Trelegy Ellipta全樂呼

Trelegy Ellipta

Manufacturer:

GlaxoSmithKline

Distributor:

Zuellig
/
Agencia Lei Va Hong
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium bromide, vilanterol trifenatate.
Description
Each single inhalation provides a delivered dose (the dose leaving the mouthpiece) of 92 micrograms fluticasone furoate, 65 micrograms umeclidinium bromide equivalent to 55 micrograms umeclidinium and 22 micrograms vilanterol (as trifenatate). This corresponds to a pre-dispensed dose of 100 micrograms fluticasone furoate, 74.2 micrograms umeclidinium bromide equivalent to 62.5 micrograms umeclidinium and 25 micrograms vilanterol (as trifenatate).
Excipient with known effect: Each delivered dose contains approximately 25 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Lactose monohydrate, Magnesium stearate.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs for obstructive airway diseases, adrenergics in combination with anticholinergics including triple combinations with corticosteroids. ATC code: R03AL08.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol is a combination of inhaled synthetic corticosteroid, long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist and long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (ICS/LAMA/LABA). Following oral inhalation, umeclidinium and vilanterol act locally on airways to produce bronchodilation by separate mechanisms and fluticasone furoate reduces inflammation.
Fluticasone furoate: Fluticasone furoate is a corticosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory activity. The precise mechanism through which fluticasone furoate affects COPD symptoms is not known. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of actions on multiple cell types (e.g. eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g. cytokines and chemokines) involved in inflammation.
Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium is a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (also referred to as an anticholinergic).
Umeclidinium exerts its bronchodilatory activity by competitively inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle. It demonstrates slow reversibility at the human M3 muscarinic receptor subtype in vitro and a long duration of action in vivo when administered directly to the lungs in pre-clinical models.
Vilanterol: Vilanterol is a selective long-acting, beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA). The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenergic agonists, including vilanterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Cardiac electrophysiology: The effect of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol on the QT interval has not been evaluated in a thorough QT (TQT) study. TQT studies for FF/VI and umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) did not show clinically relevant effects on QT interval at clinical doses of FF, UMEC and VI.
No clinically relevant effects on the QTc interval were observed on review of centrally read ECGs from 911 subjects with COPD exposed to fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol for up to 24 weeks, or in the subset of 210 subjects exposed for up to 52 weeks.
Clinical efficacy: The efficacy of Trelegy Ellipta (100/62.5/25 micrograms) administered as a once daily treatment, has been evaluated in patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD in two, active-controlled studies and in a single, non-inferiority study. All three studies were multicentre, randomised, double-blind studies that required patients to be symptomatic with a COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score ≥10 and on daily maintenance treatment for their COPD for at least three months prior to study entry.
FULFIL (CTT116853) was a 24-week study (N=1,810), with an extension up to 52 weeks in a subset of subjects (n=430), that compared Trelegy Ellipta (100/62.5/25 micrograms) with budesonide/formoterol 400/12 micrograms (BUD/FOR) administered twice-daily. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 was 45% and 65% of patients reported a history of one or more moderate/severe exacerbation in the past year.
IMPACT (CTT116855) was a 52-week study (N=10,355) that compared Trelegy Ellipta (100/62.2/25 micrograms) with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 micrograms (FF/VI) and umeclidinium/vilanterol 62.5/25 micrograms (UMEC/VI). At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 was 46% and over 99% of patients reported a history of one or more moderate/severe exacerbation in the past year.
At study entry, the most common COPD medications reported in the FULFIL and IMPACT studies were ICS+LABA+LAMA (28%, 34% respectively), ICS+LABA (29%, 26% respectively), LAMA+LABA (10%, 8% respectively) and LAMA (9%, 7% respectively). These patients may have also been taking other COPD medications (e.g. mucolytics or leukotriene receptor antagonists).
Study 200812 was a 24-week, non-inferiority study (N=1,055) that compared Trelegy Ellipta (100/62.5/25 micrograms) with FF/VI (100/25 micrograms) + UMEC (62.5 micrograms), co-administered once daily as a multi-inhaler therapy in patients with a history of moderate or severe exacerbations within the prior 12 months.
Lung Function: In FULFIL, bronchodilatory effects with Trelegy Ellipta were evident on the first day of treatment and were maintained over the 24-week treatment period (mean changes from baseline in FEV1 were 90-222 mL on day 1 and 160-339 mL at week 24). Trelegy Ellipta significantly improved (p<0.001) lung function (as defined by mean change from baseline in trough FEV1 at week 24) (see Table 1) and the improvement was maintained in the subset of patients who continued treatment to week 52. (See Table 1.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In IMPACT, Trelegy Ellipta significantly improved (p<0.001) lung function when compared with FF/VI and UMEC/VI over a 52-week period (see Table 2).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

In Study 200812, Trelegy Ellipta was non-inferior compared with FF/VI+UMEC, co-administered in two inhalers, in the improvement from baseline in trough FEV1 at week 24. The pre-specified non-inferiority margin was 50 mL.
Exacerbations: In IMPACT, over 52 weeks, Trelegy Ellipta significantly reduced (p<0.001) the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations by 15% (95% CI:10, 20) compared with FF/VI (rate; 0.91 vs 1.07 events per patient year) and by 25% (95% CI: 19, 30) compared with UMEC/VI (rate; 0.91 vs 1.21 events per patient year). In FULFIL, based upon data up to 24 weeks, Trelegy Ellipta significantly reduced (p=0.002) the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations by 35% (95% CI: 14, 51) compared with BUD/FOR.
In IMPACT, Trelegy Ellipta prolonged the time to first moderate/severe exacerbation and significantly decreased (p<0.001) the risk of a moderate/severe exacerbation, as measured by time to first exacerbation, compared with both FF/VI (14.8%; 95% CI: 9.3, 19.9) and UMEC/VI (16.0%; 95% CI: 9.4, 22.1). In FULFIL, Trelegy Ellipta significantly decreased the risk of a moderate/severe exacerbation compared with BUD/FOR over 24 weeks (33%; 95% CI: 12, 48; p=0.004).
In IMPACT, treatment with Trelegy Ellipta reduced the annual rate of severe exacerbations (i.e., requiring hospitalisation or resulting in death) by 13% compared with FF/VI (95% CI: -1, 24; p=0.064). Treatment with Trelegy Ellipta significantly reduced the annual rate of severe exacerbations by 34% compared with UMEC/VI (95% CI: 22, 44; p<0.001).
Health-Related Quality of Life: Trelegy Ellipta significantly improved (p<0.001) Health Related Quality of Life (as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score) in both FULFIL (week 24) when compared with BUD/FOR (-2.2 units; 95% CI: -3.5, -1.0) and IMPACT (week 52) when compared with FF/VI (-1.8 units; 95% CI: -2.4, -1.1) and UMEC/VI (-1.8 units; 95% CI: -2.6, -1.0).
A higher percentage of patients receiving Trelegy Ellipta responded with a clinically meaningful improvement in SGRQ total score in FULFIL at week 24 compared with BUD/FOR (50% and 41% respectively), odds ratios of response vs. non-response (OR) (1.41; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.70) and in IMPACT at week 52 compared with FF/VI and UMEC/VI (42%, 34% and 34% respectively), OR vs. FF/VI (1.41; 95% CI:1.29, 1.55) and OR vs. UMEC/VI (1.41; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.57); all treatment comparisons were statistically significant (p<0.001).
In FULFIL, the proportion of patients who were CAT responders (defined as 2 units below baseline or lower) at week 24, was significantly higher (p<0.001) for patients treated with Trelegy Ellipta compared with BUD/FOR (53% vs. 45%; OR 1.44; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.75). In IMPACT, the proportion of patients who were CAT responders at week 52 was significantly higher (p<0.001) for patients treated with Trelegy Ellipta (42%) compared with FF/VI (37%; OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.36) and UMEC/VI (36%; OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.43).
Symptom Relief: Breathlessness was measured using the Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) focal score at week 24 in FULFIL and week 52 in IMPACT (a subset of patients, n=5,058). In FULFIL the proportion of responders according to TDI (defined as at least 1 unit) was significantly higher (p<0.001) for Trelegy Ellipta compared with BUD/FOR (61% vs 51%; OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.95). In IMPACT, the proportion of responders was also significantly higher (p<0.001) for Trelegy Ellipta (36%) compared with FF/VI (29%; OR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.55) and UMEC/VI (30%; OR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.57).
In FULFIL, Trelegy Ellipta improved daily symptoms of COPD as assessed by E-RS: COPD total score, compared with BUD/FOR (≥2 unit decrease from baseline). The proportion of responders during weeks 21-24 was significantly higher (p<0.001) for patients treated with Trelegy Ellipta compared with BUD/FOR (47% and 37% respectively; OR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.94).
Use of Rescue Medication: In FULFIL, Trelegy Ellipta significantly reduced (p<0.001) the use of rescue medication between weeks 1-24 compared with BUD/FOR (treatment difference: -0.2 occasions per day; 95% CI: -0.3, -0.1).
In IMPACT, Trelegy Ellipta significantly reduced (p<0.001) the use of rescue medication (occasions per day) at each 4-week time period compared with FF/VI and UMEC/VI. At weeks 49-52, the treatment difference was -0.28 (95% CI: -0.37, -0.19) when compared with FF/VI and -0.30 (95% CI: -0.41, -0.19) with UMEC/VI.
Nighttime awakenings: In IMPACT, Trelegy Ellipta statistically significantly reduced the mean number of nighttime awakenings due to COPD compared with FF/VI (-0.05; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01; p=0.005) and with UMEC/VI (-0.10; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.05; p<0.001) at weeks 49 to 52. Significant reductions were observed over all other timepoints for UMEC/VI (p<0.001) and for all but two of the timepoints for FF/VI (p≤0.021).
Paediatric population: The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Trelegy Ellipta in all subsets of the paediatric population in COPD (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Pharmacokinetics: When fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol were administered in combination by the inhaled route from a single inhaler in healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetics of each component were similar to those observed when each active substance was administered either as fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination or as an umeclidinium/vilanterol combination or umeclidinium monotherapy.
Population PK analyses for FF/UMEC/VI were conducted using a combined PK dataset from three phase III studies in 821 COPD subjects. Systemic drug levels (steady state Cmax and AUC) of FF, UMEC and VI following FF/UMEC/VI in one inhaler (triple combination) were within the range of those observed following FF/VI + UMEC as two inhalers, dual combinations (FF/VI and UMEC/VI), as well as individual single inhalers (FF, UMEC and VI). Covariate analysis showed higher FF apparent clearance (42%) when comparing FF/VI to FF/UMEC/VI; however, this is not considered clinically relevant.
Absorption: Fluticasone furoate: Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, fluticasone furoate Cmax occurred at 15 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of fluticasone furoate when administrated as fluticasone furoate/vilanterol by inhalation was 15.2%, primarily due to absorption of the inhaled portion of the dose delivered to the lung, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled fluticasone furoate /vilanterol, steady state was achieved within 6 days with up to 1.6-fold accumulation.
Umeclidinium: Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, umeclidinium Cmax occurred at 5 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled umeclidinium was on average 13%, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled umeclidinium, steady state was achieved within 7 to 10 days with 1.5 to 2-fold accumulation.
Vilanterol: Following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in healthy subjects, vilanterol Cmax occurred at 7 minutes. The absolute bioavailability of inhaled vilanterol was 27%, with negligible contribution from oral absorption. Following repeat dosing of inhaled umeclidinium/vilanterol, steady state was achieved within 6 days with up to 1.5-fold accumulation.
Distribution: Fluticasone furoate: Following intravenous dosing of fluticasone furoate to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution at steady state of 661 litres. Fluticasone furoate has a low association with red blood cells. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma of fluticasone furoate was high, on average >99.6%.
Umeclidinium: Following intravenous administration of umeclidinium to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution was 86 litres. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 89%.
Vilanterol: Following intravenous administration of vilanterol to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution at steady state was 165 litres. Vilanterol has a low association with red blood cells. In vitro plasma protein binding in human plasma was on average 94%.
Biotransformation: Fluticasone furoate: In vitro studies showed that fluticasone furoate is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic route for fluticasone furoate is hydrolysis of the S-fluoromethyl carbothioate group to metabolites with significantly reduced corticosteroid activity. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
Umeclidinium: In vitro studies showed that umeclidinium is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic routes for umeclidinium are oxidative (hydroxylation, O-dealkylation) followed by conjugation (glucuronidation, etc), resulting in a range of metabolites with either reduced pharmacological activity or for which the pharmacological activity has not been established. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
Vilanterol: In vitro studies showed that vilanterol is primarily metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and is a substrate for the P-gp transporter. The primary metabolic routes for vilanterol are O-dealkylation to a range of metabolites with significantly reduced beta1- and beta2-adrenergic agonist activity. Plasma metabolic profiles following oral administration of vilanterol in a human radiolabel study were consistent with high first-pass metabolism. Systemic exposure to the metabolites is low.
Elimination: Fluticasone furoate: The apparent plasma elimination half-life of fluticasone furoate following inhaled administration of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol was, on average, 24 hours. Following intravenous administration, the elimination phase half-life averaged 15.1 hours. Plasma clearance following intravenous administration was 65.4 litres/hour. Urinary excretion accounted for approximately 2 % of the intravenously administered dose. Following oral administration, fluticasone furoate was eliminated in humans mainly by metabolism with metabolites being excreted almost exclusively in faeces, with <1% of the recovered radioactive dose eliminated in the urine.
Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 19 hours, with 3% to 4% active substance excreted unchanged in urine at steady-state. Plasma clearance following intravenous administration was 151 litres/hour. Following intravenous administration, approximately 58% of the administered radiolabelled dose was excreted in faeces and approximately 22% of the administered radiolabelled dose was excreted in urine. The excretion of the drug-related material in the faeces following intravenous dosing indicated secretion into the bile. Following oral administration, 92% of the administered radiolabelled dose was excreted primarily in faeces. Less than 1% of the orally administered dose (1% of recovered radioactivity) was excreted in urine, suggesting negligible absorption following oral administration.
Vilanterol: Vilanterol plasma elimination half-life following inhaled dosing for 10 days averaged 11 hours. Plasma clearance of vilanterol following intravenous administration was 108 litres/hour. Following oral administration of radiolabelled vilanterol, 70% of the radiolabel was excreted in urine and 30% in faeces. Primary elimination of vilanterol was by metabolism followed by excretion of metabolites in urine and faeces.
Special populations: Elderly: The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol were evaluated in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. No clinically relevant effects requiring dose adjustment were observed.
Renal impairment: The effect of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol has not been evaluated in subjects with renal impairment. However, studies have been conducted with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol that showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol. In vitro protein binding studies between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy volunteers were conducted, and no clinically significant evidence of altered protein binding was seen.
The effects of haemodialysis have not been studied.
Hepatic impairment: The effect of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment. However, studies have been conducted with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol.
The fluticasone furoate/vilanterol component of Trelegy Ellipta was assessed in patients with all severities of hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A, B or C). For fluticasone furoate, patients with moderate hepatic impairment showed up to three times higher systemic exposure (FF 200 micrograms); therefore, patients with severe hepatic impairment received half the dose (FF 100 micrograms). At this dose, no effects on systemic exposure were observed. Therefore caution is advised in moderate to severe hepatic impairment, but no specific dose adjustment based on hepatic function is recommended. There was no significant increase in systemic exposure to vilanterol.
Patients with moderate hepatic impairment showed no evidence of an increase in systemic exposure to either umeclidinium or vilanterol (Cmax and AUC). Umeclidinium has not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Other special populations: The effects of race, gender and weight on the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol were also evaluated in the population pharmacokinetic analysis.
In 113 East Asian subjects with COPD (Japanese and East Asian Heritage), who received FF/UMEC/VI from a single inhaler (27% subjects), fluticasone furoate AUC(ss) estimates were on average 30% higher compared with Caucasian subjects. However, these higher systemic exposures remain below the threshold for FF-induced reduction of serum and urine cortisol and are not considered clinically relevant.
There was no effect of race on pharmacokinetic parameters of umeclidinium or vilanterol in subjects with COPD.
No clinically relevant differences requiring dose adjustment based on race, gender or weight were observed in fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol systemic exposure.
In terms of other patient characteristics, a study in CYP2D6 poor metabolisers showed no evidence of a clinically significant effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on systemic exposure to umeclidinium.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Pharmacological and toxicological effects seen with fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol in nonclinical studies were those typically associated with glucocorticoids, muscarinic receptor antagonists, or beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists. Administration of combined fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol to dogs did not result in any significant new toxicity or any major exacerbation of expected findings associated with fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol alone.
Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity: Fluticasone furoate: Fluticasone furoate was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies and was not carcinogenic in lifetime inhalation studies in rats or mice at exposures of 1.4- or 2.9-fold, respectively, those seen in humans at a daily dose of 100 micrograms fluticasone furoate, based on AUC.
Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium was not genotoxic in a standard battery of studies and was not carcinogenic in lifetime inhalation studies in mice or rats at exposures ≥ 20- or ≥ 17-fold the human clinical exposure at a daily dose of 62.5 micrograms umeclidinium, based on AUC respectively.
Vilanterol: Vilanterol (as alpha-phenylcinnamate) and triphenylacetic acid were not genotoxic indicating that vilanterol (as trifenatate) does not represent a genotoxic hazard to humans. Consistent with findings for other beta2 agonists, in lifetime inhalation studies vilanterol trifenatate caused proliferative effects in the female rat and mouse reproductive tract and rat pituitary gland. There was no increase in tumour incidence in rats or mice at exposures 0.9- or 22-fold, respectively, the human clinical exposure of vilanterol at a daily dose of 25 micrograms based on AUC.
Reproductive toxicity: Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol did not have any adverse effects on male or female fertility in rats.
Fluticasone furoate: Fluticasone furoate was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits, but delayed development in rats and caused abortion in rabbits at maternally toxic doses. There were no effects on development in rats at exposures 6.6-fold the human clinical exposure at a daily dose of 100 micrograms, based on AUC. Fluticasone furoate had no adverse effect on pre- or post-natal development in rats.
Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits. In a pre- and post-natal study, subcutaneous administration of umeclidinium to rats resulted in lower maternal body weight gain and food consumption and slightly decreased pre-weaning pup body weights in dams given 180 micrograms/kg/day dose (approximately 61-fold the human clinical exposure of umeclidinium at a daily dose of 62.5 micrograms, based on AUC).
Vilanterol: Vilanterol was not teratogenic in rats. In inhalation studies in rabbits, vilanterol caused effects similar to those seen with other beta2-adrenergic agonists (cleft palate, open eyelids, sternebral fusion and limb flexure/malrotation). When given subcutaneously there were no effects at exposures 62-fold the human clinical exposure at a daily dose of 25 micrograms, based on AUC. Vilanterol had no adverse effect on pre- or post-natal development in rats.
Indications/Uses
Trelegy Ellipta is indicated as a maintenance treatment in adult patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are not adequately treated by a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting β2-agonist or a combination of a long-acting β2-agonist and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (for effects on symptom control and prevention of exacerbations see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: Adults: The recommended and maximum dose is one inhalation of Trelegy Ellipta 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily, at the same time each day.
If a dose is missed the next dose should be taken at the usual time the next day.
Special populations: Elderly patients: No dosage adjustment is required in patients over 65 years (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is required in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric population: There is no relevant use of Trelegy Ellipta in the paediatric population (under 18 years of age) for the indication of COPD.
Method of administration: Trelegy Ellipta is for inhalation use only.
Instructions for use: Refer to the step-by-step instructions under Patient Counselling Information.
Overdosage
An overdose will likely produce signs, symptoms or adverse effects associated with the individual components' pharmacological actions (e.g. Cushing's syndrome, Cushingoid features, adrenal suppression, decrease in bone mineral density, dry mouth, visual accommodation disturbances, tachycardia, arrhythmias, tremor, headache, palpitations, nausea, hyperglycaemia and hypokalaemia).
There is no specific treatment for an overdose with Trelegy Ellipta. If overdose occurs, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring as necessary.
Cardioselective beta-blockade should only be considered for profound vilanterol overdose effects that are clinically concerning and unresponsive to supportive measures. Cardioselective beta-blocking medicinal products should be used with caution in patients with a history of bronchospasm.
Further management should be clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Asthma: Trelegy Ellipta should not be used in patients with asthma since it has not been studied in this patient population.
Not for acute use: There are no clinical data to support the use of Trelegy Ellipta for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm, or to treat an acute COPD exacerbation (i.e. as a rescue therapy).
Deterioration of disease: Increasing use of short-acting bronchodilators to relieve symptoms may indicate deterioration of disease control. In the event of deterioration of COPD during treatment with Trelegy Ellipta, a re-evaluation of the patient and of the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken.
Patients should not stop therapy with Trelegy Ellipta without physician supervision since symptoms may recur after discontinuation.
Paradoxical bronchospasm: Administration of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol may produce paradoxical bronchospasm with an immediate wheezing and shortness of breath after dosing and may be life-threatening. Treatment with Trelegy Ellipta should be discontinued immediately if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs. The patient should be assessed and alternative therapy instituted if necessary.
Cardiovascular effects: Cardiovascular effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias, e.g. atrial fibrillation and tachycardia, may be seen after the administration of muscarinic receptor antagonists and sympathomimetics, including umeclidinium and vilanterol, respectively. Therefore, Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with unstable or life-threatening cardiovascular disease.
Patients with hepatic impairment: Patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment receiving Trelegy Ellipta should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid-related adverse reactions (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Systemic corticosteroid effects: Systemic effects may occur with any inhaled corticosteroid, particularly at high doses prescribed for long periods. These effects are much less likely to occur than with oral corticosteroids.
Visual disturbance: Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.
Coexisting conditions: Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis, and in patients who are unusually responsive to beta2-adrenergic agonists.
Trelegy Ellipta should be administered with caution in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis or in patients with chronic or untreated infections.
Anticholinergic activity: Trelegy Ellipta should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma or urinary retention. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma and should be informed to stop using Trelegy Ellipta and to contact their doctor immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop.
Pneumonia in patients with COPD: An increase in the incidence of pneumonia, including pneumonia requiring hospitalisation, has been observed in patients with COPD receiving inhaled corticosteroids. There is some evidence of an increased risk of pneumonia with increasing steroid dose but this has not been demonstrated conclusively across all studies.
There is no conclusive clinical evidence for intra-class differences in the magnitude of the pneumonia risk among inhaled corticosteroid products.
Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD as the clinical features of such infections overlap with the symptoms of COPD exacerbations.
Risk factors for pneumonia in patients with COPD include current smoking, older age, low body mass index (BMI) and severe COPD.
Hypokalaemia: Beta2-adrenergic agonists may produce significant hypokalaemia in some patients, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.
No clinically relevant effects of hypokalaemia were observed in clinical studies with Trelegy Ellipta at the recommended therapeutic dose. Caution should be exercised when Trelegy Ellipta is used with other medicinal products that also have the potential to cause hypokalaemia (see Interactions).
Hyperglycaemia: Beta2-adrenergic agonists may produce transient hyperglycaemia in some patients. No clinically relevant effects on plasma glucose were observed in clinical studies with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol at the recommended therapeutic dose. There have been reports of increases in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients treated with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol and this should be considered when prescribing to patients with a history of diabetes mellitus. Upon initiation of treatment with Trelegy Ellipta, plasma glucose should be monitored more closely in diabetic patients.
Excipients: This medicinal product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are limited data from the use of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at exposures which are not clinically relevant (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Administration of Trelegy Ellipta to pregnant women should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the foetus.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, vilanterol or their metabolites are excreted in human milk. However, other corticosteroids, muscarinic antagonists and beta2-adrenergic agonists are detected in human milk. A risk to newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue Trelegy Ellipta therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
Fertility: There are no data on the effects of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol on human fertility. Animal studies indicate no effects of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium or vilanterol on male or female fertility (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The most frequently reported adverse reactions with Trelegy Ellipta were nasopharyngitis (7%), headache (5%) and upper respiratory tract infection (2%).
Tabulated summary of adverse reactions: The safety profile of Trelegy Ellipta is based on three phase III clinical studies.
The first study included safety data from 911 patients with COPD who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms, once daily, for up to 24 weeks, of whom 210 patients received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily for up to 52 weeks, with an active comparator (study CTT116853, FULFIL).
The second study included safety data from 527 patients with COPD who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (100/62.5/25 micrograms) and 528 patients with COPD who received fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (100/25 micrograms) + umeclidinium (62.5 micrograms) once daily for up to 24 weeks (study 200812).
The third study included safety data from 4,151 patients with COPD who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol 100/62.5/25 micrograms once daily for up to 52 weeks, with two active comparators (study CTT116855, IMPACT).
Where adverse reaction frequencies differed between studies, the higher frequency is reported as follows.
Adverse reactions detected during these clinical trials are listed by MedDRA system organ class.
The frequency of adverse reactions is defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from available data). (See Table 3.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Pneumonia: In a total of 1810 patients with advanced COPD (mean post bronchodilator screening FEV1 45% of predicted, standard deviation (SD) 13%), 65% of whom had experienced a moderate/severe COPD exacerbation in the year prior to study entry (study CTT116853), there was a higher incidence of pneumonia events reported up to 24 weeks in patients receiving Trelegy Ellipta (20 patients, 2%) than in patients receiving budesonide/formoterol (7 patients, <1%). Pneumonia which required hospitalisation occurred in 1% of patients receiving Trelegy Ellipta and <1% of patients receiving budesonide/formoterol up to 24 weeks. One fatal case of pneumonia was reported in a patient who received Trelegy Ellipta. In the subset of 430 patients treated for up to 52 weeks, the incidence of pneumonia events reported in both Trelegy Ellipta and budesonide/formoterol arms was equal at 2%. The incidence of pneumonia with Trelegy Ellipta is comparable with that observed in the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) 100/25 arm of FF/VI clinical studies in COPD.
In a 52-week study, with a total of 10,355 patients with COPD and a history of moderate or severe exacerbations within the prior 12 months (mean post-bronchodilator screening FEV1 46% of predicted, SD 15%) (study CTT116855), the incidence of pneumonia was 8% (317 patients) for Trelegy Ellipta (n = 4,151), 7% (292 subjects) for fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (n = 4,134), and 5% (97 subjects) for umeclidinium/vilanterol (n = 2,070). Fatal pneumonia occurred in 12 of 4,151 patients (3.5 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving Trelegy Ellipta, 5 of 4,134 patients (1.7 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, and 5 of 2,070 patients (2.9 per 1,000 patient-years) receiving umeclidinium/vilanterol.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
Drug Interactions
Clinically significant drug interactions mediated by fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol at clinical doses are considered unlikely due to the low plasma concentrations achieved after inhaled dosing.
Interaction with beta-blockers: Beta2-adrenergic blockers may weaken or antagonise the effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as vilanterol. If beta-blockers are required, cardioselective beta-blockers should be considered, however, caution should be exercised during concurrent use of both non-selective and selective beta-blockers.
Interaction with CYP3A4 inhibitor: Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol are rapidly cleared by extensive first pass metabolism mediated by enzyme CYP3A4.
Caution is advised when co-administering with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, ritonavir, cobicistat-containing products) as there is potential for increased systemic exposure to both fluticasone furoate and vilanterol, which could lead to an increased potential for adverse reactions. Co-administration should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the increased risk of systemic corticosteroid adverse reactions, in which case patients should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid adverse reactions. A repeat dose study was performed in healthy subjects with the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination (200/25 micrograms) and ketoconazole (400 milligrams, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor). Co-administration increased mean fluticasone furoate AUC(0-24) and Cmax by 36% and 33%, respectively. The increase in fluticasone furoate exposure was associated with a 27% reduction in 0-24 hours weighted mean serum cortisol. Co-administration increased mean vilanterol AUC(0-t) and Cmax by 65% and 22%, respectively. The increase in vilanterol exposure was not associated with an increase in beta2-agonist related systemic effects on heart rate or blood potassium.
Interaction with CYP2D6 inhibitors/CYP2D6 polymorphism: Umeclidinium is a substrate of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium was assessed in healthy volunteers lacking CYP2D6 (poor metabolisers). No effect on umeclidinium AUC or Cmax was observed at a dose 8-fold higher than the therapeutic dose. An approximately 1.3-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed at 16-fold higher dose with no effect on umeclidinium Cmax. Based on the magnitude of these changes, no clinically relevant drug interaction is expected when fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol is co-administered with CYP2D6 inhibitors or when administered to patients who are genetically deficient in CYP2D6 activity (poor metabolisers).
Interaction with P-glycoprotein inhibitors: Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol are substrates of the P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp). The effect of the moderate P-gp inhibitor verapamil (240 mg once daily) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol was assessed in healthy volunteers. No effect of verapamil was observed on umeclidinium or vilanterol Cmax. An approximately 1.4-fold increase in umeclidinium AUC was observed with no effect on vilanterol AUC. Based on the magnitude of these changes, no clinically relevant drug interaction is expected when fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol is co-administered with P-gp inhibitors. Clinical pharmacology studies with a specific P-gp inhibitor and fluticasone furoate have not been conducted.
Other long acting antimuscarinics and long acting beta2-adrenergic agonists: Co-administration of Trelegy Ellipta with other long-acting muscarinic antagonists or long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists has not been studied and is not recommended as it may potentiate the adverse reactions (see Adverse Reactions and Overdosage).
Hypokalaemia: Concomitant hypokalaemic treatment with methylxanthine derivatives, steroids, or non-potassium-sparing diuretics may potentiate the possible hypokalaemic effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists, therefore caution should be exercised (see Precautions).
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: After inhalation, patients should rinse their mouth with water without swallowing.
The Ellipta inhaler contains pre-dispensed doses and is ready to use.
The inhaler is packaged in a tray containing a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture. The desiccant sachet should be thrown away and it should not be opened, eaten or inhaled. The patient should be advised to not open the tray until they are ready to inhale a dose.
The inhaler will be in the 'closed' position when it is first taken out of its sealed tray. The "Discard by" date should be written on the inhaler label and carton in the space provided. The date should be added as soon as the inhaler has been removed from the tray. The "Discard by" date is one month from the date of opening the tray. After this date the inhaler should no longer be used. The tray can be discarded after first opening.
If the inhaler cover is opened and closed without inhaling the medicinal product, the dose will be lost. The lost dose will be securely held inside the inhaler, but it will no longer be available to be inhaled.
It is not possible to accidentally take extra medicine or a double dose in one inhalation.
For further instructions for use and handling, see Dosage & Administration.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
If stored in a refrigerator allow the inhaler to return to room temperature for at least an hour before use.
Keep the inhaler inside the sealed tray to protect from moisture and only remove immediately before first use.
Write the date that the inhaler should be discarded on the label and carton in the space provided. The date should be added as soon as the inhaler has been removed from the tray.
Shelf life: 2 years.
Shelf-life after opening the tray: 1 month.
Patient Counseling Information
Step by step instructions: What is the inhaler?: The first time you use Trelegy Ellipta you do not need to check the inhaler if it is working properly; it contains previously measured doses and is ready to use straight away.
The inhaler is packaged in a tray. Do not open the tray until you are ready to inhale a dose of your medicine. When you are ready to use your inhaler, peel back the lid to open the tray. The tray contains a desiccant sachet, to reduce moisture. Throw this desiccant sachet away - don't open, eat or inhale it.
When you take the inhaler out of the sealed tray, it will be in the 'closed' position. Don't open the inhaler until you are ready to inhale a dose of medicine. Write the "Discard by" date on the inhaler label in the space provided. The "Discard by" date is 1 month from the date you open the tray. After this date the inhaler should no longer be used. The tray can be discarded after first opening.
The step-by-step instructions for use of the inhaler provided as follows is for the use of 30-dose Ellipta inhaler (30 day supply): 1. Read this before you start: If you open and close the cover without inhaling the medicine, you will lose the dose.
The lost dose will be securely held inside the inhaler, but it will no longer be available.
It is not possible to accidentally take extra medicine or a double dose in one inhalation.
Dose counter: This shows how many doses of medicine are left in the inhaler.
Before the inhaler has been used, it shows exactly 30 doses.
It counts down by 1 each time you open the cover.
When fewer than 10 doses are left, half of the dose counter shows red.
After you have used the last dose, half of the dose counter shows red and the number 0 is displayed. Your inhaler is now empty.
If you open the cover after this, the dose counter will change from half red to completely red.
Cover: Each time you open this, you prepare one dose of medicine.
2. Prepare a dose: Wait to open the cover until you are ready to take your dose.
Do not shake the inhaler.
Slide the cover down until you hear a "click".
Your medicine is now ready to be inhaled.
The dose counter counts down by 1 to confirm.
If the dose counter does not count down as you hear the "click", the inhaler will not deliver medicine. Take it back to your pharmacist for advice.
Don't shake the inhaler at any time.
3. Inhale your medicine: While holding the inhaler away from your mouth, breathe out as far as is comfortable.
Don't breathe out into the inhaler.
Put the mouthpiece between your lips, and close your lips firmly around it.
Don't block the air vent with your fingers.
Take one long, steady, deep breath in. Hold this breath in for as long as possible (at least 3-4 seconds).
Remove the inhaler from your mouth.
Breathe out slowly and gently.
You may not be able to taste or feel the medicine, even when you are using the inhaler correctly.
If you want to clean the mouthpiece, use a dry tissue, before you close the cover.
4. Close the inhaler and rinse your mouth: Slide the cover upwards as far as it will go, to cover the mouthpiece.
Rinse your mouth with water after you have used the inhaler, do not swallow.
This will make it less likely that you will develop a sore mouth or throat as side effects.
ATC Classification
R03AL08 - vilanterol, umeclidinium bromide and fluticasone furoate ; Belongs to the class of combination of adrenergics with anticholinergics, that may also include a corticosteroid. Used in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases.
Presentation/Packing
Inhalation powd (inhaler) (pre-dispensed, white powder in a light grey inhaler (Ellipta) with a beige mouthpiece cover and a dose counter) x 30 doses.
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