Dacogen

Dacogen

Manufacturer:

Johnson & Johnson
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Decitabine.
Description
Each 20 mL single dose vial contains 50 mg of decitabine.
After aseptic reconstitution with 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, each mL of the concentrate of solution for infusion contains 5 mg of decitabine.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Potassium dihydrogen phosphate; Sodium hydroxide.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Anti-neoplastic and Immunomodulating Agent, Pyrimidine Analogues. ATC Code: L01BC08.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Decitabine (5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine) is a cytosine nucleoside analogue that selectively inhibits DNA methyltransferases at low doses, resulting in gene promoter hypomethylation that can result in reactivation of tumour suppressor genes, induction of cellular differentiation or cellular senescence followed by programmed cell death.
Clinical Studies: Clinical studies in MDS: Phase 2 Study (DACO-020): 5-Day Dosing Regimen: An open-label, single arm, multicenter study (DACO-20) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of DACOGEN in MDS patients with any of the FAB subtypes. In this study, 99 patients with IPSS Intermediate-1, Intermediate-2, or high risk prognostic scores received DACOGEN by the 5-Day dosing regimen of 20 mg/m2 intravenous infusion over 1-hour daily, on Days 1 to 5 every 4 weeks (1 cycle). The results were consistent with the results of the Phase 3 study and summarized in Table 1. (See Table 1.)


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Phase 3 Study (D-0007): 3-Day Dosing Regimen: A randomized, open-label multicenter, controlled study (D-0007) evaluated DACOGEN in 170 subjects with MDS meeting FAB classification criteria and IPSS High Risk, Intermediate-2, and Intermediate-1 prognostic scores. DACOGEN was administered as the 3-Day dosing regimen of 15 mg/m2, by continuous intravenous infusion over 3 hours repeated every 8 hours for 3 consecutive days of every 6-weeks cycle.
In the Phase 3 clinical study, CRs and PRs were seen across all IPSS subgroups. However, a greater beneficial effect was evident in the subgroups of patients classified as Int-2 and High Risk, see Table 2.


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Clinical studies in AML: The use of DACOGEN was studied in an open-label, randomized, multicenter Phase 3 study (DACO-016) in subjects with newly diagnosed de novo or secondary AML according to the WHO classification. DACOGEN (n=242) was compared to treatment choice (TC, n=234) which consisted of patient's choice with physician's advice of either supportive care alone (n=28, 11.5%) or 20 mg/m2 cytarabine subcutaneously once daily for 10 consecutive days repeated every 4 weeks (n=215, 88.5%). DACOGEN was administered as a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 20 mg/m2 once daily for 5 consecutive days repeated every 4 weeks. The median age for the intent-to-treat (ITT) population was 73 years (range 64 to 91 years). Thirty-six percent of subjects had poor-risk cytogenetics at baseline. The remainder of the subjects had intermediate-risk cytogenetics. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. The secondary endpoint was complete remission rate that was assessed by independent expert review. Progression-free survival and event-free survival were tertiary endpoints.
The median overall survival in the ITT population was 7.7 months in subjects treated with DACOGEN compared to 5.0 months for subjects in the TC arm (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.04, p=0.1079). The difference did not reach statistical significance, however, there was a trend for improvement in survival with a 15% reduction in the risk of death for subjects in the DACOGEN arm (Figure 1). When censored for potentially disease modifying subsequent therapy (i.e., induction chemotherapy or hypomethylating agent) the analysis for overall survival showed a 20% reduction in the risk of death for subjects in the DACOGEN arm (HR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.64; 0.99, p-value=0.0437). (See Figure 1.)


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In an analysis with an additional 1 year of mature survival data, the effect of DACOGEN on overall survival demonstrated a clinically meaningful improvement compared to the TC arm (7.7 months versus 5.0 months, respectively, HR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99, nominal p-value=0.0373, see Figure 2).


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Based on the initial analysis in the intent-to-treat population, a statistically significant difference in complete remission rate (CR+CRp) was achieved in favour of subjects in the DACOGEN arm, 17.8% (43/242) compared to the TC arm, 7.8% (19/243); treatment difference 9.9% (95% CI: 4.07; 15.83), p=0.0011. The median time to best response and median duration of best response in patients who achieved a CR or CRP were 4.3 months and 8.3 months, respectively. Progression-free survival was significantly longer for subjects in the DACOGEN arm, 3.7 months (95% CI: 2.7; 4.6) compared with subjects in the TC arm, 2.1 months (95% CI: 1.9; 3.1); HR=0.75; 95% CI; 0.62; 0.91, p=0.0031. These results as well as other endpoints are shown in Table 3. (See Table 3.)


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Overall survival and complete remission rates in pre-specified disease-related sub-groups (i.e., cytogenetic risk, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] score, age, type of AML, and baseline bone marrow blast count) were consistent with results for the overall study population.
The use of DACOGEN as initial therapy was also evaluated in an open-label, single-arm, Phase 2 study (DACO-017) in 55 subjects > 60 years with AML according to the WHO classification. The primary endpoint was CR rate assessed by independent expert review. The secondary endpoint of the study was overall survival. DACOGEN was administered as a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 20 mg/m2 once daily for 5 consecutive days repeated every 4 weeks. In the ITT analysis, a CR rate of 23.6% (95% CI: 13.2% to 37%) was observed in 13/55 subjects treated with DACOGEN. The median time to CR was 4.1 months, and the median duration of CR was 18.2 months. The median overall survival in the intent-treat population was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.7, 11.5).
Pharmacokinetics: The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of decitabine were pooled from 3 clinical studies [DACO-017 (n=11), DACO-020 (n=11) and DACO-016 (n=23)] utilizing the 5-Day regimen (20 mg/m2 x 1-hour x 5 days every 4 weeks) and 1 study, DACO-018 (n=12), utilizing the 3-Day regimen (15 mg/m2 x 3-hours every 8 hours x 3 days every 6 weeks) in MDS or AML patients. In the 5-Day regimen, decitabine PK was evaluated on the fifth day of the first treatment cycle. Total dose per cycle was 100 mg/m2. In the 3-Day regimen, decitabine PK was evaluated after the first dose of each dosing day of the first treatment cycle. Total dose per cycle was 135 mg/m2.
Distribution: The pharmacokinetics of decitabine following intravenous administration as a 1-hour (5-Day regimen) or 3-hour (3-Day regimen) infusion was described by a linear two-compartment model, characterized by rapid elimination of the drug from the central compartment and by relatively slow distribution from the peripheral compartment. For a typical patient (weight 70 kg/body surface area 1.73 m2) the decitabine PK parameters are listed in Table 4 as follows. (See Table 4.)


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Decitabine exhibits linear PK and following the intravenous infusion, steady-state concentrations are reached within 0.5 hour. Based on model simulation, PK parameters were independent of time (i.e., did not change from cycle to cycle) and no accumulation was observed with this dosing regimen. Plasma protein binding of decitabine is negligible (<1%). Decitabine Vdss in cancer patients is large indicating distribution of the drug into peripheral tissues. There was no evidence of dependencies on age, creatinine clearance, total bilirubin, or disease.
Metabolism: Intracellularly, decitabine is activated through sequential phosphorylation via phosphokinase activities to the corresponding triphosphate, which is then incorporated by the DNA polymerase. In light of in vitro metabolism data, the human mass balance study results indicated that the cytochrome P450 system is not involved in the metabolism of decitabine. The primary route of metabolism is likely through deamination by cytidine deaminase in the liver, kidney, intestinal epithelium and blood. Results from the human mass-balance study showed that unchanged decitabine in plasma accounted for approximately 2.4% of total radioactivity in plasma. The major circulating metabolites are not believed to be pharmacologically active. The presence of these metabolites in urine together with the high total body clearance and low urinary excretion of unchanged drug in the urine (4% of the dose) indicate that decitabine is appreciably metabolized in vivo. In addition, in vitro data show that decitabine is a poor P-gp substrate.
Elimination: Mean plasma clearance following intravenous administration in cancer subjects was >200 L/h with moderate inter-subject variability (Coefficient Variation [CV] is approximately 50%). Excretion of unchanged drug appears to play only a minor role in the elimination of decitabine.
Results from a mass balance study with radioactive 14C-decitabine in cancer patients showed that 90% of the administered dose of decitabine (4% unchanged drug) is excreted in the urine.
Special populations: The effects of renal or hepatic impairment, gender, age or race on the pharmacokinetics of decitabine have not been formally studied. Information on special populations was derived from pharmacokinetic data from the 4 studies noted previously.
Elderly: Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that decitabine PK are not dependent on age (range studied 40 to 87 years; median 70 years).
Hepatic impairment: The PK of decitabine have not been formally studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Results from a human mass-balance study and in vitro experiments mentioned previously indicated that the CYP enzymes are unlikely to be involved in the metabolism of decitabine. In addition, the limited data from the population PK analysis indicated no significant PK parameter dependencies on total bilirubin concentration despite a wide range of total bilirubin levels. Thus, decitabine exposure is not likely to be affected in patients with impaired hepatic function.
Renal impairment: The PK of decitabine have not been formally studied in patients with renal insufficiency. The population PK analysis on the limited decitabine data indicated no significant PK parameter dependencies on normalized creatinine clearance, an indicator of renal function. Thus, decitabine exposure is not likely to be affected in patients with impaired renal function.
Other populations: Gender: Population PK analysis of decitabine did not show any clinically relevant difference between men and women.
Race: Most of the patients studied were Caucasian. However, the population PK analysis of decitabine indicated that race had no apparent effect on the exposure to decitabine.
Toxicology: Formal carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with decitabine. Evidence from the literature indicates that decitabine has carcinogenic potential. The available data from in vitro and in vivo studies provide sufficient evidence that decitabine has genotoxic potential. Data from the literature also indicate that decitabine has adverse effects on all aspects of the reproductive cycle, including fertility, embryo-fetal development and post-natal development. Multi-cycle repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and rabbits indicated that the primary toxicity was myelosuppression, including effects on bone marrow, which was reversible on cessation of treatment. Gastrointestinal toxicity was also observed and in males, testicular atrophy which did not reverse over the scheduled recovery periods. Decitabine administration to neonatal/juvenile rats showed a comparable general toxicity profile as in older rats. Neurobehavioural development and reproductive capacity were unaffected when neonatal/juvenile rats were treated at dose levels inducing myelosuppression.
Indications/Uses
DACOGEN is indicated for treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) including previously treated and untreated, de novo and secondary MDS of all French-American-British (FAB) subtypes and Intermediate-1, Intermediate-2, and High-Risk International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) groups.
DACOGEN is indicated for the treatment of adult patients aged 65 years and above with newly diagnosed de novo or secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, who are not candidates for standard induction chemotherapy.
DACOGEN must be administered under the supervision of physicians experienced in the use of chemotherapy agents.
Dosage/Direction for Use
There are 2 regimens recommended for DACOGEN administration.
A 5-Day dosing regimen in the treatment of AML, and a 3-Day or 5-Day dosing regimen in the treatment of MDS. With either regimen, it is recommended that patients be treated for a minimum of 4 cycles; however, a response may take longer than 4 cycles to be obtained. In the AML Phase 3 study, the median time to response (complete remission [CR] or CR with incomplete platelet recovery [CRP] was 4.3 months. In MDS, the median time to response (CR+PR) in the Phase 2 MDS studies with the 5-Day dosing regimen was 3.5 cycles. In the Phase 3 MDS study with the 3-Day dosing regimen, the median time to response was 3 cycles.
Treatment may be continued as long as the patient shown response, continues to benefit or exhibits stable disease, i.e., in the absence of overt progression.
If after 4 cycles, the patient's hematological values (e.g., platelet counts or absolute neutrophil count), have not returned to pre-treatment levels or if disease progression occurs (peripheral blast counts are increasing or bone marrow blast counts are worsening), the patient may be considered to be a non-responder and alternative therapeutic options to DACOGEN should be considered.
Pre-medication for the prevention of nausea and vomiting is not routinely recommended but may be administered if required.
Treatment Regimen in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: In a treament cycle, DACOGEN is administered at a dose of 20 mg/m2 body surface area by intravenous infusion over 1 hour repeated daily for 5 consecutive days (i.e., a total of 5 doses per treatment cycle). The total daily dose must not exceed 100 mg/m2. The cycle should be repeated every 4 weeks depending on the patient's clinical response and observed toxicity. If a dose is missed, treatment should be resumed as soon as possible. It is possible to use this regimen in an outpatient setting.
Treatment Regimen in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: 3-Day Dosing Treatment Regimen in MDS: In a treatment cycle, DACOGEN is administered for 3 consecutive days at a fixed dose of 15 mg/m2 body surface area over a 3-hour period every 8 hours (i.e., a total of 9 doses per treatment cycle). This cycle is repeated approximately every 6 weeks depending on the patient's clinical response and observed toxicity. The total daily dose must not exceed 45 mg/m2 and the total dose per treatment cycle must not exceed 135 mg/m2. If a dose is missed, treatment should be resumed as soon as possible.
5-Day Dosing Treatment Regimen in MDS: In a treatment cycle, DACOGEN is administered at a dose of 20 mg/m2 body surface area by intravenous infusion over 1 hour repeated daily for 5 consecutive days (i.e., a total of 5 doses per treatment cycle). The total daily dose must not exceed 20 mg/m2 and the total dose per treatment cycle must not be exceed 100 mg/m2 . The cycle should be repeated every 4 weeks depending on the patient's clinical response and observed toxicity.
If a dose is missed, treatment should be resumed as soon as possible. It is possible to use this regimen in an outpatient setting.
Management of Myelosuppression and Associated Complication: Myelosuppression and adverse events related to myelosuppression (thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia) are common in both treated and untreated patients with AML and MDS. Complications of myelosuppression include infections and bleeding. Treatment may be modified in patients experiencing myelosuppression and associated complications as described as follows: In AML: Treatment may be delayed at the discretion of the treating physician, if the patient experiences myelosuppressionassociated complications, such as those described as follows: Febrile neutropenia (temperature ≥38.5°C and absolute neutrophil count <1,000/μL).
Active viral, bacterial or fungal infection (i.e., requiring intravenous anti-infectives or extensive supportive care).
Hemorrhage (gastrointestinal, genito-urinary, pulmonary with platelets <25,000/μL or any central nervous system).
Treatment with DACOGEN may be resumed once these conditions have improved or have been stabilized with adequate treatment (anti-infective therapy, transfusion, or growth factors).
In MDS: 5-Day Dosing Regimen: Dose reduction is not recommended in this clinical setting to optimize patient benefit, dose should be delayed as follows: Dose Regimen Modifications in the First 3 Cycles: During the first cycles of treatment, Grade 3-and 4 cytopenias are common and may not represent progression of MDS. Pre-treatment cytopenias may not improve until after Cycle 3.
For the first 3 cycles, to optimize patient benefit in the setting of moderate neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/μL), all attempts should be made to maintain full dose treatment at the standard treatment cycle interval. Concomitant antimicrobial prophylaxis as per institutional guidelines can be administered until recovery of granulocytes to above 500μL. Clinicians should also consider the need for early administration of growth factors during this time for the prevention or treatment of infections in patients with MDS.
Similarly, to optimize patient benefit in the setting of moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count <25,000 μL), all attempts should be made to maintain full dose treatment at the standard treatment cycle interval with concomitant administration of platelet transfusions in case of bleeding events.
Dose Regimen Modifications After Cycle 3: Dose should be delayed in case of the following toxicities considered to be at least possibly related to the treatment: Severe myelosuppression-associated complications (infections not resolving with adequate anti-infective therapy, bleeding not resolving with adequate treatment); Prolonged myelosuppression-suppression defined as a hypocellular marrow (5% or less cellularity) without evidence of disease progression for 6 weeks or more after the start of a course of therapy.
If recovery (absolute neutrophil count >1,000/μL and platelets >50,000 μL) requires more than 8 weeks, the patient should be discontinued from the treatment of drug and assessed for disease progression (by bone marrow aspirate) within 7 days after the end of 8 weeks. For patients who have been treated for at least 6 cycles, and who continue to derive benefit from the therapy, a prolonged delay beyond 8 weeks can be allowed, in the absence of progression, at the discretion of the treating physician.
3 -Day Dosing Regimen: Dose Regimen Modifications in the First 3 Cycles: During the first cycles of treatment, Grade 3 and 4 cytopenias are common and may not represent progression of MDS. Pre-treatment cytopenias may not improve until after Cycle 3.
For the first 3 cycles, to optimize patient benefit in the setting of moderate neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/μL), all attempts should be made to maintain full dose treatment at the standard treatment cycle interval. Concomitant antimicrobial prophylaxis as per institutional guidelines can be administered until recovery of granulocytes to above 500/μL. Clinicians should also consider the need for early administration of growth factors during this time for the preventing or treatment of infections in patients with MDS.
Similarly, to optimize patient benefit in the setting of moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count <25,000/μL), all attempts should be made to maintain full dose treatment at the standard treatment cycle interval with concomitant administration of platelet transfusions in case of bleeding events.
Dose Modifications After Cycle 3: If hematologic recovery (absolute neutrophil count >1,000/μL and platelets >50,000/μL) from a previous DACOGEN treatment cycle, with persistent cytopenia(s) being considered related to drug administration, requires more than 6 weeks, then the next cycle of DACOGEN therapy should be delayed and dosing reduced by the algorithm as follows. All dose reductions that occur should remain in effect for the duration of the chemotherapy; there should be no dose re-escalation.
Recovery requiring more than 6 weeks, but less than 8 weeks - DACOGEN dosing to be delayed for up to 2 weeks and the dose reduced to 11 mg/m2 every 8 hours (33 mg/m2/day, 99 mg/m2/cycle) upon restarting therapy.
Recovery requiring more than 8 weeks, but less than 10 weeks - the DACOGEN dose should be delayed up to 2 more weeks and the dose reduced to 11 mg/m2 every 8 hours (33 mg/m2 /day, 99 mg/m2/cycle) upon restarting therapy, then maintained in subsequent cycles as clinically indicated.
Recovery requiring more than 10 weeks - Patient should be discontinued from the treatment of drug and assessed for disease progression (by bone marrow aspirates) within 7 days after the end of 10 weeks. However, for patients who have been treated for at least 6 cycles, and who continue to derive benefit from the therapy, a prolonged delay beyond 10 weeks can be allowed, in the absence of progression, at the discretion of the treating physician.
Dose Modifications for Non-Hematological Toxicities: Following treatment with either DACOGEN regimen, if the following non-hematological toxicities occur, the next cycle of DACOGEN therapy should be withheld until levels return to within the normal range or baseline.
Serum creatinine greater than or equal to 2 mg/dL. Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or total bilirubin greater than or equal to 2 times the upper limit of normal.
Active viral or bacterial infection that is not controlled by concomitant anti-infective therapy.
Special Populations: Pediatric patients: The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Hepatic Impairment: Studies in patients with hepatic impairment have not been conducted. The need for dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic impairment has not been evaluated. If worsening hepatic function occurs, patients should be carefully monitored. (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Renal impairment: Studies in patients with renal impairment have not been conducted. The need for dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment has not been evaluated.
Method of Administration: DACOGEN is administered by intravenous infusion. A central venous catheter is not required. For instructions on reconstitution and dilution of the medicinal product before administration, (see Instructions for Use and Handling and Disposal under Cautions for Usage).
Overdosage
There is no direct experience of human overdose and no specific antidote. However, early clinical study data in published literature at doses greater than 20 times higher than the current therapeutic doses, reported increased myelosuppression including prolonged neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Toxicity is likely to manifest as exacerbations of adverse drug reactions, primarily myelosuppression (see Adverse Reactions). Treatment for overdose should be supportive.
Contraindications
Known hypersensitivity to decitabine or any of the excipients (see Excipients/Inactive Ingredients under Description).
Lactation (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Special Precautions
Myelosuppression: Myelosuppression and complications of myelosuppression, including infections and bleeding that occur in patients with MDS or AML may be exacerbated with DACOGEN treatment. Myelosuppression caused by DACOGEN is reversible. Complete blood and platelet counts should be performed regularly, as clinically indicated and prior to each treatment cycle. In the presence of myelosuppression or its complications, treatment with DACOGEN may be interrupted or the dose reduced or supportive measures instituted as recommended in Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions.
Hepatic impairment: The use of DACOGEN in patients with hepatic impairment has not been established. Caution should be exercised in the administration of DACOGEN to patients with hepatic impairment and patients should be monitored closely (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Dosage & Administration).
Renal impairment: The use of DACOGEN in patients with severe renal impairment has not been studied. Caution should be exercised in the administration of DACOGEN to patients with severe renal impairment (Creatinine Clearance [CrCl] <30 mL/min) and these patients should be monitored closely (see Dosage & Administration).
Cardiac disease: Patients with a history of severe congestive heart failure or clinically unstable cardiac disease were excluded from clinical studies and therefore the safety and efficacy of DACOGEN in these patients has not been established.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No studies of the effects on the ability to drive or use machines with DACOGEN have been performed. Patients should be advised that they may experience undesirable effects, such as anemia, during treatment. Therefore, caution should be recommended when driving a car or operating machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Women of childbearing potential should be advised to use effective contraceptive measures and avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with DACOGEN. The time period following treatment with DACOGEN where it is safe to become pregnant is unknown. There are no adequate data on the use of DACOGEN in pregnant women. Studies have shown that decitabine is teratogenic in rats and mice (see Pharmacology: Toxicology under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Based on results from animal studies and its mechanism of action, DACOGEN should not be used during pregnancy, unless clearly necessary. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if a patient becomes pregnant while receiving DACOGEN, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Use in Males: Men should be advised to not father a child while receiving DACOGEN, and for 3 months following completion of treatment (see Pharmacology: Toxicology under Actions).
Fertility: Female patients of childbearing potential should be advised to seek consultation regarding oocyte cryopreservation prior to initiation of treatment with DACOGEN. Because of the possibility of infertility as a consequence of DACOGEN therapy, men should be advised to seek advice on conservation of sperm prior to any treatment.
Breast-feeding: It is not known whether decitabine or its metabolites are excreted in breast milk. DACOGEN is contraindicated during lactation; therefore if treatment with DACOGEN is required, breast-feeding must be discontinued (see Contraindications).
Adverse Reactions
Clinical Study Data: Throughout this section, adverse reactions are reported. Adverse reactions are adverse events that were considered to be reasonably associated with the use of DACOGEN based on the comprehensive assessment of the available adverse event information. A causal relationship with DACOGEN cannot be reliably established in individual cases. Further, because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The most important and frequently occurring adverse reactions in both the 5-Day and 3-Day regimens are myelosuppression and those occurring as a consequence of myelosuppression.
The safety of DACOGEN was evaluated in 682 subjects from AML and MDS clinical studies (D-0007, DACO-016, DACO-017, DACO-020, EORTC-06011 and ID03-0180). In these clinical studies, DACOGEN was administered with the 5-Day or 3-Day dosing regimen. Adverse reactions reported during these clinical studies are summarized as follows in Table 5. The adverse reactions are listed by frequency category. Frequency categories are defined as follows: Very common (≥1/10), Common (≥1/100 to 1/10) and Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to 1/100).
Within each frequency grouping, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 5.)


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Description of selected adverse reactions: Hematologic adverse reactions: The most commonly reported hematologic adverse reactions associated with DACOGEN treatment included febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anaemia and leukopenia.
Serious infection-related adverse reactions such as septic shock, sepsis, and pneumonia were reported in patients receiving DACOGEN.
Serious bleeding-related adverse reactions such as CNS hemorrhage (1%) and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2%), in the context of severe thrombocytopenia, were reported in patients receiving DACOGEN.
Hematological adverse drug reactions should be managed by routine monitoring of complete blood counts and supportive treatments as required. Supportive treatments include, administration of prophylactic antibiotics and/or growth factor support (e.g. G-CSF) for neutropenia and transfusions for anaemia or thrombocytopenia according to institutional guidelines. For situations where decitabine administration should be delayed, see Dosage & Administration.
Post-Marketing Data: No additional adverse reactions were identified in the analysis of the post-marketing safety database.
Drug Interactions
No formal clinical drug interaction studies with decitabine have been conducted.
There is the potential for a drug-drug interaction with other agents which are also activated by sequential phosphorylation (via intracellular phosphokinase activities) and/or metabolized by enzymes implicated in the inactivation of decitabine (e.g., cytidine deaminase). Therefore, caution should be exercised if these drugs are combined with DACOGEN.
Impact of co-administered drugs on decitabine: CYP450-mediated metabolic drug interactions are not anticipated as decitabine metabolism is not mediated by this system but by oxidative deamination. Displacement of decitabine from its plasma protein binding by co-administered drugs is unlikely given the negligible in vitro plasma protein binding (1%) of decitabine. In vitro data indicated that decitabine is a poor P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and is therefore not prone to interaction with P-gp inhibitors.
Impact of decitabine on co-administered drugs: Given its low in vitro plasma protein binding (1%), decitabine is unlikely to displace co-administered drugs from their plasma protein binding. In vitro studies show that decitabine does not inhibit nor induce CYP 450 enzymes up to more than 20-fold of the therapeutic maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax). Thus, CYP-mediated metabolic drug interactions are not anticipated and is unlikely to interact with agents metabolized through these pathways. Decitabine, has been shown to be a weak inhibitor of P-gp mediated transport in vitro and is therefore also not expected to affect P-gp mediated transport of co-administered drugs (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Caution For Usage
Instructions for Use and Handling and Disposal: This medicinal product is for single use only. Skin contact with the solution should be avoided and protective gloves must be worn. Standard procedures for dealing with anticancer agents should be adopted. DACOGEN should be aseptically reconstituted with 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection. Upon reconstitution, each mL contains approximately 5.0 mg of decitabine at pH 6.7 to 7.3. Immediately after reconstitution, the solution should be further diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection, to a final drug concentration of 0.15 to 1.0 mg/mL. Unless used within 15 minutes of reconstitution, the diluted solution must be prepared using cold 2°C to 8°C) infusion fluids and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to a maximum of 4 hours until administration. Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products. DACOGEN should not be infused through the same intravenous access/line with other medicinal products.
Storage
Unopened vial: Do not store above 25°C.
Shelf Life: Unopened vial: 3 years. Do not store above 25°C.
After reconstitution: Unless used within 15 minutes of reconstitution, the diluted solution must be prepared using cold (2°C to 8°C) infusion fluids and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to a maximum of 4 hours until administration.
ATC Classification
L01BC08 - decitabine ; Belongs to the class of antimetabolites, pyrimidine analogues. Used in the treatment of cancer.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for infusion (vial) 50 mg (white to almost white sterile lyophilized powder) x 20 mL x 1's.
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