Symbicort Turbuhaler信必可

Symbicort Turbuhaler Special Precautions

budesonide + formoterol




Four Star
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Full Prescribing Info
Special Precautions
This medicine should be used for the shortest duration of time required to achieve control of asthma symptoms and discontinue, if possible, once asthma control is achieved.
This medicine should only be used long-term in patients whose asthma cannot be adequately controlled on asthma controller medications.
Treatment of asthma or COPD should be in accordance with physician recommendations or current national treatment guidelines.
Patients with asthma should have a personal asthma action plan designed in association with their healthcare professional. This plan should incorporate a stepwise treatment regime which can be instituted if the patient's asthma improves or deteriorates.
Patients should be advised to have their reliever available at all times, either Symbicort Turbuhaler (for asthma patients on Symbicort anti-inflammatory reliever therapy and Symbicort anti-inflammatory reliever plus maintenance therapy) or a separate short-acting bronchodilator (for other asthma patients using Symbicort Turbuhaler as fixed dose maintenance therapy only and for COPD patients).
Sudden and progressive deterioration in control of asthma or COPD is potentially life threatening and the patient should undergo urgent medical assessment. In this situation, consideration should be given to the need for increased therapy with corticosteroids (eg a course of oral corticosteroids), or antibiotic treatment if a bacterial infection is present. For treatment of severe exacerbations, a combination product of ICS and LABA alone is not sufficient. Patients should be advised to seek medical attention if they find the treatment ineffective or they have exceeded the prescribed dose of Symbicort Turbuhaler.
It is recommended that the maintenance dose be tapered when long-term treatment is discontinued, and the dosing should not be stopped abruptly. Complete withdrawal of ICS should not be considered unless it is temporarily required to confirm the diagnosis of asthma.
Oral corticosteroid usage: Symbicort should not be used to initiate treatment with inhaled steroids in patients being transferred from oral steroids. Care should be taken when commencing Symbicort treatment, particularly if there is any reason to suspect that adrenal function is impaired from previous systemic steroid therapy.
Potential systemic effects of ICS: ICS are designed to direct glucocorticoid delivery to the lungs in order to reduce overall systemic glucocorticoid exposure and side effects. However, in higher than recommended doses, ICS may have adverse effects; possible systemic effects of ICS include depression of the HPA axis, reduction of bone density, cataract and glaucoma, and retardation of growth rate in children and adolescents. In steroid-dependent patients, prior systemic steroid usage may be a contributing factor, but such effects may occur amongst patients who use only ICS regularly.
HPA axis suppression and adrenal insufficiency: Dose-dependent HPA axis suppression (as indicated by 24 hour urinary and/or plasma cortisol AUC) has been observed with inhaled budesonide, although the physiological circadian rhythms of plasma cortisol were preserved. This indicates that the HPA axis suppression represents a physiological adaption in response to inhaled budesonide, not necessarily adrenal insufficiency. The lowest dose that results in clinically relevant adrenal insufficiency has not been established. Very rare cases of clinically relevant adrenal dysfunction have been reported in patients using inhaled budesonide at recommended doses.
Clinically important disturbances of the HPA axis and/or adrenal insufficiency induced by severe stress (eg trauma, surgery, infection in particular gastroenteritis or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss) may be related to inhaled budesonide in specific patient populations. These are patients with prolonged treatment at the highest recommended dose of Symbicort Turbuhaler and patients administered concomitant CYP3A4-inhibitors (see Interactions). Monitoring for signs of adrenal dysfunction is advisable in these patient groups. For these patients additional systemic glucocorticosteroid treatment should be considered during periods of stress, a severe asthma attack or elective surgery.
Bone density: Whilst corticosteroids may have an effect on bone mass at high doses, long term follow up (3-6 years) studies of budesonide treatment in adults at recommended doses, have not demonstrated a negative effect on bone mass compared to placebo, including one study conducted in patients with a high risk of osteoporosis. The lowest dose that does effect bone mass has not been established.
Bone mineral density measurements in children should be interpreted with caution as an increase in bone area in growing children may reflect an increase in bone volume. In three large medium to long term (12 months-6 years) studies in children (5-16 years), no effects on bone mineral density were observed after treatment with budesonide (189-1322 μg/day) compared to nedocromil, placebo or age matched controls. However, in a randomised 18-month paediatric study (n=176; 5-10 years), bone mineral density was significantly decreased by 0.11 g/cm2 (p=0.023) in the group treated with inhaled budesonide via Turbuhaler compared with the group treated with inhaled disodium cromoglycate. The dose of budesonide was 400 μg twice-daily for 1 month, 200 μg twice-daily for 5 months and 100 μg twice-daily for 12 months and the dose of disodium cromoglycate 10 mg three times daily. The clinical significance of this result remains uncertain.
Growth: Limited data from long-term studies suggest that most children and adolescents treated with inhaled budesonide will ultimately achieve their adult target height. However, an initial small but transient reduction in growth (approximately 1 cm) has been observed. This generally occurs within the first year of treatment.
Rare individuals may be exceptionally sensitive to ICS. Height measurements should be performed to identify patients with increased sensitivity. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefit. To minimise the systemic effects of ICS, each patient should be titrated to his/her lowest dose at which effective control of symptoms is maintained (see Dosage & Administration).
Visual disturbance: Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.
Infections/tuberculosis: Signs of existing infection may be masked by the use of high doses of glucocorticosteroids and new infections may appear during their use. Special care is needed in patients with active or quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis or fungal, bacterial or viral infections of the respiratory system.
Sensitivity to sympathomimetic amines: In patients with increased susceptibility to sympathomimetic amines (eg inadequately controlled hyperthyroidism), formoterol should be used with caution.
Cardiovascular disorders: β2-agonists have an arrhythmogenic potential that must be considered before commencing treatment for bronchospasm.
The effects of formoterol in acute as well as chronic toxicity studies were seen mainly on the cardiovascular system and consisted of hyperaemia, tachycardia, arrhythmias and myocardial lesions. These are known pharmacological manifestations seen after administration of high doses of β2-adrenoceptor agonists.
Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions may be at greater risk of developing adverse cardiovascular effects following administration of β2-adrenoreceptor agonists. Caution is advised when formoterol is administered to patients with severe cardiovascular disorders such as ischaemic heart disease, tachyarrhythmias or severe heart failure.
Hypokalaemia: High doses of β2-agonists can lower serum potassium by inducing a redistribution of potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, via stimulation of Na+/K+-ATPase in muscle cells.
Potentially serious hypokalaemia may result. Particular caution is advised in acute exacerbation as the associated risk may be augmented by hypoxia. The hypokalaemic effect may be potentiated by concomitant treatments (see Interactions). Patients receiving digoxin are particularly sensitive to hypokalaemia. Serum potassium levels should therefore be monitored in such situations.
Diabetes: Due to the blood-glucose increasing effects of β2-stimulants extra blood glucose controls are initially recommended when diabetic patients are commenced on formoterol.
Pneumonia: Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD as the clinical features of pneumonia and exacerbations frequently overlap.
Pneumonia has been reported following the administration of inhaled corticosteroids. (See Adverse Reactions.)
Lactose: Symbicort Turbuhaler contains lactose (<1 mg/inhalation) which may contain milk protein residue. This amount does not normally cause problems in lactose intolerant people.
Use in hepatic impairment: The effect of decreased liver function on the pharmacokinetics of formoterol and budesonide are not known. As budesonide and formoterol are primarily eliminated via hepatic metabolism an increased exposure can be expected in patients with severe liver disease.
Use in renal impairment: The effect of decreased kidney function on the pharmacokinetics of formoterol and budesonide are not known.
Effects on laboratory tests: No data available.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Driving or using machinery should be undertaken with caution until the effect of Symbicort Turbuhaler on the individual is established. Symbicort Turbuhaler does not generally affect the ability to drive or use machinery.
Use in the elderly: See Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical trials under Actions.
Use in children: 160/4.5 mcg and 320/9 mcg: Symbicort Turbuhaler is not recommended for children below 12 years of age.
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