Studies on pharmacokinetic interactions have not been performed. Based on empirical knowledge from similar medicinal products, clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions are unlikely to occur. A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require dose adjustment of insulin glulisine and particularly close monitoring.
Substances that may enhance the blood-glucose-lowering effect and increase susceptibility to hypoglycemia include oral antidiabetic agents, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamide oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), pentoxifylline, propoxyphene, salicylates and sulfonamide antibiotics.
Substances that may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect include corticosteroids, danazol, diazoxide, diuretics, glucagons, isoniazid, phenothiazine derivatives, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g. epinephrine [adrenaline], salbutamol, terbutaline), thyroid hormones, estrogens, progestins (e.g. in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors and atypical antipsychotic medications (e.g. olanzapine and clozapine).
Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts or alcohol may either potentiate or weaken the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia.
In addition, under the influence of sympatholytic medicinal products such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine and reserpine, the signs of adrenergic counter-regulation may be reduced or absent.