Advate

Advate

octocog alfa

Manufacturer:

Takeda

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Octocog alfa (recombinant human coagulation factor VIII).
Description
250 IU: Each vial contains nominally 250 IU human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa. ADVATE contains approximately 50 IU per ml of human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa after reconstitution.
500 IU: Each vial contains nominally 500 IU human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa. ADVATE contains approximately 100 IU per ml of human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa after reconstitution.
1000 IU: Each vial contains nominally 1000 IU human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa. ADVATE contains approximately 200 IU per ml of human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa after reconstitution.
1500 IU: Each vial contains nominally 1500 IU human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa. ADVATE contains approximately 300 IU per ml of human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA), octocog alfa after reconstitution.
The potency (International Units) is determined using the European Pharmacopoeia chromogenic assay. The specific activity of ADVATE is approximately 4,000-10,000 IU/mg protein.
Octocog alfa (human coagulation factor VIII (rDNA)) is a purified protein that has 2332 amino acids. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Prepared without the addition of any (exogenous) human- or animal-derived protein in the cell culture process, purification or final formulation.
After reconstitution, the solution is clear, colourless, free from foreign particles and has a pH of 6.7 to 7.3.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Excipients with known effect: 0.45 mmol sodium (10 mg) per vial.
Powder: Mannitol, Sodium chloride, Histidine, Trehalose, Calcium chloride, Trometamol, Polysorbate 80, Glutathione (reduced).
Solvent: Sterilised water for injections.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: antihaemorrhagics, blood coagulation factor VIII. ATC code: B02BD02.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: The factor VIII/von Willebrand Factor complex consists of two molecules (factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor) with different physiological functions. ADVATE contains recombinant coagulation factor VIII (octocog alfa), a glycoprotein that is biologically equivalent to the factor VIII glycoprotein found in human plasma.
Octocog alfa is a glycoprotein consisting of 2332 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 280 kD. When infused into a haemophilia patient, octocog alfa binds to endogenous von Willebrand Factor in the patient's circulation. Activated factor VIII acts as a Cofactor for activated Factor IX, accelerating the conversion of Factor X to activated Factor X. Activated Factor X converts prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen into fibrin and a clot can be formed. Haemophilia A is a sex-linked hereditary disorder of blood coagulation due to decreased levels of factor VIII activity and results in profuse bleeding into joints, muscles or internal organs, either spontaneously or as a result of accidental or surgical trauma. The plasma levels of factor VIII are increased by replacement therapy, thereby enabling a temporary correction of the factor VIII deficiency and correction of the bleeding tendency.
Inhibitor Development: The immunogenicity of ADVATE was evaluated in previously treated patients. During clinical trials with ADVATE in 233 paediatric and adult patients [paediatric patients (age 0-16 years) and adult patients (age over 16 years)] diagnosed with severe haemophilia A (factor VIII < 1%), with previous exposure to factor VIII concentrates ≥ 150 days for adults and older children and ≥ 50 days for children < 6 years of age, one patient developed a low-titre inhibitor (2.4 BU in the modified Bethesda assay) after 26 exposure days to ADVATE. Follow-up inhibitor tests in this patient after withdrawal from the study were negative. Across all studies, median exposure to ADVATE was 97.0 exposure days per subject (range 1 to 709) for previously treated patients. The overall incidence of any factor VIII inhibitor development (low or high) was 0.4% (1 of 233).
In the completed uncontrolled study 060103, 16 out of 45 (35.6%) of previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A (FVIII < 1%) and at least 25 EDs to FVIII developed FVIII inhibitors: 7 (15.6%) subjects developed high-titre inhibitors and 9 (20%) subjects developed low-titre inhibitors, 1 of which was also classified as a transient inhibitor.
Risk factors related to inhibitor development in this study included non-Caucasian ethnicity, family history of inhibitors and intensive treatment at high dose within the first 20 EDs. In the 20 subjects who had none of these risk factors there was no inhibitor development.
Data on Immune Tolerance Induction (ITI) in patients with inhibitors have been collected. Within a sub-study of PUP-study 060103, ITI-treatments in 11 PUPs were documented. Retrospective chart review was done for 30 subjects on ITI (study 060703) and collection of Registry data is on-going.
In study 060201 two long-term prophylaxis treatment schemes have been compared in 53 PTPs: an individualized pharmacokinetic guided dosing regimen (within a range of 20 to 80 IU of factor VIII per kg body weight at intervals of 72 ± 6 hours, n=23) with a standard prophylactic dosing regimen (20 to 40 IU/kg every 48 ±6 hours, n=30). The pharmacokinetic guided dosing regimen (according to a specific formula) was targeted to maintain factor VIII trough levels ≥ 1% at the inter-dosing interval of 72 hours. The data from this study demonstrate that the two prophylactic dosing regimens are comparable in terms of reduction of bleeding rate.
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with ADVATE in all subsets of the paediatric population in haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency) in "Immune Tolerance Induction (ITI) in patients with haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency) who have developed inhibitors to factor VIII" and "treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency)" (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Pharmacokinetics: All pharmacokinetic studies with ADVATE were conducted in previously treated patients with severe to moderately severe haemophilia A (baseline factor VIII ≤ 2%). The analysis of plasma samples was conducted in a central laboratory using a one-stage clotting assay.
A total of 195 subjects with severe haemophilia A (baseline factor VIII < 1%) provided PK parameters that were included in the Per-Protocol PK analysis set. Categories of these analyses for infants (1 month to <2 years of age), children (2 to <5 years of age), older children (5 to <12 years of age), adolescents (12 to <18 years of age), and adults (18 years of age and older) were used to summarize PK parameters, where age was defined as age at time of PK infusion. (See Table 1.)

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The safety and haemostatic efficacy of ADVATE in the paediatric population are similar to that of adult patients. Adjusted recovery and terminal half-life (t½) was approximately 20% lower in young children (less than 6 years of age) than in adults, which may be due in part to the known higher plasma volume per kilogram body weight in younger patients.
Pharmacokinetic data with ADVATE on previously untreated patients are currently not available.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on studies of safety pharmacology, acute toxicology, repeated dose toxicity, local toxicity and genotoxicity.
Indications/Uses
Treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency).
ADVATE does not contain von Willebrand Factor in pharmacologically effective quantities and is therefore not indicated in von Willebrand's disease.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Treatment should be initiated under the supervision of a physician experienced in the treatment of haemophilia and with resuscitation support immediately available in case of anaphylaxis.
Posology: The dose and duration of the substitution therapy depend on the severity of the factor VIII deficiency, on the location and extent of the bleeding and on the patient's clinical condition.
The number of units of factor VIII is expressed in International Units (IU), which are related to the WHO standard for factor VIII products. Factor VIII activity in plasma is expressed either as a percentage (relative to normal human plasma) or in IUs (relative to the international standard for factor VIII in plasma).
One International Unit (IU) of factor VIII activity is equivalent to that quantity of factor VIII in one ml of normal human plasma.
On demand treatment: The calculation of the required dose of factor VIII is based on the empirical finding that 1 IU factor VIII per kg body weight raises the plasma factor VIII activity by 2 IU/dl. The required dose is determined using the following formula: See equation.

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In case of the following haemorrhagic events, the factor VIII activity should not fall below the given plasma activity level (in % of normal or IU/dl) in the corresponding period. The following table 2 can be used to guide dosing in bleeding episodes and surgery: See Table 2.

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The dose and frequency of administration should be adapted to the clinical response in the individual case. Under certain circumstances (e.g. presence of a low-titre inhibitor), doses larger than those calculated using the formula may be necessary.
During the course of treatment, appropriate determination of plasma factor VIII levels is advised to guide the dose to be administered and the frequency of repeated injections. In the case of major surgical interventions in particular, precise monitoring of the substitution therapy by means of plasma factor VIII activity assay is indispensable. Individual patients may vary in their response to factor VIII, achieving different levels of in vivo recovery and demonstrating different half-lives.
Prophylaxis: For long-term prophylaxis against bleeding in patients with severe haemophilia A, the usual doses are 20 to 40 IU of factor VIII per kg body weight at intervals of 2 to 3 days.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of ADVATE in all paediatric age groups has been established. For on demand treatment dosing in paediatric patients does not differ from adult patients. In patients under the age of 6, doses of 20 to 50 IU of factor VIII per kg body weight 3 to 4 times weekly are recommended for prophylactic therapy.
Method of administration: ADVATE should be administered via the intravenous route. In case of administration by a non health care professional appropriate training is needed.
The rate of administration should be determined to ensure the comfort of the patient up to a maximum of 10 ml/min.
For instructions on reconstitution of the medicinal product before administration, see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage.
Overdosage
No symptoms of overdose with recombinant coagulation factor VIII have been reported.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description or to mouse or hamster proteins.
Special Precautions
Hypersensitivity: Allergic type hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported with ADVATE. The product contains traces of mouse and hamster proteins. If symptoms of hypersensitivity occur, patients should be advised to discontinue use of the product immediately and contact their physician. Patients should be informed of the signs of the early signs of hypersensitivity reactions including hives, generalised urticaria, tightness in the chest, wheezing, hypotension, and anaphylaxis.
In case of shock, standard medical treatment for shock should be implemented.
Inhibitors: The formation of neutralising antibodies (inhibitors) against factor VIII is a known complication in the management of individuals with haemophilia A. These inhibitors are usually IgG immunoglobulins directed against the factor VIII procoagulant activity, which are quantified in Bethesda Units (BU) per ml of plasma using the modified assay. In patients who develop inhibitors to factor VIII, the condition may manifest itself as an insufficient clinical response. In such cases, it is recommended that a specialised haemophilia centre be contacted. The risk of developing inhibitors is correlated to the extent of exposure to factor VIII, the risk being highest within the first 20 exposure days, and to other genetic and environmental factors. Rarely, inhibitors may develop after the first 100 exposure days.
Cases of recurrent inhibitor (low titre) have been observed after switching from one factor VIII product to another in previously treated patients with more than 100 exposure days who have a previous history of inhibitor development. Therefore, it is recommended to monitor all patients carefully for inhibitor occurrence following any product switch.
In general, all patients treated with coagulation factor VIII should be carefully monitored for the development of inhibitors by appropriate clinical observations and laboratory tests. If the expected factor VIII activity plasma levels are not attained, or if bleeding is not controlled with an appropriate dose, testing for factor VIII inhibitor presence should be performed. In patients with high levels of inhibitor, factor VIII substitution therapy may not be effective and other therapeutic options should be considered. The management of such patients should be directed by physicians with experience in the care of patients with haemophilia and factor VIII inhibitors.
Catheter-related complications in treatment: If central venous access device (CVAD) is required, risk of CVAD-related complications including local infections, bacteremia and catheter site thrombosis should be considered.
Excipient related considerations: After reconstitution this medicinal product contains 0.45 mmol sodium (10 mg) per vial. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
It is strongly recommended that every time ADVATE is administered to a patient, the name and batch number of the product are recorded in order to maintain a link between the patient and the batch of the medicinal product.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: ADVATE has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use in Children: The listed warnings and precautions apply to both adults and children.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with factor VIII. Based on the rare occurrence of haemophilia A in women, experience regarding the use of Factor VIII during pregnancy and breast-feeding is not available. Therefore, factor VIII should be used during pregnancy and lactation only if clearly indicated.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: Clinical studies with ADVATE included 418 subjects with at least one exposure to ADVATE reporting in total 93 adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The ADRs that occurred in the highest frequency were development of neutralising antibodies to factor VIII (inhibitors), headache and fever.
Hypersensitivity or allergic reactions (which may include angioedema, burning and stinging at the infusion site, chills, flushing, generalised urticaria, headache, hives, hypotension, lethargy, nausea, restlessness, tachycardia, tightness of the chest, tingling, vomiting, wheezing) have been observed rarely and may in some cases progress to severe anaphylaxis (including shock).
Development of antibodies to mouse and/or hamster protein with related hypersensitivity reactions may be observed.
Patients with haemophilia A may develop neutralising antibodies (inhibitors) to factor VIII. If such inhibitors occur, the condition will manifest itself as an insufficient clinical response. In such cases, it is recommended that a specialised haemophilia centre be contacted.
Tabulated summary of adverse reactions: The following table 3 provides the frequency of adverse drug reactions in clinical trials and from spontaneous reporting. The table is according to the MedDRA system organ classification (SOC and Preferred Term Level).
Frequency categories are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 3.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Inhibitor Development: Inhibitor development in previously treated patients (PTPs) and in previously untreated patients (PUPs) has been reported. For details refer to Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions and Precautions.
ADRs specific to residues from the manufacturing process: Of the 229 treated patients who were assessed for antibodies to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell protein, 3 showed a statistically significant upward trend in titres, 4 displayed sustained peaks or transient spikes and one patient had both but no clinical symptoms. Of the 229 treated patients who were assessed for antibodies to murine IgG, 10 showed a statistically significant upward trend, 2 displayed a sustained peak or transient spike and one patient had both. Four of these patients reported isolated events of urticaria, pruritus, rash, and slightly elevated eosinophil counts amongst numerous repeated exposures to the study product.
Hypersensitivity: Allergic type reactions include anaphylaxis and have been manifested by dizziness, paresthesias, rash, flushing, face swelling, urticaria, and pruritus.
Paediatric population: Other than the development of inhibitors in previously untreated paediatric patients (PUPs), and catheter-related complications, no age-specific differences in ADRs were noted in the clinical studies.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions: Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
Drug Interactions
No interaction studies have been performed with ADVATE.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: ADVATE is to be administered intravenously after reconstitution of the lyophilized product with the provided 5 ml sterilised water for injections. After reconstitution the solution should be clear, colourless and free from foreign particles.
For reconstitution use only the sterilised water for injections and the reconstitution device provided in the pack. For administration the use of a luer-lock syringe is required.
Use within three hours after reconstitution.
Do not refrigerate the preparation after reconstitution.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Do not use if the BAXJECT II device, its sterile barrier system or its packaging is damaged or shows any sign of deterioration.
Reconstitution: Aseptic Technique should be used.
1. If the product is still stored in a refrigerator, take both the ADVATE powder and solvent vials from the refrigerator and let them reach room temperature (between 15 °C and 25 °C).
2. Wash hands thoroughly using soap and warm water.
3. Remove caps from powder and solvent vials.
4. Cleanse stoppers with alcohol swabs. Place the vials on a flat clean surface.
5. Open the package of BAXJECT II device by peeling away the paper lid without touching the inside. Do not remove the device from the package. Do not use if the BAXJECT II device, its sterile barrier system or its packaging is damaged or shows any sign of deterioration.
6. Turn the package over and insert the clear plastic spike through the solvent stopper. Grip the package at its edge and pull the package off BAXJECT II. Do not remove the blue cap from the BAXJECT II device.
7. For reconstitution only the water for injections and the reconstitution device provided in the pack should be used. With BAXJECT II attached to the solvent vial, invert the system so that the solvent vial is on top of the device. Insert the white plastic spike through the ADVATE stopper. The vacuum will draw the solvent into the ADVATE vial.
8. Swirl gently until all material is dissolved. Be sure that ADVATE is completely dissolved, otherwise not all reconstituted solution will pass through the device filter. The product dissolves rapidly (usually in less than 1 minute). After reconstitution the solution should be clear, colourless and free from foreign particles.
Administration: Use Aseptic Technique.
Parenteral medicinal products should be inspected for particulate matter prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Only a clear and colourless solution should be used.
1. Remove the blue cap from BAXJECT II. DO NOT DRAW AIR INTO THE SYRINGE. Connect the syringe to BAXJECT II.
2. Invert the system (the vial with the reconstituted solution has to be on top). Draw the reconstituted solution into the syringe by pulling the plunger back slowly.
3. Disconnect the syringe.
4. Attach a butterfly needle to the syringe. Inject intravenously. The solution should be administered slowly, at a rate as determined by the patient's comfort level, not to exceed 10 ml per minute. The pulse rate should be determined before and during administration of ADVATE. Should a significant increase occur, reducing the rate of administration or temporarily interrupting the injection usually allows the symptoms to disappear promptly (see Precautions and Adverse Reactions).
Incompatibilities: In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products or solvents.
Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2 °C - 8 °C). Do not freeze.
During the shelf life, the product may be kept at room temperature (up to 25 °C) for a single period not exceeding 6 months. The beginning of storage at room temperature should be recorded on the product carton. The product may not be returned to refrigerated storage again.
Keep the vial in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
For storage conditions after reconstitution of the medicinal product, see Shelf-Life as follows.
Shelf-Life: Unopened powder vial: 2 years.
After reconstitution: Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 3 hours at 25 °C. From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately after reconstitution.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
B02BD02 - coagulation factor VIII ; Belongs to the class of blood coagulation factors. Used in the treatment of hemorrhage.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for inj (white to off-white friable powder in vial) 250 IU x 1's. 500 IU x 1's. 1,000 IU x 1's. 1,500 IU x 1's.
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