Avezol Drug Interactions





Full Prescribing Info
Drug Interactions
The following drug interactions relate to the use of multiple-dose fluconazole, and the relevance to single-dose Avezol has not yet been established: Rifampicin: Concomitant administration of Avezol and rifampicin resulted in a 25% decrease in the AUC and 20% shorter half-life, of fluconazole. In patients receiving concomitant rifampicin, an increase in the Avezol dose should be considered.
Hydrochlorothiazide: In a kinetic interaction study, co-administration of multiple-dose hydrochlorothiazide to healthy volunteers receiving Avezol increased plasma concentrations of fluconazole by 40%. An effect of this magniture should not necessitate a change in the Avezol dose regimen in subjects receiving concomitant diuretics, although the prescriber should bear it in mind.
Anticoagulants: In an interaction study, fluconazole increased the prothrombin time (12%) after warfarin administration in healthy males. In post-marketing experience, as with other azole antifungals, bleeding events (bruising, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria and melena) have been reported in association with increases in prothrombin time in patients receiving fluconazole concurrently with warfarin. Prothrombin time in patients receiving coumarin-type anticoagulants should be carefully monitored. Benzodiazepines (Short Acting): Following oral administration of midazolam, fluconazole resulted in substantial increases in midazolam concentrations and psychomotor effects. This effect on midazolam appears to be more pronounced following oral administration of fluconazole than with fluconazole administered intravenously. If concomitant benzodiazepine therapy is necessary in patients being treated with fluconazole, consideration should be given to decreasing the benzodiazepine dosage and the patients should be appropriately monitored.
Sulphonylureas: Fluconazole has been shown to prolong the serum half-life of concomitantly administered oral sulphonylureas (chlorpropamide, glibenchlamide, glipizide and tolbutamide) in healthy volunteers. Fluconazole and oral sulphonylureas may be co-administered to diabetic patients, but the possibility of a hypoglycaemic episode should be borne in mind.
Phenytoin: Concomitant administration of fluconazole and phenytoin may increase the levels of phenytoin to a clinically significant degree. If it is necessary to administer both drugs concomitantly, phenytoin levels should be monitored and the phenytoin dose adjusted to maintain therapeutic levels.
Oral contraceptives: Two kinetic studies with combined oral contraceptives have been performed using multiple doses of fluconazole. There were no relevant effects on either hormone level in the 50mg fluconazole study, while at 200mg daily the AUCs of ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel were increased 40% and 24% respectively. Thus multiple dose use of fluconazole at these doses is unlikely to have an effect on the efficacy of the combined oral contraceptive.
Endogenous steroid: Fluconazole 50mg daily does not affect endogenous steroid levels in females: 200-400mg daily has no clinically significant effect on endogenous steroid levels or on ACTH stimulated response in healthy male volunteers.
Cyclosporin: A kinetic study in renal transplant patients found fluconazole 200mg daily to slowly increase cyclosporin concentrations. However, in another multiple dose study with 100mg daily, fluconazole did not affect cyclosporin levels in patients with bone marrow transplants. Cyclosporin plasma concentration monitoring in patients receiving fluconazole is recommended.
Theophylline: In a placebo controlled interaction study, the administration of fluconazole 200mg for 14 days resulted in an 18% decrease in the mean plasma clearance of theophylline. Patients who are receiving high doses of theophylline or who are otherwise at increased risk for theophylline toxicity should be observed for signs of theophylline toxicity while receiving fluconazole, and the therapy modified appropriately if signs of toxicity develop.
Terfenadine: Because of the occurrence of serious dysrhythmias secondary to prolongation of the QTc interval in patients receiving other azole antifungals in conjunction with terfenadine, interactions studies have been performed. One study at a 200mg daily dose of fluconazole failed to demonstrate a prolongation in QTc interval. Another study at a 400mg and 800mg daily dose of fluconazole demonstrated that fluconazole taken in multiple doses of 400mg per day or greater significantly increased plasma levels of terfenadine when taken concomitantly. There have been spontaneously reported cases of palpitations, tachycardia, dizziness, and chest pain in patients taking concomitant fluconazole and terfenadine where the relationship of the reported adverse events to drug therapy or underlying medical conditions was not clear. Because of the potential seriousness of such an interaction, it is recommended that terfenadine not be taken in combination with fluconazole. (See "Contra-indications").
Cisapride: There have been reports of cardiac events including torsades de pointes in patients to whom fluconazole and cisapride were co-administered. In most of these cases, the patients appear to have been predisposed to arrhythmias or had serious underlying illnesses, and the relationship of the reported events to a possible fluconazole-cisapride drug interaction is unclear. Because of the potential seriousness of such an interaction, co-administration of cisapride is contraindicated in patients receiving fluconazole. Zidovudine: Two kinetic studies resulted in increased levels of zidovudine most likely caused by the decreased conversion of zidovudine to its major metabolite. One study determined zidovudine levels in AIDS or ARC patients before and following fluconazole 200mg daily for 15 days. There was a significant increase in zidovudine AUC (20%). A second randomised, two-period, twotreatment crossover study examined zidovudine levels in HIV infected patients. On two occasions, 21 days apart, patients received zidovudine 200mg every eight hours either with or without fluconazole 400mg daily for seven days. The AUC of zidovudine significantly increased (74%) during co-administration with fluconazole. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the development of zidovudine-related adverse reactions.
Rifabutin: There have been reports that an interaction exists when fluconazole is administered concomitantly with rifabutin, leading to increased serum levels of rifabutin. There have been reports of uveitis in patients to whom fluconazole and rifabutin were coadministered. Patients receiving rifabutin and fluconazole concomitantly should be carefully monitored.
Tacrolimus: There have been reports that an interaction exists when fluconazole is administered concomitantly with tacrolimus, leading to increased serum levels of tacrolimus. There have been reports of nephrotoxicity in patients to whom fluconazole and tacrolimus were co-administered. Patients receiving tacrolimus and fluconazole concomitantly should be carefully monitored.
The use of fluconazole in patients concurrently taking astemizole or other drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system may be associated with elevations in serum levels of these drugs. In the absence of definitive information, caution should be used when co-administering fluconazole. Patients should be carefully monitored.
Interaction studies have shown that when oral fluconazole is co-administered with food, cimetidine, antacids or following total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation, no clinically significant impairment of fluconazole absorption occurs.
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