Cream: Mupirocin calcium equivalent to 2% w/w mupirocin free acid.
Ointment: 2% w/w mupirocin free acid in a white, translucent, water soluble, polyethylene glycol base.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Cream: Xanthan gum, Liquid paraffin, Cetomacrogol 1000, Stearyl alcohol, Cetyl alcohol, Phenoxyethanol, Benzyl alcohol, Purified water.
Ointment: Polyethylene glycol.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Mupirocin is a novel antibiotic produced through fermentation by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mupirocin inhibits isoleucyl transfer-RNA synthetase, thereby arresting bacterial protein synthesis. Due to this particular mode of action and its unique chemical structure, mupirocin does not show any cross-resistance with other clinically available antibiotics.
Mupirocin has bacteriostatic properties at minimum inhibitory concentrations and bactericidal properties at the higher concentrations reached when applied locally.
Pharmacodynamic Effects: Activity: Mupirocin is a topical antibacterial agent showing in vivo activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains), S. epidermidis and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus species.
The in vitro spectrum of activity includes the following bacteria: Commonly Susceptible Species: Staphylococcus aureus1,2; Staphylococcus epidermidis1,2; Coagulase-negative staphylococci1,2; Streptococcus species1; Haemophilus influenzae; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria meningitidis; Moraxella catarrhalis; Pasteurella multocida.
1Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated for susceptible isolates in approved clinical indications.
2Including beta-lactamase producing strains and methicillin-resistant strains.
Resistant Species: Corynebacterium species; Enterobacteriaceae; Gram negative non-fermenting rods; Micrococcus species; Anaerobes.
Mupirocin susceptibility (MIC) breakpoints for Staphylococcus spp.: Susceptible: less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml; Intermediate: 2 to 256 micrograms/ml; Resistant: greater than 256 micrograms/ml.
Resistance mechanisms: Low-level resistance in staphylococci (MICs 8 to 256 micrograms/ml) has been shown to be due to changes in the native isoleucyl tRNA synthetase enzyme. High-level resistance in staphylococci (MICs greater than or equal to 512 micrograms/ml) has been shown to be due to a distinct, plasmid encoded isoleucyl tRNA synthetase enzyme. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative organisms such as the Enterobacteriaceae could be due to poor penetration into the bacterial cell.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Cream: Systemic absorption of mupirocin through intact human skin is low although it may occur through broken/diseased skin. However, clinical trials have shown that when given systemically, it is metabolised to the microbiologically inactive metabolite monic acid and rapidly excreted.
Ointment: Mupirocin penetrates intact human skin but the rate of systemic absorption appears to be low.
Elimination: Cream: Mupirocin is rapidly eliminated from the body by metabolism to its inactive metabolite monic acid which is rapidly excreted by the kidney.
Excretion: Ointment: Systemically absorbed mupirocin is rapidly metabolised to the inactive metabolite monic acid and quickly excreted by the kidneys.
Special Patient Populations: Ointment: Elderly patients: No restrictions unless there is evidence of moderate or severe renal impairment (see Precautions).
Toxicology: Pre-Clinical Information: Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis: Carcinogenesis: Carcinogenicity studies with mupirocin have not been conducted.
Genotoxicity: Mupirocin was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli (Ames assay). In a Yahagi assay, small increases in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 were observed at highly cytotoxic concentrations. In an in vitro mammalian gene mutation assay (MLA), no increase in mutation frequency was observed in the absence of metabolic activation. In the presence of metabolic activation, small increases in mutation frequency were observed at highly cytotoxic concentrations. However, no effects were observed in, yeast cell assays for gene conversion/mutation, an in vitro human lymphocyte assay or in an in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay.
Furthermore, an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay (chromosome damage) and a rat Comet assay (DNA strand breakage) were negative, indicating the small increases observed at highly cytotoxic concentrations in vitro do not translate to the in vivo situation.
Reproductive Toxicology: Fertility: Mupirocin administered subcutaneously to male rats 10 weeks prior to mating and to female rats 15 days prior to mating until 20 days post coitum at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day had no effect on fertility.
Pregnancy: In embryo-foetal development studies in rats there was no evidence of developmental toxicity at subcutaneous doses up to 375 mg/kg/day.
In an embryo-foetal development study in rabbits at subcutaneous doses up to 160 mg/kg/day, maternal toxicity (impaired weight gain and severe injection site irritation) at the high dose resulted in abortion or poor litter performance. However, there was no evidence of developmental toxicity in foetuses of rabbits maintaining pregnancy to term.
Cream: BACTROBAN cream is indicated for the topical treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions such as small lacerations, sutured wounds or abrasions.
Ointment: Bacterial skin infections, e.g. impetigo, folliculitis and furunculosis.
Dosage: Cream: Adults/children/elderly: 3 times a day for up to 10 days, depending on the response.
Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is necessary.
Renal impairment: No dosage adjustment is necessary.
Ointment: Adults and children: BACTROBAN should be applied to the affected area 2 to 3 times a day, for up to 10 days, depending on the response.
The area may be covered with a dressing or occluded if desired.
Do not mix with other preparations as there is a risk of dilution, resulting in a reduction of the antibacterial activity and potential loss of stability of the mupirocin in the ointment.
Method of administration: Cream: A small quantity of cream should be applied to the affected area with a piece of clean cotton wool or gauze swab.
The treated area may be covered by a dressing.
Do not mix with other preparations as there is a risk of dilution, resulting in a reduction in the antibacterial activity and potential loss of stability of the mupirocin in the cream.
Symptoms and Signs: There is currently limited experience with overdosage of BACTROBAN cream/ointment.
Treatment: There is no specific treatment for an overdose of BACTROBAN cream/ointment. In the event of overdose, the patient should be treated supportively with appropriate monitoring as necessary. Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available.
Cream: BACTROBAN cream should not be given to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of its constituents.
Ointment: Hypersensitivity to BACTROBAN or other ointments containing polyethylene glycol and any of its constituents.
This Bactroban ointment formulation is not suitable for ophthalmic or intranasal use.
In the rare event of a possible sensitisation reaction or severe local irritation occurring with the use of BACTROBAN cream/ointment, treatment should be discontinued, the product should be wiped off and appropriate alternative therapy for the infection instituted.
As with other antibacterial products, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of antibiotics and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider its diagnosis in patients who develop diarrhoea during or after antibiotic use. Although this is less likely to occur with topically applied mupirocin, if prolonged or significant diarrhoea occurs or the patient experiences abdominal cramps, treatment should be discontinued immediately and the patient investigated further.
Avoid contact with the eyes. If contaminated, the eyes should be thoroughly irrigated with water until the cream residues have been removed.
Cream: BACTROBAN cream is not suitable for ophthalmic use and intranasal use.
Ointment: This BACTROBAN ointment formulation is not suitable for ophthalmic use, intranasal use, use in conjunction with cannulae and at the site of central venous cannulation.
When BACTROBAN is used on the face care should be taken to avoid the eyes.
Renal impairment: Polyethylene glycol can be absorbed from open wounds and damaged skin and is excreted by the kidneys.
In common with other polyethylene glycol-based ointments, BACTROBAN should be used with caution if there is evidence of moderate or severe renal impairment.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No adverse effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been observed.
Fertility: There are no data on the effects of mupirocin on human fertility. Studies in rats showed no effects on fertility (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Pre-Clinical Information under Actions).
Pregnancy: Adequate human data on use during pregnancy are not available. Studies in animals do not indicate reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Pre-Clinical Information under Actions).
Mupirocin should only be used in pregnancy when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks associated with treatment.
Lactation: Adequate human and animal data on use during lactation are not available.
If a cracked nipple is to be treated, it should be thoroughly washed prior to breast-feeding.
Adverse reactions are listed as follows by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (greater than or equal to 1/10), common (greater than or equal to 1/100, less than 1/10), uncommon (greater than or equal to 1/1000, less than 1/100),
rare (greater than or equal to 1/10,000, less than 1/1000), very rare (less than 1/10,000), including isolated reports.
Data from clinical trials was used to determine the frequency of very common to rare undesirable effects.
Common and uncommon adverse reactions were determined from pooled safety data from a clinical trial population of 1573 treated patients encompassing 12 clinical studies. Very rare adverse reactions were primarily determined from post-marketing experience data and therefore refer to reporting rate rather than true frequency.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions.
Burning localised to the area of application. Uncommon: Itching, erythema, stinging and dryness localised to the area of application. Cutaneous sensitisation reactions to mupirocin or the ointment base.
Immune system disorders:
Very rare: Systemic allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, generalised rash, urticaria and angioedema have been reported with BACTROBAN ointment.
Cream: No drug interactions have been identified.
Ointment: None reported.
Instructions for Use/Handling: No special instructions.
Ointment: Any ointment remaining at the end of treatment should be discarded.
Wash the hands after application.
Incompatibilities: None identified.
Cream: BACTROBAN cream must be stored below 25°C.
Do not freeze.
Ointment: Store below 30°C.
D06AX09 - mupirocin ; Belongs to the class of other topical antibiotics used in the treatment of dermatological diseases.
Cream 2% w/w (white) x 15 g. Oint 2% w/w (white, translucent) x 15 g.