Azithromycin is indicated for infections caused by susceptible organisms; in lower respiratory tract infections including bronchitis and pneumonia, in skin and soft tissue infections, in acute otitis media and in upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis and pharyngitis/tonsillitis. (Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Azithromycin is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the oropharynx, however, data establishing the efficacy of azithromycin and the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present). In sexually transmitted diseases in men and women, azithromycin is indicated in the treatment of uncomplicated genital infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. It is also indicated in the treatment of chancroid due to Haemophilus ducreyi; and uncomplicated genital infection due to non-multiresistant Neisseria gonorrhoea; concurrent infection with Treponema pallidum should be excluded. Azithromycin is indicated, either alone or in combination with rifabutin, for prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection, an opportunistic infection prevalent in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Azithromycin is indicated in combination with ethambutol for the treatment of disseminated MAC (DMAC) infection in patients with advanced HIV infection.