Inadequate dosage or discontinuation of treatment, especially in type 1 diabetes, may lead to hyperglycaemia.
Usually, the first symptoms of hyperglycaemia set in gradually, over a period of hours or days. They include thirst, increased frequency of urination, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, flushed dry skin, dry mouth, loss of appetite as well as acetone odour of breath. In type 1 diabetes, untreated hyperglycaemic events eventually lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, which is potentially lethal.
Hypoglycaemia may occur if the insulin dose is too high in relation to the insulin requirement.
Omission of a meal or unplanned, strenuous physical exercise may lead to hypoglycaemia.
Patients, whose blood glucose control is greatly improved e.g. by intensified insulin therapy, may experience a change in their usual warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia and should be advised accordingly.
Usual warning symptoms may disappear in patients with longstanding diabetes.
Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type, origin (human insulin, insulin analogue) and/or method of manufacture may result in a need for a change in dosage.
Patients transferred to Protaphane from another type of insulin may require an increased number of daily injections or change in dosage from that used with their usual insulin products. If an adjustment is needed when switching the patient to Protaphane, it may occur with the first dose or during the first few weeks or months.
As with any insulin therapy, injection site reactions may occur and include pain, redness, hives, inflammation, bruising, swelling and itching. Continuous rotation of the injection site within a given area may help to reduce or prevent these reactions. Reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks. On rare occasions, injection site reactions may require discontinuation of Protaphane.
Before travelling between different time zones, the patient should be advised to consult the physician, since this may mean that the patient has to take insulin and meals at different times.
Insulin suspensions are not to be used in insulin infusion pumps.
Combination of thiazolidinediones and insulin medicinal products: Cases of congestive heart failure have been reported when thiazolidinediones were used in combination with insulin, especially in patients with risk factors for development of congestive heart failure. This should be kept in mind if treatment with the combination of thiazolidinediones and insulin medicinal products is considered. If the combination is used, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure, weight gain and oedema. Thiazolidinediones should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac symptoms occurs.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: The patient's ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycaemia. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance (e.g. driving a car or operating machinery).
Patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia while driving. This is particularly important in those who have reduced or absent awareness of the warning signs of hypoglycaemia or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. The advisability of driving should be considered in these circumstances.