA/ritonavir twice daily arms of Studies TMC114-C213, TMC114-C202, TMC114-C215, and the control arms of etravirine studies TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, the amino acid substitutions V32I and I54L or M developed most frequently on PREZISTA/ritonavir in 41% and 25%, respectively, of the treatment-experienced subjects who experienced virologic failure, either by rebound or by never being suppressed (less than 50 copies/mL). Other substitutions that developed frequently in PREZISTA/ritonavir virologic failure isolates occurred at amino acid positions V11I, I15V, L33F, I47V, I50V, and L89V. These amino acid substitutions were associated with decreased susceptibility to darunavir; 90% of the virologic failure isolates had a greater than 7-fold decrease in susceptibility to darunavir at failure. The median darunavir phenotype (fold change from reference) of the virologic failure isolates was 4.3-fold at baseline and 85-fold at failure. Amino acid substitutions were also observed in the protease cleavage sites in the Gag polyprotein of some PREZISTA/ritonavir virologic failure isolates. In Study TMC114-C212 of treatment-experienced pediatric subjects, the amino acid substitutions V32I, I54L and L89M developed most frequently in virologic failures on PREZISTA/ritonavir.
In the 96-week as-treated analysis of the Phase 3 Study TMC114-C214, the percent of virologic failures (never suppressed, rebounders and discontinued before achieving suppression) was 21% (62/298) in the group of subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily compared to 32% (96/297) of subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily. Examination of subjects who failed on PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily and had post-baseline genotypes and phenotypes showed that 7 subjects (7/43; 16%) developed PI substitutions on darunavir/ritonavir treatment resulting in decreased susceptibility to darunavir. Six of the 7 had baseline PI resistance-associated substitutions and baseline darunavir phenotypes greater than 7. The most common emerging PI substitutions in these virologic failures were V32I, L33F, M46I or L, I47V, I54L, T74P and L76V. These amino acid substitutions were associated with 59- to 839-fold decreased susceptibility to darunavir at failure. Examination of individual subjects who failed in the comparator arm on lopinavir/ritonavir and had post-baseline genotypes and phenotypes showed that 31 subjects (31/75; 41%) developed substitutions on lopinavir treatment resulting in decreased susceptibility to lopinavir (greater than 10-fold) and the most common substitutions emerging on treatment were L10I or F, M46I or L, I47V or A, I54V and L76V. Of the 31 lopinavir/ritonavir virologic failure subjects, 14 had reduced susceptibility (greater than 10-fold) to lopinavir at baseline.
In the 48-week analysis of the Phase 3 Study TMC114-C229, the number of virologic failures (including those who discontinued before suppression after Week 4) was 26% (75/294) in the group of subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily compared to 19% (56/296) of subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily. Examination of isolates from subjects who failed on PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily and had post-baseline genotypes showed that 8 subjects (8/60; 13%) had isolates that developed IAS-USA defined PI resistance-associated substitutions compared to 5 subjects (5/39; 13%) on PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily. Isolates from 2 subjects developed PI resistance associated substitutions associated with decreased susceptibility to darunavir; 1 subject isolate in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily arm, developed substitutions V32I, M46I, L76V and I84V associated with a 24-fold decreased susceptibility to darunavir, and 1 subject isolate in the PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily arm developed substitutions L33F and I50V associated with a 40-fold decreased susceptibility to darunavir. In the PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily and PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily groups, isolates from 7 (7/60, 12%) and 4 (4/42, 10%) virologic failures, respectively, developed decreased susceptibility to an NRTI included in the treatment regimen.
Clinical studies of PREZISTA/ritonavir in treatment-naïve subjects: In the 192-week as-treated analysis censoring those who discontinued before Week 4 of the Phase 3 Study TMC114-C211, the percentage of virologic failures (never suppressed, rebounders and discontinued before achieving suppression) was 22% (64/288) in the group of subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily compared to 29% (76/263) of subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg per day. In the PREZISTA/ritonavir arm, emergent PI resistance-associated substitutions were identified in 11 of the virologic failures with post-baseline genotypic data (n=43). However, none of the darunavir virologic failures had a decrease in darunavir susceptibility (greater than 7-fold change) at failure. In the comparator lopinavir/ritonavir arm, emergent PI resistance-associated substitutions were identified in 17 of the virologic failures with post-baseline genotypic data (n=53), but none of the lopinavir/ritonavir virologic failures had decreased susceptibility to lopinavir (greater than 10-fold change) at failure. The reverse transcriptase M184V substitution and/or resistance to emtricitabine, which was included in the fixed background regimen, was identified in 4 virologic failures from the PREZISTA/ritonavir arm and 7 virologic failures in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm.
Cross-resistance: Cross-resistance among PIs has been observed. Darunavir has a less than 10-fold decreased susceptibility in cell culture against 90% of 3309 clinical isolates resistant to amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and/or tipranavir showing that viruses resistant to these PIs remain susceptible to darunavir.
Darunavir-resistant viruses were not susceptible to amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir or saquinavir in cell culture. However, six of nine darunavir-resistant viruses selected in cell culture from PI-resistant viruses showed a fold change in EC50 values less than 3 for tipranavir, indicative of limited cross-resistance between darunavir and tipranavir. In Studies TMC114-C213, TMC114-C202, and TMC114-C215, 34% (64/187) of subjects in the darunavir/ritonavir arm whose baseline isolates had decreased susceptibility to tipranavir (tipranavir fold change greater than 3) achieved less than 50 copies/mL serum HIV-1 RNA levels at Week 96. Of the viruses isolated from subjects experiencing virologic failure on PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily (greater than 7 fold change), 41% were still susceptible to tipranavir and 10% were susceptible to saquinavir while less than 2% were susceptible to the other protease inhibitors (amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir or nelfinavir).
In Study TMC114-C214, the 7 darunavir/ritonavir virologic failures with reduced susceptibility to darunavir at failure were also resistant to the approved PIs (fos)amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir at failure. Six of these 7 were resistant to saquinavir and 5 were resistant to tipranavir. Four of these virologic failures were already PI-resistant at baseline.
Cross-resistance between darunavir and nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, CCR5 co-receptor antagonists, or integrase inhibitors is unlikely because the viral targets are different.
Baseline Genotype/Phenotype and Virologic Outcome Analyses: Genotypic and/or phenotypic analysis of baseline virus may aid in determining darunavir susceptibility before initiation of PREZISTA/ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily therapy. The effect of baseline genotype and phenotype on virologic response at 96 weeks was analyzed in as-treated analyses using pooled data from the Phase 2b studies (Studies TMC114-C213, TMC114-C202, and TMC114-C215) (n=439). The findings were confirmed with additional genotypic and phenotypic data from the control arms of etravirine Studies TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 at Week 24 (n=591).
Diminished virologic responses were observed in subjects with 5 or more baseline IAS-defined primary protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions (D30N, V32I, L33F, M46I/L, I47A/V, G48V, I50L/V, I54L/M, L76V, V82A/F/L/S/T, I84V, N88S, L90M) (see Table 13).

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IAS Primary PI Substitutions (2008): D30N, V32I, L33F, M46I/L, I47A/V, G48V, I50L/V, I54L/M, L76V, V82A/F/L/S/T, I84V, N88S, L90M.
The presence at baseline of two or more of the substitutions V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L or M, T74P, L76V, I84V or L89V was associated with a decreased virologic response to PREZISTA/ritonavir. In subjects not taking enfuvirtide de novo, the proportion of subjects achieving viral load less than 50 plasma HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at 96 weeks was 59%, 29%, and 12% when the baseline genotype had 0-1, 2 and greater than or equal to 3 of these substitutions, respectively.
Baseline darunavir phenotype (shift in susceptibility relative to reference) was shown to be a predictive factor of virologic outcome. Response rates assessed by baseline darunavir phenotype are shown in Table 14. These baseline phenotype groups are based on the select patient populations in the Studies TMC114-C213, TMC114-C202, and TMC114-C215, and are not meant to represent definitive clinical susceptibility breakpoints for PREZISTA/ritonavir. The data are provided to give clinicians information on the likelihood of virologic success based on pre-treatment susceptibility to darunavir. (See Table 14.)

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