Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. ATC code: A10BD24.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Steglujan combines two antihyperglycaemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: ertugliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, and sitagliptin phosphate, a DPP-4 inhibitor.
Ertugliflozin: SGLT2 is the predominant transporter responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. Ertugliflozin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of SGLT2. By inhibiting SGLT2, ertugliflozin reduces renal reabsorption of filtered glucose and lowers the renal threshold for glucose, and thereby increases urinary glucose excretion.
Sitagliptin: Sitagliptin is a member of a class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The improvement in glycaemic control observed with this medicinal product may be mediated by enhancing the levels of active incretin hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signalling pathways involving cyclic AMP. Treatment with GLP-1 or with DPP-4 inhibitors in animal models of type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated to improve beta cell responsiveness to glucose and stimulate insulin biosynthesis and release. With higher insulin levels, tissue glucose uptake is enhanced. In addition, GLP-1 lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells. Decreased glucagon concentrations, along with higher insulin levels, lead to reduced hepatic glucose production, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose levels. The effects of GLP-1 and GIP are glucose-dependent such that when blood glucose concentrations are low, stimulation of insulin release and suppression of glucagon secretion by GLP-1 are not observed. For both GLP-1 and GIP, stimulation of insulin release is enhanced as glucose rises above normal concentrations. Further, GLP-1 does not impair the normal glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. The activity of GLP-1 and GIP is limited by the DPP-4 enzyme, which rapidly hydrolyses the incretin hormones to produce inactive products. Sitagliptin prevents the hydrolysis of incretin hormones by DPP-4, thereby increasing plasma concentrations of the active forms of GLP-1 and GIP. By enhancing active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in a glucose-dependent manner. In patients with type 2 diabetes with hyperglycaemia, these changes in insulin and glucagon levels lead to lower haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lower fasting and post-prandial glucose concentrations. The glucose-dependent mechanism of sitagliptin is distinct from the mechanism of sulphonylureas, which increase insulin secretion even when glucose levels are low and can lead to hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and in normal subjects. Sitagliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 and does not inhibit the closely-related enzymes DPP-8 or DPP-9 at therapeutic concentrations.
In a two-day study in healthy subjects, sitagliptin alone increased active GLP-1 concentrations, whereas metformin alone increased active and total GLP-1 concentrations to similar extents. Coadministration of sitagliptin and metformin had an additive effect on active GLP-1 concentrations. Sitagliptin, but not metformin, increased active GIP concentrations.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Ertugliflozin: Urinary glucose excretion and urinary volume: Dose-dependent increases in the amount of glucose excreted in urine were observed in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following single- and multiple-dose administration of ertugliflozin. Dose-response modelling indicates that ertugliflozin 5 mg and 15 mg result in near maximal urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, providing 87% and 96% of maximal inhibition, respectively.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin: The efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin have been studied in 3 multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled, Phase 3 clinical studies involving 1,985 patients with type 2 diabetes. Across the 3 studies, the racial distribution ranged from 72.9% to 90.4% White, 0.0% to 20.3% Asian, 1.9% to 4.5% Black and 4.8% to 5.4% Other. Hispanic or Latino patients comprised 15.6% to 36.1% of the population. The mean age of the patients across these 3 studies ranged from 55.1 to 59.1 years (range 21 years to 85 years). Across the 3 studies, 16.2% to 29.9% of patients were ≥ 65 years of age and 2.3% to 2.8% were ≥ 75 years of age.
Factorial study with ertugliflozin and sitagliptin as add-on combination therapy with metformin: A total of 1,233 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, 26-week, active-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg in combination with sitagliptin 100 mg compared to the individual components. Patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy (≥ 1,500 mg/day) were randomised to one of five active-treatment arms: ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg, sitagliptin 100 mg, or sitagliptin 100 mg in combination with 5 mg or 15 mg ertugliflozin administered once daily in addition to continuation of background metformin therapy (see Table 1).
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Ertugliflozin as add-on combination therapy with metformin and sitagliptin: A total of 463 patients, with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin (≥ 1,500 mg/day) and sitagliptin 100 mg once daily participated in a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, 26-week, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin. Patients were randomised to ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg, or placebo administered once daily in addition to continuation of background metformin and sitagliptin therapy (see Table 2).
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Combination therapy of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin: A total of 291 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise participated in a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo-controlled 26-week study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin. These patients, who were not receiving any background antihyperglycaemic treatment, were randomised to ertugliflozin 5 mg or ertugliflozin 15 mg in combination with sitagliptin (100 mg) or to placebo, once daily (see Table 3).
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Fasting plasma glucose: In three placebo-controlled studies, ertugliflozin resulted in statistically significant reductions in FPG. For ertugliflozin 5 mg and 15 mg, respectively, the placebo-corrected reductions in FPG were 1.92 and 2.44 mmol/l as monotherapy, 1.48 and 2.12 mmol/l as add-on to metformin, and 1.40 and 1.74 mmol/l as add-on to metformin and sitagliptin.
The combination of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin resulted in significantly greater reductions in FPG compared to sitagliptin or ertugliflozin alone or placebo. The combination of ertugliflozin 5 or 15 mg and sitagliptin resulted in incremental FPG reductions of 0.46 to 0.65 mmol/l compared to the ertugliflozin alone or 1.02 to 1.28 mmol/l compared to sitagliptin alone. The placebo-corrected reductions of ertugliflozin 5 or 15 mg in combination with sitagliptin were 2.16 and 2.56 mmol/l.
Efficacy in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 10%: In the study of patients inadequately controlled on metformin with baseline HbA1c from 7.5-11.0%, among the subgroup of patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥ 10%, the combination of ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg with sitagliptin resulted in reductions of HbA1c of 2.35% and 2.66%, respectively, compared to 2.10%, 1.30%, and 1.82% for ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg, and sitagliptin alone, respectively.
Post-prandial glucose: When used in monotherapy, ertugliflozin 5 and 15 mg resulted in statistically significant placebo-corrected reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose (PPG) of 3.83 and 3.74 mmol/l.
The combination of ertugliflozin 5 or 15 mg with sitagliptin resulted in statistically significant placebo-corrected reductions in 2-hour PPG of 3.46 and 3.87 mmol/l.
Blood pressure: After 26-weeks of treatment, the combination of ertugliflozin 5 mg or 15 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg resulted in statistically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to sitagliptin alone (-2.8 and -3.0 mmHg for E5/S100 and E15/S100 respectively) or placebo (-4.4 and -6.4 mmHg for E5/S100 and E15/S100, respectively). Additionally, when added on to background metformin and sitagliptin therapy, ertugliflozin 5 mg and 15 mg resulted in statistically significant placebo subtracted reductions in SBP of 2.9 and 3.9 mmHg, respectively.
Subgroup analysis: In patients with type 2 diabetes treated with ertugliflozin in combination with sitagliptin, the improvement in HbA1c was similar across subgroups defined by age, sex, and race, and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
TECOS Cardiovascular Safety Study: The TECOS was a randomised study in 14,671 patients in the intention-to-treat population with an HbA1c of ≥ 6.5 to 8.0% with established CV disease who received sitagliptin (7,332) 100 mg daily (or 50 mg daily if the baseline eGFR was ≥ 30 and < 50 ml/min/1.73 m2) or placebo (7,339) added to usual care targeting regional standards for HbA1c and CV risk factors. Patients with an eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 were not to be enrolled in the study. The study population included 2,004 patients ≥ 75 years of age and 3,324 patients with renal impairment (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2).
Over the course of the study, the overall estimated mean (SD) difference in HbA1c between the sitagliptin and placebo groups was 0.29% (0.01), 95% CI (-0.32, -0.27); p< 0.001. The primary cardiovascular endpoint was a composite of the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Secondary cardiovascular endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke; first occurrence of the individual components of the primary composite; all-cause mortality; and hospital admissions for congestive heart failure.
After a median follow up of 3 years, sitagliptin, when added to usual care, did not increase the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events or the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure compared to usual care without sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes (see Table 4).
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Paediatric population: The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Steglujan in all subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Pharmacokinetics: Steglujan: Steglujan has been shown to be bioequivalent to coadministration of corresponding doses of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin tablets.
The effects of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin when administered as Steglujan tablets are comparable to those reported for the individual tablets. Administration of Steglujan with food decreased ertugliflozin Cmax by 29% and had no meaningful effect on ertugliflozin AUCinf, or on sitagliptin AUCinf and Cmax.
Ertugliflozin: General introduction: The pharmacokinetics of ertugliflozin are similar in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes. The steady state mean plasma AUC and Cmax were 398 ng·hr/ml and 81 ng/ml, respectively, with 5 mg ertugliflozin once daily treatment, and 1,193 ng·hr/ml and 268 ng/ml, respectively, with 15 mg ertugliflozin once daily treatment. Steady-state is reached after 4 to 6 days of once-daily dosing with ertugliflozin. Ertugliflozin does not exhibit time-dependent pharmacokinetics and accumulates in plasma up to 10-40% following multiple dosing.
Absorption: Following single-dose oral administration of 5 mg and 15 mg of ertugliflozin, peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax) of ertugliflozin occur at 1 hour post-dose under fasted conditions. Plasma Cmax and AUC of ertugliflozin increase in a dose-proportional manner following single doses from 0.5 mg to 300 mg and following multiple doses from 1 mg to 100 mg. The absolute oral bioavailability of ertugliflozin following administration of a 15-mg dose is approximately 100%.
Administration of ertugliflozin with a high-fat and high-calorie meal decreases ertugliflozin Cmax by 29% and prolongs Tmax by 1 hour, but does not alter AUC as compared with the fasted state. The observed effect of food on ertugliflozin pharmacokinetics is not considered clinically relevant, and ertugliflozin may be administered with or without food. In Phase 3 clinical trials, ertugliflozin was administered without regard to meals.
Ertugliflozin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters.
Distribution: The mean steady-state volume of distribution of ertugliflozin following an intravenous dose is 86 l. Plasma protein binding of ertugliflozin is 93.6% and is independent of ertugliflozin plasma concentrations. Plasma protein binding is not meaningfully altered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment. The blood-to-plasma concentration ratio of ertugliflozin is 0.66.
Ertugliflozin is not a substrate of organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2), or organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, OATP1B3) in vitro.
Biotransformation: Metabolism is the primary clearance mechanism for ertugliflozin. The major metabolic pathway for ertugliflozin is UGT1A9 and UGT2B7-mediated O-glucuronidation to two glucuronides that are pharmacologically inactive at clinically relevant concentrations. CYP-mediated (oxidative) metabolism of ertugliflozin is minimal (12%).
Elimination: The mean systemic plasma clearance following an intravenous 100 μg dose was 11 l/hr. The mean elimination half-life in type 2 diabetic patients with normal renal function was estimated to be 17 hours based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis. Following administration of an oral [14C]-ertugliflozin solution to healthy subjects, approximately 41% and 50% of the drug-related radioactivity was eliminated in faeces and urine, respectively. Only 1.5% of the administered dose was excreted as unchanged ertugliflozin in urine and 34% as unchanged ertugliflozin in faeces, which is likely due to biliary excretion of glucuronide metabolites and subsequent hydrolysis to parent.
Special populations: Renal impairment: In a Phase 1 clinical pharmacology study in patients with type 2 diabetes and mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment (as determined by eGFR), following a single-dose administration of 15 mg ertugliflozin, the mean increases in AUC of ertugliflozin were ≤ 1.7-fold, compared to subjects with normal renal function. These increases in ertugliflozin AUC are not considered clinically relevant. There were no clinically meaningful differences in the ertugliflozin Cmax values among the different renal function groups. The 24-hour urinary glucose excretion declined with increasing severity of renal impairment (see Precautions). The plasma protein binding of ertugliflozin was unaffected in patients with renal impairment.
Hepatic impairment: Moderate hepatic impairment (based on the Child-Pugh classification) did not result in an increase in exposure of ertugliflozin. The AUC of ertugliflozin decreased by approximately 13%, and Cmax decreased by approximately 21% compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. This decrease in ertugliflozin exposure is not considered clinically meaningful. There is no clinical experience in patients with Child-Pugh class C (severe) hepatic impairment. The plasma protein binding of ertugliflozin was unaffected in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.
Paediatric population: No studies with ertugliflozin have been performed in paediatric patients.
Effects of age, body weight, gender and race: Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, age, body weight, gender, and race do not have a clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of ertugliflozin.
Sitagliptin: Absorption: Following oral administration of a 100-mg dose to healthy subjects, sitagliptin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax) occurring 1 to 4 hours post-dose. Mean plasma AUC of sitagliptin was 8.52 μM·hr and Cmax was 950 nM. The absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin is approximately 87%. Since coadministration of a high-fat meal with sitagliptin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics, Steglujan may be administered with or without food.
Plasma AUC of sitagliptin increased in a dose-proportional manner. Dose-proportionality was not established for Cmax and C24hr (Cmax increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner and C24hr increased in a less than dose-proportional manner).
Distribution: The mean volume of distribution at steady state following a single 100-mg intravenous dose of sitagliptin to healthy subjects is approximately 198 l. The fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is low (38%).
Biotransformation: Sitagliptin is primarily eliminated unchanged in urine, and metabolism is a minor pathway. Approximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine.
Following a [14C]sitagliptin oral dose, approximately 16% of the radioactivity was excreted as metabolites of sitagliptin. Six metabolites were detected at trace levels and are not expected to contribute to the plasma DPP-4 inhibitory activity of sitagliptin. In vitro studies indicated that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4, with contribution from CYP2C8.
In vitro data showed that sitagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP isozymes CYP3A4, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 1A2, 2C19 or 2B6, and is not an inducer of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2.
Elimination: Following administration of an oral [14C]-sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100% of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in faeces (13%) or urine (87%) within one week of dosing. The apparent terminal t1/2 following a 100-mg oral dose of sitagliptin was approximately 12.4 hours. Sitagliptin accumulates only minimally with multiple doses. The renal clearance was approximately 350 ml/min.
Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion. Sitagliptin is a substrate for human organic anion transporter-3 (hOAT-3), which may be involved in the renal elimination of sitagliptin. The clinical relevance of hOAT-3 in sitagliptin transport has not been established. Sitagliptin is also a substrate of P-gp, which may also be involved in mediating the renal elimination of sitagliptin. However, ciclosporin, a P-gp inhibitor, did not reduce the renal clearance of sitagliptin. Sitagliptin is not a substrate for OCT2 or OAT1 or peptide transporter 1/2 (PEPT1/2) transporters. In vitro, sitagliptin did not inhibit OAT3 (IC50=160 μM) or p-glycoprotein (up to 250 μM) mediated transport at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. In a clinical study sitagliptin had a small effect on plasma digoxin concentrations indicating that sitagliptin may be a mild inhibitor of P-gp.
Drug interactions: No drug interactions studies have been performed with Steglujan and other medicinal products; however, such studies have been conducted with the individual active substances.
In vitro assessment of ertugliflozin: In in vitro studies, ertugliflozin and ertugliflozin glucuronides did not inhibit or inactivate CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2C8, 2B6, 2D6, or 3A4, and did not induce CYPs 1A2, 2B6, or 3A4. Ertugliflozin and ertugliflozin glucuronides did not inhibit the activity of UGTs 1A6, 1A9 or 2B7 in vitro. Ertugliflozin was a weak inhibitor of UGTs 1A1 and 1A4 in vitro at higher concentrations that are not clinically relevant. Ertugliflozin glucuronides had no effect on these isoforms. Overall, ertugliflozin is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of concurrently administered drugs eliminated by these enzymes.
Ertugliflozin or ertugliflozin glucuronides do not meaningfully inhibit P-gp, OCT2, OAT1, or OAT3 transporters or transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro. Overall, ertugliflozin is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of concurrently administered medications that are substrates of these transporters.
In vitro assessment of sitagliptin: In vitro data suggest that sitagliptin does not inhibit or induce CYP450 isoenzymes. In clinical studies, sitagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, rosiglitazone, warfarin, or oral contraceptives, providing in vivo evidence of a low propensity for causing interactions with substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and OCT. Sitagliptin may be a mild inhibitor of P-gp in vivo.
In vitro transport studies showed that sitagliptin is a substrate for P-gp and OAT3. OAT3 mediated transport of sitagliptin was inhibited in vitro by probenecid, although the risk of clinically meaningful interactions is considered to be low. Concomitant administration of OAT3 inhibitors has not been evaluated in vivo.
Characteristics in patients: The pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin were generally similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Renal impairment: In patients with normal renal function, metabolism, including via CYP3A4, plays only a small role in the clearance of sitagliptin. Metabolism may play a more significant role in the elimination of sitagliptin in the setting of severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Compared to normal healthy control subjects, plasma AUC of sitagliptin was increased modestly in patients with GFR ≥ 45 to < 90 mL/min. Because increases of this magnitude are not clinically relevant, dosage adjustment in these patients is not necessary.
Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment for sitagliptin is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score ≤ 9). There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score > 9). However, because sitagliptin is primarily renally eliminated, severe hepatic impairment is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin.
Elderly: No dose adjustment is required based on age. Age did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of Phase 1 and Phase 2 data. Elderly subjects (65 to 80 years) had approximately 19% higher plasma concentrations of sitagliptin compared to younger subjects.
Paediatric: No studies with sitagliptin have been performed in paediatric patients.
Other patient characteristics: No dose adjustment is necessary based on gender, race, or body mass index (BMI). These characteristics had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin based on a composite analysis of Phase 1 pharmacokinetic data and on a population pharmacokinetic analysis of Phase 1 and Phase 2 data.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, acute toxicity, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenic potential.
Ertugliflozin: General toxicity: Repeat-dose oral toxicity studies were conducted in mice, rats, and dogs for up to 13, 26, and 39 weeks, respectively. Signs of toxicity that were considered adverse were generally observed at exposures greater than or equal to 77 times the human unbound exposure (AUC) at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 15 mg/day. Most toxicity was consistent with pharmacology related to urinary glucose loss and included decreased body weight and body fat, increased food consumption, diarrhoea, dehydration, decreased serum glucose and increases in other serum parameters reflective of increased protein metabolism, gluconeogenesis and electrolyte imbalances, and urinary changes such as polyuria, glucosuria, and calciuria. Microscopic changes related to glucosuria and/or calciuria observed only in rodents included dilatation of renal tubules, hypertrophy of zona glomerulosa in adrenal glands (rats), and increased trabecular bone (rats). Except for emesis, there were no adverse toxicity findings in dogs at 379 times the human unbound exposure (AUC) at the MRHD of 15 mg/day.
Carcinogenesis: In the 2-year mouse carcinogenicity study, ertugliflozin was administered by oral gavage at doses of 5, 15, and 40 mg/kg/day. There were no ertugliflozin-related neoplastic findings at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (approximately 41 times human unbound exposure at the MRHD of 15 mg/day based on AUC). In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, ertugliflozin was administered by oral gavage at doses of 1.5, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day. Ertugliflozin-related neoplastic findings included an increased incidence of benign adrenal medullary pheochromocytoma in male rats at 15 mg/kg/day. This finding was attributed to carbohydrate malabsorption leading to altered calcium homeostasis and was not considered relevant to human risk. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for neoplasia was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 16 times human unbound exposure at the MRHD of 15 mg/day).
Mutagenesis: Ertugliflozin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the microbial reverse mutation, in vitro cytogenetic (human lymphocytes), and in vivo rat micronucleus assays.
Reproductive toxicology: In the rat fertility and embryonic development study, male and female rats were administered ertugliflozin at 5, 25, and 250 mg/kg/day. No effects on fertility were observed at 250 mg/kg/day (approximately 386 times human unbound exposure at the MRHD of 15 mg/day based on AUC comparisons). Ertugliflozin did not adversely affect developmental outcomes in rats and rabbits at maternal exposures that were 239 and 1,069 times, respectively, the human exposure at the maximum clinical dose of 15 mg/day, based on AUC. At a maternally toxic dose in rats (250 mg/kg/day), lower foetal viability and a higher incidence of a visceral malformation were observed at maternal exposure that was 510 times the maximum clinical dose of 15 mg/day.
In the pre- and post-natal development study, decreased post-natal growth and development were observed in rats administered ertugliflozin gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at ≥ 100 mg/kg/day (estimated 239 times the human exposure at the maximum clinical dose of 15 mg/day, based on AUC). Sexual maturation was delayed in both sexes at 250 mg/kg/day (estimated 620 times the MRHD at 15 mg/day, based on AUC).
When ertugliflozin was administered to juvenile rats from post-natal day (PND) 21 to PND 90, a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy, increased kidney weights, dilatation of the renal pelvis and tubules, and renal tubular mineralization were seen at an exposure 13 times the maximum clinical dose of 15 mg/day, based on AUC. Effects on bone (shorter femur length, increased trabecular bone in the femur) as well as effects of delayed puberty were observed at an exposure 817 times the MRHD of 15 mg/day based on AUC. The effects on kidney and bone did not fully reverse after the 1 month recovery period.
Sitagliptin: Renal and liver toxicity were observed in rodents at systemic exposure values 58 times the human exposure level, while the no-effect level was found at 19 times the human exposure level. Incisor teeth abnormalities were observed in rats at exposure levels 67 times the clinical exposure level; the no-effect level for this finding was 58-fold based on the 14-week rat study. The relevance of these findings for humans is unknown. Transient treatment-related physical signs, some of which suggest neural toxicity, such as open-mouth breathing, salivation, white foamy emesis, ataxia, trembling, decreased activity, and/or hunched posture were observed in dogs at exposure levels approximately 23 times the clinical exposure level. In addition, very slight to slight skeletal muscle degeneration was also observed histologically at doses resulting in systemic exposure levels of approximately 23 times the human exposure level. A no-effect level for these findings was found at an exposure 6-fold the clinical exposure level.
Sitagliptin has not been demonstrated to be genotoxic in preclinical studies. Sitagliptin was not carcinogenic in mice. In rats, there was an increased incidence of hepatic adenomas and carcinomas at systemic exposure levels 58 times the human exposure level. Since hepatotoxicity has been shown to correlate with induction of hepatic neoplasia in rats, this increased incidence of hepatic tumours in rats was likely secondary to chronic hepatic toxicity at this high dose. Because of the high safety margin (19-fold at this no-effect level), these neoplastic changes are not considered relevant for the situation in humans.
No adverse effects upon fertility were observed in male and female rats given sitagliptin prior to and throughout mating.
In a pre-/post-natal development study performed in rats sitagliptin showed no adverse effects.
Reproductive toxicity studies showed a slight treatment-related increased incidence of foetal rib malformations (absent, hypoplastic and wavy ribs) in the offspring of rats at systemic exposure levels more than 29 times the human exposure levels. Maternal toxicity was seen in rabbits at more than 29 times the human exposure levels. Because of the high safety margins, these findings do not suggest a relevant risk for human reproduction. Sitagliptin is secreted in considerable amounts into the milk of lactating rats (milk/plasma ratio: 4:1).