Pharmacology: Carvedilol is a β-adrenoceptor antagonist which also causes peripheral vasodilation primarily via α1-adrenergic blockade. Carvedilol produces its antihypertensive effect partly by reducing total peripheral resistance by blocking α1-adrenoceptor and by preventing β-adrenoceptor-mediated compensatory mechanisms.
Dosage adjustment in renal impaired patients is not required. However, peak plasma carvedilol concentrations and bioavailability are significantly increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment (e.g. cirrhosis) and the use of carvedilol in these patients is not recommended.