Onglyza

Onglyza

Manufacturer:

Kalbe Farma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Saxagliptin.
Description
Each film-coated tablet of saxagliptin (ONGLYZA) contains 5 mg or 2.5 mg of saxagliptin free base (as saxagliptin hydrochloride).
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, talc, and iron oxides.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drug used in diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. ATC code: A10BH03.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Saxagliptin is a highly potent (Ki: 1.3 nM), selective, reversible, competitive DPP-4 inhibitor. In patients with type 2 diabetes, administration of saxagliptin led to inhibition of DPP-4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load, this DPP-4 inhibition resulted in a 2-to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), decreased glucagon concentrations and increased glucose-dependent beta-cell responsiveness, which resulted in higher insulin and C-peptide concentrations. The rise in insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and the decrease in glucagon from pancreatic alpha-cells were associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal. Saxagliptin improves glycaemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clinical safety and efficacy: A total of 4,148 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 3,021 patients treated with, saxagliptin were randomised in 6 double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control. In these studies 634 patients were 65 years and older, while 59 patients were 75 years and older. Treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg once daily produced clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) compared to placebo in monotherapy, in combination with metformin (initial or add-on therapy), in combination with a sulphonylurea, and in combination with a thiazolidinedione (see Table 1). There was also no apparent change in body weight associated with saxagliptin. Reductions in HbA1c were seen across subgroups including gender, age, race, and baseline body mass index (BMI) and higher baseline HbA1c was associated with a greater adjusted mean change from baseline with saxagliptin.
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin therapy: An add-on to metformin placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10%) on metformin alone. Saxagliptin (n=186) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG and PPG compared to placebo (n=175). Improvements in HbA1c, PPG, and FPG following treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin were sustained up to Week 102. The HbA1c change for saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin (n=31) compared to placebo plus metformin (n=15) was -0.8% at Week 102.
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with SU add-on to metformin: A 52-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (428 patients) compared with sulphonylurea (glipizide, 5 mg titrated as needed to 20 mg, mean dose of 15 mg) in combination with metformin (430 patients) in 858 patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 6.5%-10%) on metformin alone. The mean metformin dose was approximately 1900 mg in each treatment group. After 52 weeks, the saxagliptin and glipizide groups had similar mean reductions from baseline in HbA1c in the per-protocol analysis (-0.7% vs. -0.8%, respectively, mean baseline HbA1c of 7.5% for both groups). The intent-to-treat analysis showed consistent results. The reduction in FPG was slightly less in the saxagliptin-group and there were more discontinuations (3.5% vs. 1.2%) due to lack of efficacy based on FPG criteria during the first 24 weeks of the study. Saxagliptin also resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients with hypoglycaemia, 3% (19 events in 13 subjects) vs. 36.3% (750 events in 156 patients) for glipizide. Patients treated with saxagliptin exhibited a significant decrease from baseline in body weight compared to a weight gain in patients administered glipizide (-1.1 vs. +1.1 kg).
Saxagliptin add-on to metformin compared with sitagliptin add-on to metformin: An 18-week study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin (403 patients), compared with sitagliptin 100 mg in combination with metformin (398 patients) in 801 patients with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone. After 18 weeks, saxagliptin was non-inferior to sitagliptin in mean reduction from baseline in HbA1c in both the per-protocol and the full analysis sets. The reductions from baseline in HbA1c respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin in the primary per-protocol analysis were -0.5% (mean and median) and -0.6% (mean and median). In the confirmatory full analysis set, mean reductions were -0.4% and -0.6% respectively for saxagliptin and sitagliptin, with median reductions of -0.5% for both groups.
Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with insulin (with or without metformin): A total of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with a stable dose of insulin (baseline mean: 54.2 Units) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥7.5% and ≤11%) on insulin alone (n=141) or on insulin in combination with a stable dose of metformin (n=314). Saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin with or without metformin provided significant improvements after 24 weeks in HbA1c and PPG compared with placebo add-on to insulin with or without metformin. Similar HbA1c reductions versus placebo were achieved for patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg add-on to insulin regardless of metformin use (-0.4% for both subgroups). Improvements from baseline HbA1c were sustained in the saxagliptin add-on to insulin group compared to the placebo add-on to insulin group with or without metformin at Week 52. The HbA1c change for the saxagliptin group (n=244) compared to placebo (n=124) was -0.4% at Week 52.
Saxagliptin add-on to glibenclamide therapy: An add-on placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with glibenclamide in patients with inadequate glycaemic control at enrolment (HbA1c 7.5-10%) on a sub-maximal dose of glibenclamide alone. Saxagliptin in combination with a fixed, intermediate dose of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 7.5 mg) was compared to titration to a higher dose of glibenclamide (approximately 92% of patients in the placebo plus glibenclamide group were up-titrated to a final total daily dose of 15 mg). Saxagliptin (n=250) provided significant improvements in HbA1c, FPG and PPG compared to titration to a higher dose of glibenclamide (n=264).
Saxagliptin add-on to thiazolidinedione therapy: A placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) in patients with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c 7-10.5%) on TZD alone.
Patients with renal impairment: A 12-week, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the treatment effect of saxagliptin 2.5 mg once daily compared with placebo in 170 patients (85 patients on saxagliptin and 85 on placebo) with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0-11%) and renal impairment (moderate [N=90]; severe [N=41]; or ESRD [N=39]). In this study, 98.2% of the patients were treated with other antihyperglycaemic medication (75.3% on insulin and 31.2% on oral antihyperglycaemic drugs; some received both). Saxagliptin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo; the HbA1c change for saxagliptin was -0.9% at Week 12 (HbA1c change of -0.4% for placebo). Improvements in HbA1c following treatment with saxagliptin 2.5 mg were sustained up to Week 52, however the number of patients who completed 52 weeks without modification of other antihyperglycaemic medications was low (26 subjects in the saxagliptin group versus 34 subjects in the placebo group). The incidence of confirmed hypoglycaemic events was somewhat higher in the saxagliptin group (9.4%) versus placebo group (4.7%) although the number of subjects with any hypoglycaemic event did not differ between the treatment groups. There was no adverse effect on renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate or CrCL at Week 12 and Week 52. (See Table 1.)


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Saxagliptin add-on combination therapy with metformin plus sulfonylurea: A total of 257 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this 24-week, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin (5 mg once daily) in combination with metformin plus sulfonylurea (SU) in patients with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1C and PPG compared with the placebo (n=128). The HbA1C change for saxagliptin compared to placebo was -0.7% at week 24.
Cardiovascular safety: The SAVOR trial included 8240 patients treated with ONGLYZA once daily and 8173 patients on placebo. The mean duration of ONGLYZA exposure regardless of interruptions was 1.8 years. A total of 3698 subjects (45%) were treated with ONGLYZA for between 2 and 3 years.
The primary safety and efficacy endpoint was a composite endpoint consisting of the time-to first occurrence of any of the following major adverse CV events (MACE): CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal ischemic stroke.
The primary safety objective of this trial was to establish that the upper bound of the 2-sided 95% CI for the estimated risk ratio comparing the incidence of the composite endpoint of CV death, non-fatal MI or non-fatal ischemic stroke observed with saxagliptin to that observed in the placebo group was <1.3.
The primary efficacy objective was to determine, as a superiority assessment, whether treatment with saxagliptin, compared with placebo when added to current background therapy, resulted in a significant reduction in the primary MACE endpoint.
The first secondary efficacy endpoint was a composite endpoint consisting of the time-to-first occurrence of MACE plus hospitalization for heart failure, hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris, or hospitalization for coronary revascularization (MACE plus). The next secondary efficacy endpoint was to determine whether treatment with saxagliptin compared with placebo when added to current background therapy in subjects with T2DM would result in a reduction of all-cause mortality.
SAVOR established the CV safety of saxagliptin, as CV risk (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal ischemic stroke) was not increased in patients with T2DM compared to placebo when added to current background therapy (HR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.12; P<0.001 for noninferiority).
The primary efficacy endpoint did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in major adverse CV events for saxagliptin compared to placebo when added to current background therapy in patients with T2DM. (See Table 2 and Figure.)


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Events accumulated consistently over time, and the event rates for TRADEMARK and placebo did not diverge notably over time.
One component of the secondary composite endpoint, hospitalization for heart failure, occurred at a greater rate in the saxagliptin group (3.5%) compared with the placebo group (2.8%), with nominal statistical significance (ie, without adjustment for testing of multiple endpoints) favouring placebo [HR = 1.27; (95% CI 1.07, 1.51); P = 0.007]. Clinically relevant factors predictive of increased relative risk with saxagliptin treatment could not be definitively identified. Subjects at higher risk for hospitalization for heart failure, irrespective of treatment assignment, could be identified by known risk factors for heart failure such as baseline history of heart failure or impaired renal function. However, subjects on saxagliptin with a history of heart failure or impaired renal function at baseline were not at an increased risk relative to placebo for the primary or secondary composite endpoints or all-cause mortality.
No increased risk for the primary endpoint was observed between saxagliptin and placebo in any of the following subgroups: CVD, multiple risk factors for CVD, mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment, age, gender, race, region, duration of type 2 diabetes, history of heart failure, baseline A1C, albumin/creatinine ratio, baseline antidiabetic medication, or baseline use of statins, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, beta-blockers, or antiplatelet medications.
Despite active management of concomitant antidiabetic therapy in both study arms, mean A1C levels were lower in the saxagliptin group compared to the placebo group at Year 1 (7.6% versus 7.9%, difference of -0.35% [95% CI: -0.38, -0.31]) and at Year 2 (7.6% versus 7.9%, difference of -0.30% [95% CI: -0.34, -0.26]). The proportions of subjects with A1C <7% in the saxagliptin group compared to the placebo group were 38% versus 27% at Year 1 and 38% versus 29% at Year 2.
Compared to placebo, saxagliptin resulted in less need for the initiation of new or increases in current oral diabetes medications or insulin. The improvements in A1C and the proportion of subjects reaching A1C targets among saxagliptin-treated subjects were observed despite lower rates of upward adjustments in diabetes medications or initiation of new diabetes medications or insulin compared with placebo.
Pharmacokinetics: The pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Absorption: Saxagliptin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in the fasted state, with maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of saxagliptin and its major metabolite attained within 2 and 4 hours (Tmax), respectively. The Cmax and AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally with the increment in the saxagliptin dose, and this dose-proportionality was observed in doses up to 400 mg. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of saxagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite were 78 ng·h/ml and 214 ng·h/ml, respectively. The corresponding plasma Cmax values were 24 ng/ml and 47 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-subject coefficients of variation for saxagliptin Cmax and AUC were less than 12%.
The inhibition of plasma DPP-4 activity by saxagliptin for at least 24 hours after oral administration of saxagliptin is due to high potency, high affinity, and extended binding to the active site.
Interaction with food: Food had relatively modest effects on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin in healthy subjects. Administration with food (a high-fat meal) resulted in no change in saxagliptin Cmax and a 27% increase in AUC compared with the fasted state. The time for saxagliptin to reach Cmax (Tmax) was increased by approximately 0.5 hours with food compared with the fasted state. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Distribution: The in vitro protein binding of saxagliptin and its major metabolite in human serum is negligible. Thus, changes in blood protein levels in various disease states (e.g., renal or hepatic impairment) are not expected to alter the disposition of saxagliptin.
Biotransformation: The biotransformation of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). The major metabolite of saxagliptin is also a selective, reversible, competitive DPP-4 inhibitor, half as potent as saxagliptin.
Elimination: The mean plasma terminal half-life (t½) values for saxagliptin and its major metabolite are 2.5 hours and 3.1 hours respectively, and the mean t½ value for plasma DPP-4 inhibition was 26.9 hours. Saxagliptin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic pathways. Following a single 50 mg dose of 14C-saxagliptin, 24%, 36%, and 75% of the dose was excreted in the urine as saxagliptin, its major metabolite, and total radioactivity respectively. The average renal clearance of saxagliptin (~230 ml/min) was greater than the average estimated glomerular filtration rate (~120 ml/min), suggesting some active renal excretion. For the major metabolite, renal clearance values were comparable to estimated glomerular filtration rate. A total of 22% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in faeces representing the fraction of the saxagliptin dose excreted in bile and/or unabsorbed medicinal product from the gastrointestinal tract.
Linearity: The Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin and its major metabolite increased proportionally to the saxagliptin dose. No appreciable accumulation of either saxagliptin or its major metabolite was observed with repeated once-daily dosing at any dose level. No dose- and time-dependence was observed in the clearance of saxagliptin and its major metabolite over 14 days of once-daily dosing with saxagliptin at doses ranging from 2.5 mg to 400 mg.
Special populations: Renal impairment: A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 10 mg oral dose of saxagliptin in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function.
The study included patients with renal impairment classified on the basis of-creatinine clearance (based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula) as mild (>50 to ≤80 ml/min), moderate (≥30 to ≤50 ml/min), or severe (≤30 ml/min), as well as patients with ESRD on haemodialysis.
The degree of renal impairment did not affect the Cmax of saxagliptin or its major metabolite. In subjects with mild renal impairment, the mean AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were 1.2- and 1.7- fold higher, respectively, than mean AUC values in subjects with normal renal function. Because increases of this magnitude are not clinically relevant, dose adjustment in patients with mild renal impairment is not recommended. In subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment or in subjects with ESRD on haemodialysis, the AUC values of saxagliptin and its major metabolite were up to 2.1- and 4.5-fold higher, respectively, than AUC values in subjects with normal renal function. The dose of ONGLYZA should be reduced to 2.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment (see Dosage & Adminisration and Precautions).
Hepatic impairment: In subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B), or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment the exposures to saxagliptin were 1.1-, 1.4- and 1.8-fold higher, respectively, and the exposures to BMS-510849 were 22%, 7%, and 33% lower, respectively, than those observed in healthy subjects.
Elderly patients (≥65 years): Elderly (65-80 years) had about 60% higher saxagliptin AUC than young patients (18-40 years). This is not considered clinically meaningful, therefore, no dose adjustment for ONGLYZA is recommended on the basis of age alone.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: In cynomolgus monkeys saxagliptin produced reversible skin lesions (scabs, ulcerations and necrosis) in extremities (tail, digits, scrotum and/or nose) at doses ≥3 mg/kg/day. The no effect level (NOEL) for the lesions is 1 and 2 times the human exposure of saxagliptin and the major metabolite respectively, at the recommended human dose of 5 mg/day (RHD). The clinical relevance of the skin lesions is not known, however clinical correlates to skin lesions in monkeys have not been observed in human clinical trials of saxagliptin. Immune related findings of minimal, nonprogressive, lymphoid hyperplasia in spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow with no adverse sequelae have been reported in all species tested at exposures starting from 7 times the RHD.
Saxagliptin produced gastrointestinal toxicity in dogs, including bloody/mucoid faeces and enteropathy at higher doses with a NOEL 4 and 2 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively, at RHD.
Saxagliptin was not genotoxic in a conventional battery of genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo. No carcinogenic potential was observed in two-year carcinogenicity assays with mice and rats.
Effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats at high doses producing overt signs of toxicity. Saxagliptin was not teratogenic at any doses evaluated in rats or rabbits. At high doses in rats, saxagliptin caused reduced ossification (a developmental delay) of the foetal pelvis and decreased foetal body weight (in the presence of maternal toxicity), with a NOEL 303 and 30 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively, at RHD. In rabbits, the effects of saxagliptin were limited to minor skeletal variations observed only at maternally toxic doses (NOEL 158 and 224 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively at RHD). In a pre- and postnatal developmental study in rats, saxagliptin caused decreased pup weight at maternally toxic doses, with NOEL 488 and 45 times the human exposure for saxagliptin and the major metabolite, respectively at RHD The effect on offspring body weights were noted until postnatal day 92 and 120 in females and males, respectively.
Indications/Uses
Add-on combination therapy: ONGLYZA is indicated in adult patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycaemic control: In combination with metformin, when metformin alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycaemic control.
In combination with a sulphonylurea, when the sulphonylurea alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom use of metformin is considered inappropriate.
In combination with a thiazolidinedione, when the thiazolidinedione alone with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom use of a thiazolidinedione is considered appropriate.
In combination with insulin (with or without metformin), when this regime alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycaemic control.
In combination with metformin 1500 mg and sulfonylurea (glycazide or glimepiride) when the two agent, with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Add-on combination therapy: The recommended dose of ONGLYZA is 5 mg once daily as add-on combination therapy with metformin, insulin, a thiazolidinedione or a sulphonylurea.
Saxagliptin as triple therapy with metformin 1500 mg and sulfonylurea (glycazide or glimepiride) is appropriate when the two agent, with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control.
Special populations: Renal impairment: No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild renal impairment.
The dose of ONGLYZA should be reduced to 2.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment. Clinical study experience with ONGLYZA in patients with severe renal impairment or patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis is limited. Therefore, use of ONGLYZA is not recommended in this patient population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions). Because the dose of ONGLYZA should be limited to 2.5 mg based upon renal function, assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiation of ONGLYZA, and, in keeping with routine care, renal assessment should be done periodically thereafter (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Saxagliptin should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Precautions).
Elderly (≥65 years): No dose adjustment is recommended based solely on age. Experience in patients aged 75 years and older is very limited and caution should be exercised when treating this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Paediatric population: ONGLYZA is not recommended for use in children and adolescents due to lack of data on safety and efficacy.
Method of administration: ONGLYZA can be taken with or without a meal at any time of the day. If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as the patient remembers. A double dose should not be taken on the same day.
Overdosage
ONGLYZA has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated with no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval or heart rate at oral doses up to 400 mg daily for 2 weeks (80 times the recommended dose). In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. Saxagliptin and its major metabolite can be removed by haemodialysis (23% of dose over 4 hours).
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipient or history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema, to any dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions).
Special Precautions
General: ONGLYZA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Onglyza is not a substitute for insulin in insulin-requiring patients.
Pancreatitis: In post-marketing experience there have been spontaneously reported adverse reactions of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis: persistent, severe abdominal pain. Resolution of pancreatitis has been observed after discontinuation of saxagliptin. If pancreatitis is suspected, ONGLYZA and other potentially suspect medicinal products should be discontinued (see Adverse Reactions).
In the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR) Trial, the incidence of adjudicated pancreatitis events was 0.3% in both ONGLYZA-treated patients and placebo-treated patients in the intent-to-treat population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical safety and efficacy under Actions).
Renal impairment: Clinical study experience with saxagliptin in patients with severe renal impairment is limited. Therefore, use of ONGLYZA is not recommended in this patient population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Dosage & Administration).
Hepatic impairment: Saxagliptin should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, and is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration).
Use with medicinal products known to cause hypoglycaemia: Sulphonylureas and insulin are known to cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of sulphonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with ONGLYZA.
Hypersensitivity reactions: ONGLYZA should not be used in patients who have had any serious hypersensitivity reaction to a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor. During postmarketing experience, the following adverse reactions have been reported with use of saxagliptin: serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction to saxagliptin is suspected, discontinue ONGLYZA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes (see Contraindications and Adverse Reactions).
Elderly patients: Experience in patients aged 75 years and older is very limited and caution should be exercised when treating this population (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Of the 16,492 patients randomized in the SAVOR trial, 8561 (51.9%) patients were 65 years and over and 2330 (14.1%) were 75 years and over. The number of subjects treated with ONGLYZA in the SAVOR study that were 65 years and over was 4290 and the number of subjects that were 75 years and over was 1169.
Skin disorders: Ulcerative and necrotic skin lesions have been reported in extremities of monkeys in non-clinical toxicology studies (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). Although skin lesions were not observed at an increased incidence in clinical trials, there is limited experience in patients with diabetic skin complications. Post marketing reports of rash have been described in the DPP4 inhibitor class. Rash is also noted as an adverse event (AE) for ONGLYZA (see Adverse Reactions). Therefore, in keeping with routine care of the diabetic patient, monitoring for skin disorders, such as blistering, ulceration or rash, is recommended.
Cardiac failure: In the SAVOR trial an increase in the rate of hospitalization for heart failure was observed in the saxagliptin treated patients compared to placebo, although a causal relationship has not been established. Caution is warranted if Onglyza is used in patients who have known risk factors for hospitalization for heart failure, such as a history of heart failure or moderate to severe renal impairment. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure, and to immediately report such symptoms. (See Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical safety and efficacy: Cardiovascular safety under Actions.)
Immunocompromised patients: Immunocompromised patients, such as patients who have undergone organ transplantation or patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency syndrome, have not been studied in the ONGLYZA clinical program. Therefore, the efficacy and safety profile of saxagliptin in these patients has not been established.
Use with potent CYP 3A4 inducers: Using CYP3A4 inducers like carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampicin may reduce the glycaemic lowering effect of ONGLYZA (see Interactions).
Lactose: The tablet contain lactose monohydrate. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Arthralgia: Joint pain, which may be severe, has been reported in postmarketing reports for DPP4 inhibitors. 30 Patients experienced relief of symptoms after discontinuation of the medication and some experienced recurrence of symptoms with reintroduction of the same or another DPP4 inhibitor. Onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy may be rapid or may occur after longer periods of treatment. If a patient presents with severe joint pain, continuation of drug therapy should be individually assessed. (See Adverse Reactions.)
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: ONGLYZA may have a negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, when driving or operating machines, it should be taken into account that dizziness has been reported with saxagliptin.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no data from the use of saxagliptin in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown. ONGLYZA should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Lactation: It is unknown whether saxagliptin is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of saxagliptin and/or metabolite in milk. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy to the woman.
Fertility: The effect of saxagliptin on fertility in humans has not been studied. Effects on fertility were observed in male and female rats at high doses producing overt signs of toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinal safety data under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Clinical experience: In randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials, over 17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with ONGLYZA.
Adverse reactions associated with ONGLYZA in the SAVOR trial: The overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with ONGLYZA in this trial was similar to placebo (72.5% versus 72.2%, respectively).
In the SAVOR trial, the incidence of adjudicated pancreatitis events was 0.3% in both ONGLYZA-treated patients and placebo-treated patients in the intent-to-treat population.
The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions was 1.1% in both ONGLYZA-treated patients and placebo-treated patients.
Hvpoglycemia: In the SAVOR trial, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia (recorded in daily patient diaries) was 17.1% in ONGLYZA-treated patients and 14.8% in placebo-treated patients.
The percent of subjects with reported on-treatment events of major hypoglycemia (defined as an event that required assistance of another person) was higher in the saxagliptin group than in the placebo group (2.1% and 1.6%, respectively).
The increased risk of overall hypoglycemia and major hypoglycemia observed in the saxagliptin-treated group occurred primarily in subjects treated with a sulfonylurea at baseline and not in subjects on insulin or metformin monotherapy at baseline.
The increased risk of overall and major hypoglycemia was primarily observed in subjects with A1C <7% at baseline.
Summary of the safety profile: There were 4,148 patients with type 2 diabetes, including 3,021 patients treated with ONGLYZA, randomised in six double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of saxagliptin on glycaemic control.
In a pooled analysis, the overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg was similar to placebo. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was higher in patients who received saxagliptin 5 mg as compared to placebo (3.3% as compared to 1.8%).
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: Adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo or that were reported in ≥2% of patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg and ≥1% more frequently compared to placebo are shown in Table 3.
The adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as Very common (≥1/10), Common (≥1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to 1/100), Rare (≥1/10,000 to 1/1,000), or Very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 3.)


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Description of selected adverse reactions: In addition to the adverse reactions described previously, adverse events reported regardless of causal relationship to the medicinal product and occurring more commonly in patients treated with ONGLYZA include hypersensitivity (0.6% vs. 0%) and rash (1.4% vs. 1.0%) as compared with placebo.
Adverse events, considered by the investigator to be at least possibly drug-related and reported in at least two more patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg compared to control, are described as follows by treatment regimen.
As monotherapy: dizziness (common) and fatigue (common).
As add-on to metformin: dyspepsia (common) and myalgia (common).
As add-on to sulphonylurea (glibenclamide): fatigue (uncommon), dyslipidemia (uncommon) and hypertriglyceridemia (uncommon).
As initial combination with metformin: gastritis (common), arthralgia (uncommon), myalgia (uncommon), and erectile dysfunction (uncommon).
When used as add-on to insulin (with or without metformin), the overall incidence of reported hypoglycaemia was 18.4% for Onglyza 5 mg and 19.9% for placebo.
In the add-on to combination with metformin plus SU study, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 10.1% for Onglyza 5 mg and 6.3% for placebo. Confirmed hypoglycemia was reported in 1.6% of the saxagliptin-treated patients and in none of the placebo-treated patients.
Adverse reactions from spontaneous reporting: During postmarketing experience, the following adverse reactions have been reported with use of saxagliptin: acute pancreatitis, arthralgia and hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, and urticaria. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency (see Contraindications and Precautions).
Laboratory tests: Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse events was similar in patients treated with saxagliptin 5 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small decrease in absolute lymphocyte count was observed. From a baseline mean absolute lymphocyte count of approximately 2,200 cells/μl, a mean decrease of approximately 100 cells/μl relative to placebo was observed in the placebo-controlled-pooled analysis. Mean absolute lymphocyte counts remained stable with daily dosing up to 102 weeks in duration. The decreases in lymphocyte count were not associated with clinically relevant adverse reactions. The clinical significance of this decrease in lymphocyte count relative to placebo is not known.
In the SAVOR trial, decreased lymphocyte counts were reported in 0.5% of ONGLYZA-treated patients and 0.4% of placebo-treated patients.
Drug Interactions
Clinical data described as follows suggest that the risk for clinically meaningful interactions with co-administered medicinal products is low.
The metabolism of saxagliptin is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5). In in vitro studies, saxagliptin and its major metabolite neither inhibited CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4, nor induced CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, or 3A4. In studies conducted in healthy subjects, neither the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and its major metabolite, were meaningfully altered by metformin, glibenclamide, pioglitazone, digoxin, simvastatin, omeprazole, antacids or famotidine. In addition, saxagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glibenclamide, pioglitazone, digoxin, simvastatin, diltiazem or ketoconazole.
Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 diltiazem, increased the Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 63% and 2.1-fold, respectively, and the corresponding values for the active metabolite were decreased by 44 and 34%, respectively.
Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the potent inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 ketoconazole, increased the Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 62% and 2.5-fold, respectively, and the corresponding values for the active metabolite were decreased by 95% and 88%, respectively.
Concomitant administration of saxagliptin with the potent CYP3A4/5 inducer rifampicin, reduced Cmax and AUC of saxagliptin by 53% and 76%, respectively. The exposure of the active metabolite and the plasma DPP4 activity inhibition over a dose interval were not influenced by rifampicin (see Precautions).
The co-administration of saxagliptin and CYP3A4/5 inducers, other than rifampicin (such as carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital and phenytoin) have not been studied and may result in decreased plasma concentration of saxagliptin and increased concentration of its major metabolite. Glycaemic control should be carefully assessed when saxagliptin is used concomitantly with a potent CYP3A4 inducer.
The effects of smoking, diet, herbal products, and alcohol use on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin have not been specifically studied.
Caution For Usage
Incompatibilities: None.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BH03 - saxagliptin ; Belongs to the class of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 2.5 mg (pale yellow to light yellow, biconvex, round, with '2.5' printed on one side and '4214' on the reverse side, in blue ink) x 2 x 14's. 5 mg (pink, biconvex, round, with '5' printed on one side and '4215' printed on the reverse side, in blue ink) x 2 x 14's.
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