Afinitor

Afinitor

everolimus

Manufacturer:

Novartis

Distributor:

DKSH
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Everolimus.
Description
AFINITOR (everolimus) is a kinase inhibitor.
The chemical name of everolimus is (1R,9S,12S,15R,16E,18R,19R,21R,23S,24E,26E,28E,30S,32S,35R)-1,18-dihydroxy-12-{(1R)-2-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl}-19,30-dimethoxy-15,17,21,23,29,35-hexamethyl-11,36-dioxa-4-aza-tri cyclo[30.3.1.04,9]hexatriaconta-16,24,26,28-tetraene-2,3,10,14,20-pentaone.
The molecular formula is C53H83NO14 and the molecular weight is 958.2 g/mol.
AFINITOR for oral administration contains 5 mg or 10 mg of everolimus.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: anhydrous lactose, butylated hydroxytoluene, crospovidone, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, and magnesium stearate.
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Everolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine-threonine kinase, downstream of the PI3K/AKT pathway. The mTOR pathway is dysregulated in several human cancers and in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Everolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12, resulting in an inhibitory complex formation with mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and thus inhibition of mTOR kinase activity. Everolimus reduced the activity of S6 ribosomal protein kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), downstream effectors of mTOR, involved in protein synthesis. S6K1 is a substrate of mTORC1 and phosphorylates the activation domain 1 of the estrogen receptor which results in ligand independent activation of the receptor. In addition, everolimus inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (e.g., HIF-1) and reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inhibition of mTOR by everolimus has been shown to reduce cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and glucose uptake in in vitro and/or in vivo studies.
Constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway can contribute to endocrine resistance in breast cancer. In vitro studies show that estrogen-dependent and HER2+ breast cancer cells are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of everolimus, and that combination treatment with everolimus and Akt, HER2, or aromatase inhibitors enhances the anti-tumor activity of everolimus in a synergistic manner.
Two regulators of mTORC1 signaling are the oncogene suppressors tuberin-sclerosis complexes 1 and 2 (TSC1, TSC2). Loss or inactivation of either TSC1 or TSC2 leads to activation of downstream signaling. In TSC, a genetic disorder, inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene lead to hamartoma formation throughout the body as well as seizures and epileptogenesis.
Overactivation of mTOR results in neuronal dysplasia, aberrant axonogenesis and dendrite formation, increased excitatory synaptic currents, reduced myelination, and disruption of the cortical laminar structure causing abnormalities in neuronal development and function. Treatment with an mTOR inhibitor in animal models of mTOR dysregulation in the brain resulted in seizure suppression, prevention of the development of new-onset seizures, and prevention of premature death.
Pharmacodynamics: Exposure-Response Relationship: In patients with TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), the magnitude of the reduction in SEGA volume was correlated with the everolimus trough concentration.
Cardiac Electrophysiology: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy subjects were administered a single oral dose of AFINITOR (20 mg and 50 mg) and placebo. AFINITOR at single doses up to 50 mg did not prolong the QT/QTc interval.
Clinical Studies: Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study (BOLERO-2, NCT00863655) of AFINITOR in combination with exemestane vs. placebo in combination with exemestane was conducted in 724 postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer with recurrence or progression following prior therapy with letrozole or anastrozole. Randomization was stratified by documented sensitivity to prior hormonal therapy (yes vs. no) and by the presence of visceral metastasis (yes versus no). Sensitivity to prior hormonal therapy was defined as either (1) documented clinical benefit (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], stable disease ≥ 24 weeks) to at least one prior hormonal therapy in the advanced setting or (2) at least 24 months of adjuvant hormonal therapy prior to recurrence. Patients were permitted to have received 0-1 prior lines of chemotherapy for advanced disease. The major efficacy outcome measure was progression-free survival (PFS) evaluated by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), based on investigator (local radiology) assessment. Other outcome measures included overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR).
Patients were randomized 2:1 to AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily in combination with exemestane 25 mg once daily (n = 485) or to placebo in combination with exemestane 25 mg orally once daily (n = 239). The two treatment groups were generally balanced with respect to baseline demographics and disease characteristics. Patients were not permitted to cross over to AFINITOR at the time of disease progression.
The trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in PFS by investigator assessment (Table 1 and Figure 1). The results of the PFS analysis based on independent central radiological assessment were consistent with the investigator assessment. PFS results were also consistent across the subgroups of age, race, presence and extent of visceral metastases, and sensitivity to prior hormonal therapy.
ORR was higher in the AFINITOR in combination with exemestane arm vs. the placebo in combination with exemestane arm (Table 1). There were 3 complete responses (0.6%) and 58 partial responses (12%) in the AFINITOR arm. There were no complete responses and 4 partial responses (1.7%) in the placebo in combination with exemestane arm.
After a median follow-up of 39.3 months, there was no statistically significant difference in OS between the AFINITOR in combination with exemestane arm and the placebo in combination with exemestane arm [HR 0.89 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.10)]. (See Table 1 and Figure 1.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET): Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNET): A randomized, double-blind, multi-center trial (RADIANT-3, NCT00510068) of AFINITOR in combination with best supportive care (BSC) compared to placebo in combination with BSC was conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic advanced PNET and disease progression within the prior 12 months. Patients were stratified by prior cytotoxic chemotherapy (yes vs. no) and WHO performance status (0 vs. 1 and 2). Treatment with somatostatin analogs was allowed as part of BSC. The major efficacy outcome was PFS evaluated by RECIST. After documented radiological progression, patients randomized to placebo could receive open-label AFINITOR. Other outcome measures included ORR, response duration, and OS.
Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either AFINITOR 10 mg once daily (n = 207) or placebo (n = 203). Demographics were well balanced (median age 58 years, 55% male, 79% White). Of the 203 patients randomized to BSC, 172 patients (85%) received AFINITOR following documented radiologic progression.
The trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in PFS (Table 2 and Figure 2). PFS improvement was observed across all patient subgroups, irrespective of prior somatostatin analog use. The PFS results by investigator radiological review, central radiological review and adjudicated radiological review are shown as follows in Table 2. (See Table 2 and Figure 2.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Investigator-determined response rate was 4.8% in the AFINITOR arm and there were no complete responses. OS was not statistically significantly different between arms [HR = 0.94 (95% CI 0.73, 1.20); p = 0.30].
NET of Gastrointestinal (GI) or Lung Origin: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study (RADIANT-4, NCT01524783) of AFINITOR in combination with BSC compared to placebo in combination with BSC was conducted in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic, well differentiated, non-functional NET of GI (excluding pancreatic) or lung origin. The study required that patients had well-differentiated (low or intermediate grade) histology, no prior or current history of carcinoid symptoms, and evidence of disease progression within 6 months prior to randomization. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either AFINITOR 10 mg once daily or placebo, and stratified by prior somatostatin analog use (yes vs. no), tumor origin and WHO performance status (0 vs. 1). The major efficacy outcome measure was PFS based on independent radiological assessment evaluated by RECIST. Additional efficacy outcome measures were OS and ORR.
A total of 302 patients were randomized, 205 to the AFINITOR arm and 97 to the placebo arm. The median age was 63 years (22 to 86 years); 47% were male; 76% were White; 74% had WHO performance status of 0 and 26% had WHO performance status of 1. The most common primary sites of tumor were lung (30%), ileum (24%), and rectum (13%).
The study demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in PFS per independent radiological review (Table 3 and Figure 3). There was no statistically significant difference in OS at the planned interim analysis. (See Table 3 and Figure 3.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Lack of Efficacy in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Functional Carcinoid Tumors: The safety and effectiveness of AFINITOR in patients with locally advanced or metastatic functional carcinoid tumors have not been demonstrated. In a randomized (1:1), double-blind, multi-center trial (RADIANT-2, NCT00412061) in 429 patients with carcinoid tumors, AFINITOR in combination with long-acting octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) was compared to placebo in combination with long-acting octreotide. After documented radiological progression, patients on the placebo arm could receive AFINITOR; of those randomized to placebo, 67% received open-label AFINITOR in combination with long-acting octreotide. The study did not meet its major efficacy outcome measure of a statistically significant improvement in PFS and the final analysis of OS favored the placebo in combination with long-acting octreotide arm.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC): An international, multi-center, randomized, double-blind trial (RECORD-1, NCT00410124) comparing AFINITOR 10 mg once daily and placebo, both in conjunction with BSC, was conducted in patients with metastatic RCC whose disease had progressed despite prior treatment with sunitinib, sorafenib, or both sequentially. Prior therapy with bevacizumab, interleukin 2, or interferon-α was also permitted. Randomization was stratified according to prognostic score and prior anticancer therapy. The major efficacy outcome measure for the trial was PFS evaluated by RECIST, based on a blinded, independent, central radiologic review. After documented radiological progression, patients randomized to placebo could receive open-label AFINITOR. Other outcome measures included OS.
In total, 416 patients were randomized 2:1 to receive AFINITOR (n = 277) or placebo (n = 139). Demographics were well balanced between the arms (median age 61 years; 77% male, 88% White, 74% received prior sunitinib or sorafenib, and 26% received both sequentially).
AFINITOR was superior to placebo for PFS (Table 4 and Figure 4). The treatment effect was similar across prognostic scores and prior sorafenib and/or sunitinib. Final OS results yield a hazard ratio of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.14), with no statistically significant difference between the arms. Planned cross-over from placebo due to disease progression to open-label AFINITOR occurred in 80% of the 139 patients and may have confounded the OS benefit. (See Table 4 and Figure 4.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Renal Angiomyolipoma: A randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EXIST-2, NCT00790400) of AFINITOR was conducted in 118 patients with renal angiomyolipoma as a feature of TSC (n =113) or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 5). The key eligibility requirements for this trial were at least one angiomyolipoma of ≥ 3 cm in longest diameter on CT/MRI based on local radiology assessment, no immediate indication for surgery, and age ≥ 18 years. Patients received AFINITOR 10 mg or matching placebo orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. CT or MRI scans for disease assessment were obtained at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks and annually thereafter. Clinical and photographic assessment of skin lesions were conducted at baseline and every 12 weeks thereafter until treatment discontinuation. The major efficacy outcome measure was angiomyolipoma response rate based on independent central radiology review, which was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in angiomyolipoma volume, absence of new angiomyolipoma lesion ≥ 1 cm, absence of kidney volume increase ≥ 20%, and no angiomyolipoma related bleeding of ≥ Grade 2. Key supportive efficacy outcome measures were time to angiomyolipoma progression and skin lesion response rate. The primary analyses of efficacy outcome measures were limited to the blinded treatment period and conducted 6 months after the last patient was randomized. The comparative angiomyolipoma response rate analysis was stratified by use of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) at randomization (yes vs. no).
Of the 118 patients enrolled, 79 were randomized to AFINITOR and 39 to placebo. The median age was 31 years (18 to 61 years), 34% were male, and 89% were White. At baseline, 17% of patients were receiving EIAEDs. On central radiology review at baseline, 92% of patients had at least 1 angiomyolipoma of ≥ 3 cm in longest diameter, 29% had angiomyolipomas ≥ 8 cm, 78% had bilateral angiomyolipomas, and 97% had skin lesions. The median values for the sum of all target renal angiomyolipoma lesions at baseline were 85 cm3 (9 to 1612 cm3) and 120 cm3 (3 to 4520 cm3) in the AFINITOR and placebo arms, respectively. Forty-six (39%) patients had prior renal embolization or nephrectomy. The median duration of follow-up was 8.3 months (0.7 to 24.8 months) at the time of the primary analysis.
The renal angiomyolipoma response rate was statistically significantly higher in AFINITOR-treated patients (Table 5). The median response duration was 5.3+ months (2.3+ to 19.6+ months).
There were 3 patients in the AFINITOR arm and 8 patients in the placebo arm with documented angiomyolipoma progression by central radiologic review (defined as a ≥ 25% increase from nadir in the sum of angiomyolipoma target lesion volumes to a value greater than baseline, appearance of a new angiomyolipoma ≥ 1 cm in longest diameter, an increase in renal volume ≥ 20% from nadir for either kidney and to a value greater than baseline, or Grade ≥ 2 angiomyolipoma-related bleeding). The time to angiomyolipoma progression was statistically significantly longer in the AFINITOR arm (HR 0.08 [95% CI: 0.02, 0.37]; p < 0.0001). (See Table 5).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Skin lesion response rates were assessed by local investigators for 77 patients in the AFINITOR arm and 37 patients in the placebo arm who presented with skin lesions at study entry. The skin lesion response rate was statistically significantly higher in the AFINITOR arm (26% vs. 0, p =0.0011); all skin lesion responses were partial responses, defined as visual improvement in 50% to 99% of all skin lesions durable for at least 8 weeks (Physician's Global Assessment of Clinical Condition).
Patients randomized to placebo were permitted to receive AFINITOR at the time of angiomyolipoma progression or after the time of the primary analysis. After the primary analysis, patients treated with AFINITOR underwent additional follow-up CT or MRI scans to assess tumor status until discontinuation of treatment or completion of 4 years of follow-up after the last patient was randomized. A total of 112 patients (79 randomized to AFINITOR and 33 randomized to placebo) received at least one dose of AFINITOR. The median duration of AFINITOR treatment was 3.9 years (0.5 months to 5.3 years) and the median duration of follow up was 3.9 years (0.9 months to 5.4 years). During the follow-up period after the primary analysis, 32 patients (in addition to the 33 patients identified at the time of the primary analysis) had an angiomyolipoma response based upon independent central radiology review. Among the 65 responders out of 112 patients, the median time to angiomyolipoma response was 2.9 months (2.6 to 33.8 months). Fourteen percent of the 112 patients treated with AFINITOR had angiomyolipoma progression by the end of the follow-up period. No patient underwent a nephrectomy for angiomyolipoma progression and one patient underwent renal embolization while treated with AFINITOR.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA): EXIST-1: A randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EXIST-1, NCT00789828) of AFINITOR was conducted in 117 pediatric and adult patients with SEGA and TSC. Eligible patients had at least one SEGA lesion ≥ 1 cm in longest diameter on MRI based on local radiology assessment and one or more of the following: serial radiological evidence of SEGA growth, a new SEGA lesion ≥ 1 cm in longest diameter, or new or worsening hydrocephalus. Patients randomized to the treatment arm received AFINITOR at a starting dose of 4.5 mg/m2 daily, with subsequent dose adjustments as needed to achieve and maintain everolimus trough concentrations of 5 to 15 ng/mL as tolerated. AFINITOR or matched placebo continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. MRI scans for disease assessment were obtained at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks, and annually thereafter. The main efficacy outcome measure was SEGA response rate based on independent central radiology review. SEGA response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in the sum of SEGA volume relative to baseline, in the absence of unequivocal worsening of non-target SEGA lesions, a new SEGA lesion ≥ 1 cm, and new or worsening hydrocephalus. The primary analysis of SEGA response rate was limited to the blinded treatment period and conducted 6 months after the last patient was randomized. The analysis of SEGA response rate was stratified by use of enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) at randomization (yes vs. no).
Of the 117 patients enrolled, 78 were randomized to AFINITOR and 39 to placebo. The median age was 9.5 years (0.8 to 26 years); a total of 20 patients were < 3 years, 54 patients were 3 to < 12 years, 27 patients were 12 to < 18 years, and 16 patients were ≥ 18 years; 57% were male, and 93% were White. At baseline, 18% of patients were receiving EIAEDs. Based on central radiology review at baseline, 98% of patients had at least one SEGA lesion ≥ 1.0 cm in longest diameter, 79% had bilateral SEGAs, 43% had ≥ 2 target SEGA lesions, 26% had growth in or into the inferior surface of the ventricle, 9% had evidence of growth beyond the subependymal tissue adjacent to the ventricle, and 7% had radiographic evidence of hydrocephalus. The median values for the sum of all target SEGA lesions at baseline were 1.63 cm3 (0.18 to 25.15 cm3) and 1.30 cm3 (0.32 to 9.75 cm3) in the AFINITOR and placebo arms respectively. Eight (7%) patients had prior SEGA-related surgery. The median duration of follow-up was 8.4 months (4.6 to 17.2 months) at the time of primary analysis.
The SEGA response rate was statistically significantly higher in AFINITOR-treated patients (Table 6). At the time of the primary analysis, all SEGA responses were ongoing and the median duration of response was 5.3 months (2.1 to 8.4 months).
With a median follow-up of 8.4 months, SEGA progression was detected in 15.4% of the 39 patients randomized to receive placebo and none of the 78 patients randomized to receive AFINITOR. No patient in either treatment arm required surgical intervention. (See Table 6.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Patients randomized to placebo were permitted to receive AFINITOR at the time of SEGA progression or after the primary analysis, whichever occurred first. After the primary analysis, patients treated with AFINITOR underwent additional follow-up MRI scans to assess tumor status until discontinuation of treatment or completion of 4 years of follow-up after the last patient was randomized. A total of 111 patients (78 patients randomized to AFINITOR and 33 patients randomized to placebo) received at least one dose of AFINITOR. Median duration of AFINITOR treatment and follow-up was 3.9 years (0.2 to 4.9 years).
By four years after the last patient was enrolled, 58% of the 111 patients treated with AFINITOR had a ≥ 50% reduction in SEGA volume relative to baseline, including 27 patients identified at the time of the primary analysis and 37 patients with a SEGA response after the primary analysis. The median time to SEGA response was 5.3 months (2.5 to 33.1 months). Twelve percent of the 111 patients treated with AFINITOR had documented disease progression by the end of the follow-up period and no patient required surgical intervention for SEGA during the study.
Study 2485: Study 2485 (NCT00411619) was an open-label, single-arm trial conducted to evaluate the antitumor activity of AFINITOR 3 mg/m2/orally once daily in patients with SEGA and TSC. Serial radiological evidence of SEGA growth was required for entry. Tumor assessments were performed every 6 months for 60 months after the last patient was enrolled or disease progression, whichever occurred earlier. The major efficacy outcome measure was the reduction in volume of the largest SEGA lesion with 6 months of treatment, as assessed via independent central radiology review. Progression was defined as an increase in volume of the largest SEGA lesion over baseline that was ≥ 25% over the nadir observed on study.
A total of 28 patients received AFINITOR for a median duration of 5.7 years (5 months to 6.9 years); 82% of the 28 patients remained on AFINITOR for at least 5 years. The median age was11 years (3 to 34 years), 61% male, 86% White.
At the primary analysis, 32% of the 28 patients (95% CI: 16%, 52%) had an objective response at 6 months, defined as at least a 50% decrease in volume of the largest SEGA lesion. At the completion of the study, the median duration of durable response was 12 months (3 months to 6.3 years).
By 60 months after the last patient was enrolled, 11% of the 28 patients had documented disease progression. No patient developed a new SEGA lesion while on AFINITOR. Nine additional patients were identified as having a ≥ 50% volumetric reduction in their largest SEGA lesion between 1 to 4 years after initiating AFINITOR including 3 patients who had surgical resection with subsequent regrowth prior to receiving AFINITOR.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After administration of AFINITOR in patients with advanced solid tumors, peak everolimus concentrations are reached 1 to 2 hours after administration of oral doses ranging from 5 mg to 70 mg. Following single doses, Cmax is dose-proportional with daily dosing between 5 mg and 10 mg. With single doses of 20 mg and higher, the increase in Cmax is less than dose-proportional; however, AUC shows dose-proportionality over the 5 mg to 70 mg dose range. Steady-state was achieved within 2 weeks following once-daily dosing.
In patients with TSC-associated SEGA, everolimus Cmin was approximately dose-proportional within the dose range from 1.35 mg/m2 to 14.4 mg/m2.
Effect of Food: In healthy subjects, a high-fat meal (containing approximately 1000 calories and 55 grams of fat) reduced systemic exposure to AFINITOR 10 mg (as measured by AUC) by 22% and the peak blood concentration Cmax by 54%. Light-fat meals (containing approximately 500 calories and 20 grams of fat) reduced AUC by 32% and Cmax by 42%.
Relative Bioavailability: The AUCinf of everolimus was equivalent between AFINITOR DISPERSIBLE and AFINITOR; the Cmax of everolimus in the AFINITOR DISPERSIBLE dosage form was 20% to 36% lower than that of AFINITOR. The predicted trough concentrations at steady-state were similar after daily administration.
Distribution: The blood-to-plasma ratio of everolimus, which is concentration-dependent over the range of 5 to 5000 ng/mL, is 17% to 73%. The amount of everolimus confined to the plasma is approximately 20% at blood concentrations observed in cancer patients given AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily. Plasma protein binding is approximately 74% both in healthy subjects and in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.
Elimination: The mean elimination half-life of everolimus is approximately 30 hours.
Metabolism: Everolimus is a substrate of CYP3A4. Following oral administration, everolimus is the main circulating component in human blood. Six main metabolites of everolimus have been detected in human blood, including three monohydroxylated metabolites, two hydrolytic ring-opened products, and a phosphatidylcholine conjugate of everolimus. These metabolites were also identified in animal species used in toxicity studies, and showed approximately 100-times less activity than everolimus itself.
Excretion: No specific elimination studies have been undertaken in cancer patients. Following the administration of a 3 mg single dose of radiolabeled everolimus in patients who were receiving cyclosporine, 80% of the radioactivity was recovered from the feces, while 5% was excreted in the urine. The parent substance was not detected in urine or feces.
Specific Populations: No relationship was apparent between oral clearance and age or sex in patients with cancer.
Patients with Renal Impairment: No significant influence of creatinine clearance (25 to 178 mL/min) was detected on oral clearance (CL/F) of everolimus.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: Compared to normal subjects, there was a 1.8-fold, 3.2-fold, and 3.6-fold increase in AUC for subjects with mild (Child-Pugh class A), moderate (Child-Pugh class B), and severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment, respectively. In another study, the average AUC of everolimus in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) was twice that found in subjects with normal hepatic function [see Dosage & Administration, Precautions].
Pediatric Patients: In patients with TSC-associated SEGA, the mean Cmin values normalized to mg/m2 dose in pediatric patients (< 18 years of age) were lower than those observed in adults, suggesting that everolimus clearance adjusted to body surface area was higher in pediatric patients as compared to adults.
Race or Ethnicity: Based on a cross-study comparison, Japanese patients had on average exposures that were higher than non-Japanese patients receiving the same dose. Oral clearance (CL/F) is on average 20% higher in Black patients than in White patients.
Drug Interaction Studies: Effect of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) Inhibitors on Everolimus: Everolimus exposure increased when AFINITOR was coadministered with: ketoconazole (a P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) - Cmax and AUC increased by 3.9- and 15-fold, respectively; erythromycin (a P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor) - Cmax and AUC increased by 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively; verapamil (a P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor) - Cmax and AUC increased by 2.3- and 3.5-fold, respectively.
Effect of CYP3A4 and P-gp Inducers on Everolimus: The coadministration of AFINITOR with rifampin, a P-gp and strong inducer of CYP3A4, decreased everolimus AUC by 63% and Cmax by 58% compared to AFINITOR alone [see Dosage & Administration].
Effect of Everolimus on CYP3A4 Substrates: No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions were observed between AFINITOR and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate), pravastatin (a non-CYP3A4 substrate), and simvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate).
The coadministration of an oral dose of midazolam (sensitive CYP3A4 substrate) with AFINITOR resulted in a 25% increase in midazolam Cmax and a 30% increase in midazolam AUC0-inf.
The coadministration of AFINITOR with exemestane increased exemestane Cmin by 45% and C2h by 64%; however, the corresponding estradiol levels at steady state (4 weeks) were not different between the 2 treatment arms. No increase in adverse reactions related to exemestane was observed in patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer receiving the combination.
The coadministration of AFINITOR with long acting octreotide increased octreotide Cmin by approximately 50%.
Effect of Everolimus on Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): Everolimus increased pre-dose concentrations of the carbamazepine, clobazam, oxcarbazepine, and clobazam's metabolite N-desmethylclobazam by about 10%. Everolimus had no impact on pre-dose concentrations of AEDs that are substrates of CYP3A4 (e.g., clonazepam and zonisamide) or other AEDs, including valproic acid, topiramate, phenobarbital, and phenytoin.
Nonclinical Toxicology: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Administration of everolimus for up to 2 years did not indicate oncogenic potential in mice and rats up to the highest doses tested (0.9 mg/kg) corresponding respectively to 3.9 and 0.2 times the estimated human exposure based on area under the curve (AUC) at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily.
Everolimus was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro assays (Ames mutation test in Salmonella, mutation test in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and chromosome aberration assay in V79 Chinese hamster cells). Everolimus was not genotoxic in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day (1500 mg/m2/day, approximately 255-fold the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily, and approximately 200-fold the median dose administered to patients with TSC-associated SEGA, based on the body surface area), administered as 2 doses, 24 hours apart.
Based on non-clinical findings, AFINITOR may impair male fertility. In a 13-week male fertility study in rats, testicular morphology was affected at doses of 0.5 mg/kg and above. Sperm motility, sperm count, and plasma testosterone levels were diminished in rats treated with 5 mg/kg. The exposures at these doses (52 ng·hr/mL and 414 ng·hr/mL, respectively) were within the range of human exposure at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily (560 ng·hr/mL) and resulted in infertility in the rats at 5 mg/kg. Effects on male fertility occurred at AUC0-24h values 10% to 81% lower than human exposure at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily. After a 10-13 week non-treatment period, the fertility index increased from zero (infertility) to 60%.
Oral doses of everolimus in female rats at doses ≥ 0.1 mg/kg (approximately 4% the human exposure based on AUC at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily) resulted in increased incidence of pre-implantation loss, suggesting that the drug may reduce female fertility.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: In juvenile rat toxicity studies, dose-related delayed attainment of developmental landmarks including delayed eye-opening, delayed reproductive development in males and females and increased latency time during the learning and memory phases were observed at doses as low as 0.15 mg/kg/day.
Indications/Uses
AFINITOR tablets are indicated for the: treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (advanced HR+BC) in combination with exemestane, after failure or treatment with letrozole or anastrozole.
Treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, whose disease has progressed on or after treatment with VEGF-targeted therapy.
Treatment of progressive neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin (PNET) in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease. AFINITOR is not indicated for the treatment of patients with functional carcinoid tumors.
Treatment of adult patients with progressive, well-differentiated (Grade 1 or Grade 2), non-functional neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of gastrointestinal (GI) or lung origin with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease. AFINITOR is not indicated for the treatment of patients with functional carcinoid tumors.
Treatment of adult and pediatric patients, 1 years of age and older, with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who require therapeutic intervention but are not candidates for curative surgical resection. The effectiveness of AFINITOR is based on an analysis of change in SEGA volume (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: CLINICAL STUDIES under Actions). Clinical benefit such as improvement in disease-related symptoms or increase in overall survival has not been demonstrated.
Treatment of adult patient with renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), not requiring immediate surgery. The effectiveness of AFINITOR in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma is based on an analysis of durable objective responses in patients treated for a median of 8.3 months. Further follow-up of patients is required to determine long-term outcomes.
Dosage/Direction for Use
AFINITOR Tablets may be used for all approved indications.
Modify the dosage for patients with hepatic impairment or for patients taking drugs that inhibit or induce P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 [see as follows].
Recommended Dosage for Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer, Neuroendocrine tumor (NET), Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Renal Angiomyolipoma: The recommended dose of AFINITOR is 10 mg orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Recommended Dosage for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA): The recommended starting dosage of AFINITOR is 4.5 mg/m2 orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity [see as follows].
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) and Dose Titration for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA): Monitor everolimus whole blood trough concentrations at time points recommended in Table 7.
Titrate the dose to attain trough concentrations of 5 ng/mL to 15 ng/mL.
Adjust the dose using the following equation: New dose* = current dose x (target concentration divided by current concentration).
*The maximum dose increment at any titration must not exceed 5 mg. Multiple dose titrations may be required to attain the target trough concentration.
When possible, use the same assay and laboratory for TDM throughout treatment. (See Table 7.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions: Table 8 summarizes recommendations for dosage modifications of AFINITOR for the management of adverse reactions. (See Table 8.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Dosage Modifications for Hepatic Impairment: The recommended dosages of AFINITOR for patients with hepatic impairment are described in Table 9 [see Precautions]. (See Table 9.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Dosage Modifications for P-gp and CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Avoid the concomitant use of P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Interactions].
Avoid ingesting grapefruit and grapefruit juice.
Reduce the dose for patients taking AFINITOR with a P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor as recommended in Table 10 [see Interactions, Pharmacology under Actions]. (See Table 10.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Dosage Modifications for P-gp and CYP3A4 Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum).
Increase the dose for patients taking AFINITOR with a P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducer as recommended in Table 11 [see Interactions, Pharmacology under Actions]. (See Table 11.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Administration and Preparation: Administer AFINITOR at the same time each day.
Administer AFINITOR consistently either with or without food [see Pharmacology under Actions].
If a dose of AFINITOR is missed, it can be administered up to 6 hours after the time it is normally administered. After more than 6 hours, the dose should be skipped for that day. The next day, AFINITOR should be administered at its usual time. Double doses should not be administered to make up for the dose that was missed.
AFINITOR should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. Do not break or crush tablets.
Contraindications
AFINITOR is contraindicated in patients with clinically significant hypersensitivity to everolimus or to other rapamycin derivatives [see Precautions].
Special Precautions
Non-infectious Pneumonitis: Non-infectious pneumonitis is a class effect of rapamycin derivatives. Non-infectious pneumonitis was reported in up to 19% of patients treated with AFINITOR in clinical trials, some cases were reported with pulmonary hypertension (including pulmonary arterial hypertension) as a secondary event. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 non-infectious pneumonitis was up to 4% and up to 0.2%, respectively [see Adverse Reactions]. Fatal outcomes have been observed.
Consider a diagnosis of non-infectious pneumonitis in patients presenting with non-specific respiratory signs and symptoms. Consider opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in the differential diagnosis. Advise patients to report promptly any new or worsening respiratory symptoms.
Continue AFINITOR without dose alteration in patients who develop radiological changes suggestive of non-infectious pneumonitis and have few or no symptoms. Imaging appears to overestimate the incidence of clinical pneumonitis.
For Grade 2 to 4 non-infectious pneumonitis, withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR based on severity [see Dosage & Administration]. Corticosteroids may be indicated until clinical symptoms resolve. Administer prophylaxis for PJP when concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are required. The development of pneumonitis has been reported even at a reduced dose.
Infections: AFINITOR has immunosuppressive properties and may predispose patients to bacterial, fungal, viral, or protozoal infections, including infections with opportunistic pathogens [see Adverse Reactions]. Localized and systemic infections, including pneumonia, mycobacterial infections, other bacterial infections, invasive fungal infections (e.g., aspergillosis, candidiasis, or PJP) and viral infections (e.g., reactivation of hepatitis B virus) have occurred. Some of these infections have been severe (e.g., sepsis, septic shock, or resulting in multisystem organ failure) or fatal. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 infections was up to 10% and up to 3%, respectively. The incidence of serious infections was reported at a higher frequency in patients < 6 years of age [see as follows].
Complete treatment of preexisting invasive fungal infections prior to starting treatment. Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection. Withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR based on severity of infection [see Dosage & Administration].
Administer prophylaxis for PJP when concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are required.
Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions to AFINITOR have been observed and include anaphylaxis, dyspnea, flushing, chest pain, and angioedema (e.g., swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment) [see Contraindications].
The incidence of Grade 3 hypersensitivity reactions was up to 1%. Permanently discontinue AFINITOR for the development of clinically significant hypersensitivity.
Angioedema with Concomitant Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors: Patients taking concomitant ACE inhibitors with AFINITOR maybe at increased risk for angioedema (e.g., swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment). In a pooled analysis of randomized double-blind oncology clinical trials, the incidence of angioedema in patients taking AFINITOR with an ACE inhibitor was 6.8% compared to 1.3% in the control arm with an ACE inhibitor. Permanently discontinue AFINITOR for angioedema.
Stomatitis: Stomatitis, including mouth ulcers and oral mucositis, has occurred in patients treated with AFINITOR at an incidence ranging from 44% to 78% across clinical trials. Grades 3-4 stomatitis was reported in 4% to 9% of patients [see Adverse Reactions]. Stomatitis most often occurs within the first 8 weeks of treatment. When starting AFINITOR, initiating dexamethasone alcohol-free oral solution as a swish and spit mouthwash reduces the incidence and severity of stomatitis [see Adverse Reactions]. If stomatitis does occur, mouthwashes and/or other topical treatments are recommended. Avoid alcohol-, hydrogen peroxide-, iodine-, or thyme-containing products, as they may exacerbate the condition. Do not administer antifungal agents, unless fungal infection has been diagnosed.
Risk of Impaired Wound Healing: Impaired wound healing can occur in patients who receive drugs that inhibit the VEGF signaling pathway. Therefore, AFINITOR have the potential to adversely affect wound healing.
Withhold AFINITOR for at least 1 week prior to elective surgery. Do not administer for at least 2 weeks following major surgery and until adequate wound healing. The safety of resumption of treatment upon resolution of wound healing complications has not been established.
Metabolic Disorders: Hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR at an incidence up to 75%, 86%, and 73%, respectively. The incidence of these Grade 3 and 4 laboratory abnormalities was up to 15% and up to 0.4%, respectively [see Adverse Reactions]. In non-diabetic patients, monitor fasting serum glucose prior to starting AFINITOR and annually thereafter. In diabetic patients, monitor fasting serum glucose more frequently as clinically indicated. Monitor lipid profile prior to starting AFINITOR and annually thereafter. When possible, achieve optimal glucose and lipid control prior to starting AFINITOR. For Grade 3 to 4 metabolic events, withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR based on severity [see Dosage & Administration].
Myelosuppression: Anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR. The incidence of these Grade 3 and 4 laboratory abnormalities was up to 16% and up to 2%, respectively [see Adverse Reactions]. Monitor complete blood count (CBC) prior to starting AFINITOR every 6 months for the first year of treatment and annually thereafter. Withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR based on severity [see Dosage & Administration].
Risk of Infection or Reduced Immune Response with Vaccination: The safety of immunization with live vaccines during AFINITOR therapy has not been studied. Due to the potential increased risk of infection, avoid the use of live vaccines and close contact with individuals who have received live vaccines during treatment with AFINITOR.
Due to the potential increased risk of infection or reduced immune response with vaccination, complete the recommended childhood series of vaccinations according to American Council on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines prior to the start of therapy. An accelerated vaccination schedule may be appropriate.
Radiation Sensitization and Radiation Recall: Radiation sensitization and recall, in some cases severe, involving cutaneous and visceral organs (including radiation esophagitis and pneumonitis) have been reported in patients treated with radiation prior to, during, or subsequent to AFINITOR treatment [see Adverse Reactions].
Monitor patients closely when AFINITOR is administered during or sequentially with radiation treatment.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal studies and the mechanism of action, AFINITOR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal studies, everolimus caused embryo-fetal toxicities in rats when administered during the period of organogenesis at maternal exposures that were lower than human exposures at the clinical dose of 10 mg once daily. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
Advise female patients of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant and to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR and for 8 weeks after the last dose. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR and for 4 weeks after the last dose [see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation].
Renal Failure: Cases of renal failure (including acute renal failure), some with a fatal outcome, have occurred in patients taking AFINITOR. Elevations of serum creatinine and proteinuria have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR [see Adverse Reactions]. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 elevations of serum creatinine was up to 2% and up to 1%, respectively. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 proteinuria was up to 1% and up to 0.5%, respectively. Monitor renal function prior to starting AFINITOR and annually thereafter. Monitor renal function at least every 6 months in patients who have additional risk factors for renal failure.
Hepatic Impairment: AFINITOR exposure may increase in patients with hepatic impairment [see Pharmacology under Actions].
For patients with breast cancer, NET, RCC, and TSC-associated renal angiomyolipoma who have hepatic impairment, reduce the AFINITOR dose as recommended [see Dosage & Administration].
For patients with TSC-associated SEGA who have severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C), reduce the starting dose of AFINITOR as recommended and adjust the dose based on everolimus trough concentrations [see Dosage & Administration].
Use in Children: TSC-Associated SEGA: The safety and effectiveness of AFINITOR have been established in pediatric patients age 1 year and older with TSC-associated SEGA that requires therapeutic intervention but cannot be curatively resected. Use of AFINITOR for this indication is supported by evidence from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adult and pediatric patients (EXIST-1); an open-label, single-arm trial in adult and pediatric patients (Study 2485); and additional pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients [see Adverse Reactions, Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions]. The safety and effectiveness of AFINITOR have not been established in pediatric patients less than 1 year of age with TSC-associated SEGA.
In EXIST-1, the incidence of infections and serious infections were reported at a higher frequency in patients < 6 years of age. Ninety-six percent of 23 AFINITOR-treated patients < 6 years had at least one infection compared to 67% of 55 AFINITOR-treated patients ≥ 6 years. Thirty-five percent of 23 AFINITOR-treated patients < 6 years of age had at least 1 serious infection compared to 7% of 55 AFINITOR-treated patients ≥ 6 years.
Although a conclusive determination cannot be made due to the limited number of patients and lack of a comparator arm in the open label follow-up periods of EXIST-1 and Study 2485, AFINITOR did not appear to adversely impact growth and pubertal development in the 115 pediatric patients treated with AFINITOR for a median duration of 4.1 years.
Other Indications: The safety and effectiveness of AFINITOR in pediatric patients have not been established in: Hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer; Neuroendocrine tumors (NET); Renal cell carcinoma (RCC); TSC-associated renal angiomyolipoma.
Use in the Elderly: In the randomized hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer study (BOLERO-2), the incidence of deaths due to any cause within 28 days of the last AFINITOR dose was 6% in patients ≥ 65 years of age compared to 2% in patients < 65 years of age. Adverse reactions leading to permanent treatment discontinuation occurred in 33% of patients ≥ 65 years of age compared to 17% in patients < 65 years of age. Careful monitoring and appropriate dose adjustments for adverse reactions are recommended [see Dosage & Administration].
In BOLERO-2, 40% of patients with breast cancer treated with AFINITOR were ≥ 65 years of age, while 15% were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients. The incidence of deaths due to any cause within 28 days of the last AFINITOR dose was 6% in patients ≥ 65 years of age compared to 2% in patients < 65 years of age.
Adverse reactions leading to permanent treatment discontinuation occurred in 33% of patients ≥ 65 years of age compared to 17% in patients < 65 years of age.
In RECORD-1, 41% of patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with AFINITOR were ≥ 65 years of age, while 7% were ≥ 75 years of age. In RADIANT-3, 30% of patients with PNET treated with AFINITOR were ≥ 65 years of age, while 7% were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Risk Summary: Based on animal studies and the mechanism of action [see Pharmacology under Actions], AFINITOR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are limited case reports of AFINITOR use in pregnant women; however, these reports are not sufficient to inform about risks of birth defects or miscarriage. In animal studies, everolimus caused embryo-fetal toxicities in rats when administered during the period of organogenesis at maternal exposures that were lower than human exposures at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily (see Data as follows). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies, respectively.
Data: Animal Data: In animal reproductive studies, oral administration of everolimus to female rats before mating and through organogenesis induced embryo-fetal toxicities, including increased resorption, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss, decreased numbers of live fetuses, malformation (e.g., sternal cleft), and retarded skeletal development. These effects occurred in the absence of maternal toxicities.
Embryo-fetal toxicities in rats occurred at doses ≥ 0.1 mg/kg (0.6 mg/m2) with resulting exposures of approximately 4% of the human exposure at the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily based on area under the curve (AUC). In rabbits, embryo-toxicity evident as an increase in resorptions occurred at an oral dose of 0.8 mg/kg (9.6 mg/m2), approximately 1.6 times the recommended dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily or the median dose administered to patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) based on body surface area. The effect in rabbits occurred in the presence of maternal toxicities.
In a pre- and post-natal development study in rats, animals were dosed from implantation through lactation. At the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (0.6 mg/m2), there were no adverse effects on delivery and lactation or signs of maternal toxicity; however, there were reductions in body weight (up to 9% reduction from the control) and in survival of offspring (~5% died or missing). There were no drug-related effects on the developmental parameters (morphological development, motor activity, learning, or fertility assessment) in the offspring.
Lactation: Risk Summary: There are no data on the presence of everolimus or its metabolites in human milk, the effects of everolimus on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Everolimus and its metabolites passed into the milk of lactating rats at a concentration 3.5 times higher than in maternal serum. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from everolimus, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with AFINITOR and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
Females and Males of Reproductive Potential: Pregnancy Testing: Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to starting AFINITOR [see as follows].
Contraception: AFINITOR can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women [see previously mentioned].
Females: Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR and for 8 weeks after the last dose.
Males: Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR and for 4 weeks after the last dose.
Infertility: Females: Menstrual irregularities, secondary amenorrhea, and increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) occurred in female patients taking AFINITOR. Based on these findings, AFINITOR may impair fertility in female patients [see Adverse Reactions, Pharmacology: Nonclinical Toxicology under Actions].
Males: Cases of reversible azoospermia have been reported in male patients taking AFINITOR. In male rats, sperm motility, sperm count, plasma testosterone levels and fertility were diminished at AUC similar to those of the clinical dose of AFINITOR 10 mg orally once daily. Based on these findings, AFINITOR may impair fertility in male patients [see Pharmacology: Nonclinical Toxicology under Actions].
Adverse Reactions
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling: Non-infectious pneumonitis [see Precautions]; Infections [see Precautions]; Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Precautions]; Angioedema with concomitant use of ACE inhibitors [see Precautions]; Stomatitis [see Precautions]; Renal failure [see Precautions]; Impaired wound healing [see Precautions]; Metabolic Disorders [see Precautions]; Myelosuppression [see Precautions]; Radiation Sensitization and Radiation Recall [see Precautions].
Clinical Trials Experience: Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed cannot be directly compared to rates in other trials and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer: The safety of AFINITOR (10 mg orally once daily) in combination with exemestane (25 mg orally once daily) (n = 485) vs. placebo in combination with exemestane (n = 239) was evaluated in a randomized, controlled trial (BOLERO-2) in patients with advanced or metastatic hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. The median age of patients was 61 years (28 to 93 years), and 75% were White. The median follow-up was approximately 13 months.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 30%) were stomatitis, infections, rash, fatigue, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The most common Grade 3-4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) were stomatitis, infections, hyperglycemia, fatigue, dyspnea, pneumonitis, and diarrhea. The most common laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 50%) were hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, increased aspartate transaminase (AST), anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, increased alanine transaminase (ALT), and hypertriglyceridemia. The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 3%) were lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, anemia, hypokalemia, increased AST, increased ALT, and thrombocytopenia.
Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 2% of patients who received AFINITOR. The rate of adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation was 24% for the AFINITOR arm. Dose adjustments (interruptions or reductions) occurred in 63% of patients in the AFINITOR arm.
Adverse reactions reported with an incidence of ≥ 10% for patients receiving AFINITOR versus placebo are presented in Table 12. Laboratory abnormalities are presented in Table 13. The median duration of treatment with AFINITOR was 23.9 weeks; 33% were exposed to AFINITOR for a period of ≥ 32 weeks. (See Tables 12 and 13.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Topical Prophylaxis for Stomatitis: In a single arm study (SWISH; N = 92) in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative breast cancer beginning AFINITOR (10 mg orally once daily) in combination with exemestane (25 mg orally once daily), patients started dexamethasone 0.5 mg/5 mL alcohol-free mouthwash (10 mL swished for 2 minutes and spat, 4 times daily for 8 weeks) concurrently with AFINITOR and exemestane. No food or drink was to be consumed for at least 1 hour after swishing and spitting the dexamethasone mouthwash. The primary objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Grade 2 to 4 stomatitis within 8 weeks. The incidence of Grade 2 to 4 stomatitis within 8 weeks was 2%, which was lower than the 33% reported in the BOLERO-2 trial. The incidence of Grade 1 stomatitis was 19%. No cases of Grade 3 or 4 stomatitis were reported. Oral candidiasis was reported in 2% of patients in this study compared to 0.2% in the BOLERO-2 trial.
Coadministration of AFINITOR and dexamethasone alcohol-free oral solution has not been studied in pediatric patients.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNET): In a randomized, controlled trial (RADIANT-3) of AFINITOR (n = 204) vs. placebo (n = 203) in patients with advanced PNET the median age of patients was 58 years (20 to 87 years), 79% were White, and 55% were male. Patients on the placebo arm could cross over to open-label AFINITOR upon disease progression.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 30%) were stomatitis, rash, diarrhea, fatigue, edema, abdominal pain, nausea, fever, and headache. The most common Grade 3-4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5%) were stomatitis and diarrhea. The most common laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 50%) were anemia, hyperglycemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, hypercholesterolemia, decreased bicarbonate, and increased AST. The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 3%) were hyperglycemia, lymphopenia, anemia, hypophosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, neutropenia, increased AST, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia.
Deaths during double-blind treatment where an adverse reaction was the primary cause occurred in seven patients on AFINITOR. Causes of death on the AFINITOR arm included one case of each of the following: acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, death (cause unknown), hepatic failure, pneumonia, and sepsis. After cross-over to open-label AFINITOR, there were three additional deaths, one due to hypoglycemia and cardiac arrest in a patient with insulinoma, one due to myocardial infarction with congestive heart failure, and the other due to sudden death. The rate of adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation was 20% for the AFINITOR group. Dose delay or reduction was necessary in 61% of AFINITOR patients. Grade 3-4 renal failure occurred in six patients in the AFINITOR arm. Thrombotic events included five patients with pulmonary embolus in the AFINITOR arm as well as three patients with thrombosis in the AFINITOR arm.
Table 14 compares the incidence of adverse reactions reported with an incidence of ≥ 10% for patients receiving AFINITOR vs. placebo. Laboratory abnormalities are summarized in Table 15. The median duration of treatment in patients who received AFINITOR was 37 weeks.
In female patients aged 18 to 55 years, irregular menstruation occurred in 5 of 46 (11%) AFINITOR-treated females. (See Tables 14 and 15.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET) of Gastrointestinal (GI) or Lung Origin: In a randomized, controlled trial (RADIANT-4) of AFINITOR (n = 202 treated) vs. placebo (n = 98 treated) in patients with advanced non-functional NET of GI or lung origin, the median age of patients was 63 years (22-86 years), 76% were White, and 53% were female. The median duration of exposure to AFINITOR was 9.3 months; 64% of patients were treated for > 6 months and 39% were treated for > 12 months. AFINITOR was discontinued for adverse reactions in 29% of patients, dose reduction or delay was required in 70% of AFINITOR-treated patients.
Serious adverse reactions occurred in 42% of AFINITOR-treated patients and included 3 fatal events (cardiac failure, respiratory failure, and septic shock). Adverse reactions occurring at an incidence of ≥ 10% and at ≥ 5% absolute incidence over placebo (all Grades) or ≥ 2% higher incidence over placebo (Grade 3 and 4) are presented in Table 16. Laboratory abnormalities are presented in Table 17. (See Tables 16 and 17.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC): The data described as follows reflect exposure to AFINITOR (n = 274) and placebo (n = 137) in a randomized, controlled trial (RECORD-1) in patients with metastatic RCC who received prior treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. The median age of patients was 61 years (27 to 85 years), 88% were White, and 78% were male. The median duration of blinded study treatment was 141 days (19 to 451 days) for patients receiving AFINITOR.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 30%) were stomatitis, infections, asthenia, fatigue, cough, and diarrhea. The most common Grade 3-4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 3%) were infections, dyspnea, fatigue, stomatitis, dehydration, pneumonitis, abdominal pain, and asthenia. The most common laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 50%) were anemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, lymphopenia, and increased creatinine. The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 3%) were lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, anemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypercholesterolemia.
Deaths due to acute respiratory failure (0.7%), infection (0.7%), and acute renal failure (0.4%) were observed on the AFINITOR arm. The rate of adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation was 14% for the AFINITOR group. The most common adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation were pneumonitis and dyspnea. Infections, stomatitis, and pneumonitis were the most common reasons for treatment delay or dose reduction. The most common medical interventions required during AFINITOR treatment were for infections, anemia, and stomatitis.
Adverse reactions reported with an incidence of ≥ 10% for patients receiving AFINITOR vs. placebo are presented in Table 18. Laboratory abnormalities are presented in Table 19. (See Table 18.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Other notable adverse reactions occurring more frequently with AFINITOR than with placebo, but with an incidence of < 10% include: Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (9%), dry mouth (8%), hemorrhoids (5%), dysphagia (4%).
General: Weight loss (9%), chest pain (5%), chills (4%), impaired wound healing (< 1%).
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal: Pleural effusion (7%), pharyngolaryngeal pain (4%), rhinorrhea (3%).
Skin and subcutaneous tissue: Hand-foot syndrome (reported as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome) (5%), nail disorder (5%), erythema (4%), onychoclasis (4%), skin lesion (4%), acneiform dermatitis (3%), angioedema (< 1%).
Metabolism and nutrition: Exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus (2%), new onset of diabetes mellitus (< 1%).
Psychiatric: Insomnia (9%).
Nervous system: Dizziness (7%), paresthesia (5%).
Ocular: Eyelid edema (4%), conjunctivitis (2%).
Vascular: Hypertension (4%), deep vein thrombosis (< 1%).
Renal and urinary: Renal failure (3%).
Cardiac: Tachycardia (3%), congestive cardiac failure (1%).
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue: Jaw pain (3%).
Hematologic: Hemorrhage (3%). (See Table 19.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-Associated Renal Angiomyolipoma: The data described as follows are based on a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EXIST-2) of AFINITOR in 118 patients with renal angiomyolipoma as a feature of TSC (n = 113) or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 5). The median age of patients was 31 years (18 to 61 years), 89% were White, and 34% were male. The median duration of blinded study treatment was 48 weeks (2 to 115 weeks) for patients receiving AFINITOR.
The most common adverse reaction reported for AFINITOR (incidence ≥ 30%) was stomatitis. The most common Grade 3-4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) were stomatitis and amenorrhea. The most common laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 50%) were hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and anemia. The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormality (incidence ≥ 3%) was hypophosphatemia.
The rate of adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation was 3.8% in the AFINITOR-treated patients. Adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in the AFINITOR arm were hypersensitivity/angioedema/bronchospasm, convulsion, and hypophosphatemia. Dose adjustments (interruptions or reductions) due to adverse reactions occurred in 52% of AFINITOR-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction leading to AFINITOR dose adjustment was stomatitis.
Adverse reactions reported with an incidence of ≥ 10% for patients receiving AFINITOR and occurring more frequently with AFINITOR than with placebo are presented in Table 20. Laboratory abnormalities are presented in Table 21. (See Table 20.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Amenorrhea occurred in 15% of AFINITOR-treated females (8 of 52). Other adverse reactions involving the female reproductive system were menorrhagia (10%), menstrual irregularities (10%), and vaginal hemorrhage (8%).
The following additional adverse reactions occurred in less than 10% of AFINITOR-treated patients: epistaxis (9%), decreased appetite (6%), otitis media (6%), depression (5%), abnormal taste (5%), increased blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels (4%), increased blood follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (3%), hypersensitivity (3%), ovarian cyst (3%), pneumonitis (1%), and angioedema (1%). (See Table 21.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Updated safety information from 112 patients treated with AFINITOR for a median duration of 3.9 years identified the following additional adverse reactions and selected laboratory abnormalities: increased partial thromboplastin time (63%), increased prothrombin time (40%), decreased fibrinogen (38%), urinary tract infection (31%), proteinuria (18%), abdominal pain (16%), pruritus (12%), gastroenteritis (12%), myalgia (11%), and pneumonia (10%).
TSC-Associated Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA): The data described as follows are based on a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EXIST-1) of AFINITOR in 117 patients with SEGA and TSC. The median age of patients was 9.5 years (0.8 to 26 years), 93% were White, and 57% were male. The median duration of blinded study treatment was 52 weeks (24 to 89 weeks) for patients receiving AFINITOR.
The most common adverse reactions reported for AFINITOR (incidence ≥ 30%) were stomatitis and respiratory tract infection. The most common Grade 3-4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) were stomatitis, pyrexia, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, aggression, agitation, and amenorrhea. The most common laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥ 50%) were hypercholesterolemia and elevated partial thromboplastin time. The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormality (incidence ≥ 3%) was neutropenia.
There were no adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation. Dose adjustments (interruptions or reductions) due to adverse reactions occurred in 55% of AFINITOR-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction leading to AFINITOR dose adjustment was stomatitis.
Adverse reactions reported with an incidence of ≥ 10% for patients receiving AFINITOR and occurring more frequently with AFINITOR than with placebo are reported in Table 22. Laboratory abnormalities are presented in Table 23. (See Table 22.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Amenorrhea occurred in 17% of AFINITOR-treated females aged 10 to 55 years (3 of 18). For this same group of AFINITOR-treated females, the following menstrual abnormalities were reported: dysmenorrhea (6%), menorrhagia (6%), metrorrhagia (6%), and unspecified menstrual irregularity (6%).
The following additional adverse reactions occurred in less than 10% of AFINITOR-treated patients: nausea (8%), pain in extremity (8%), insomnia (6%), pneumonia (6%), epistaxis (5%), hypersensitivity (3%), increased blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels (1%) and pneumonitis (1%). (See Table 23.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Updated safety information from 111 patients treated with AFINITOR for a median duration of 47 months identified the following additional notable adverse reactions and selected laboratory abnormalities: decreased appetite (14%), hyperglycemia (13%), hypertension (11%), urinary tract infection (9%), decreased fibrinogen (8%), cellulitis (6%), abdominal pain (5%), decreased weight (5%), elevated creatinine (5%), and azoospermia (1%).
Postmarketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of AFINITOR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Blood and lymphatic disorders: Thrombotic microangiopathy.
Cardiac: Cardiac failure with some cases reported with pulmonary hypertension (including pulmonary arterial hypertension) as a secondary event.
Gastrointestinal: Acute pancreatitis.
Hepatobiliary: Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
Infections: Sepsis and septic shock.
Nervous System: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
Vascular: Arterial thrombotic events.
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Radiation sensitization and radiation recall.
Drug Interactions
Effect of Other Drugs on AFINITOR: Inhibitors: Avoid the concomitant use of P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Dosage & Administration, Pharmacology under Actions].
Reduce the dose for patients taking AFINITOR with a P-gp and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor as recommended [see Dosage & Administration, Pharmacology under Actions].
Inducers: Increase the dose for patients taking AFINITOR with a P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducer as recommended [see Dosage & Administration, Pharmacology under Actions].
Effects of Combination Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors: Patients taking concomitant ACE inhibitors with AFINITOR may be at increased risk for angioedema. Avoid the concomitant use of ACE inhibitors with AFINITOR [see Precautions].
Caution For Usage
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Protect from light.
Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.
MIMS Class
Targeted Cancer Therapy
ATC Classification
L01EG02 - everolimus ; Belongs to the class of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitors. Used in the treatment of cancer.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 5 mg (white to slightly yellow and elongated with a bevelled edge, engraved with "5" on one side and "NVR" on the other) x 3 x 10's. 10 mg (white to slightly yellow and elongated with a bevelled edge, engraved with "UHE" on one side and "NVR" on the other) x 3 x 10's.
Register or sign in to continue
Asia's one-stop resource for medical news, clinical reference and education
Already a member? Sign in