Biocoxib Mechanism of Action





Full Prescribing Info
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Etoricoxib is an oral, selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor within the clinical dose range. Etoricoxib produced dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 without inhibition of COX-1 at doses up to 150 mg daily. It did not inhibit gastric prostaglandin synthesis and had no effect on platelet function. Cyclooxygenase is responsible for the generation of prostaglandins. Two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, have been identified. COX-2 is the isoform of the enzyme that has been shown to be induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and has been postulated to be primarily responsible for the synthesis of prostanoid mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever. COX-2 is also involved in ovulation, implantation and closure of the ductus arteriosus, regulation of renal function, and central nervous system functions (fever induction, pain perception and cognitive function). It may also play a role in ulcer healing. COX-2 has been identified in the tissue around gastric ulcers in man but its relevance to ulcer healing has not been established.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Etoricoxib is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral doses. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 100%. Peak plasma concentrations are reached in about 1 hour in fasted adults. The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib are linear across the clinical dose range.
Dosing with food (a high-fat meal) had no effect on the extent of absorption of etoricoxib after administration. Food delays absorption, resulting in peak plasma concentrations by about 2 hours.
Distribution: Etoricoxib is approximately 92% bound to human plasma protein over the range of concentrations of 0.05 to 5 μg/ml. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was approximately 120 L in humans.
Metabolism: Etoricoxib is extensively metabolised with <1% of a dose recovered in urine as the parent drug. The major route of metabolism to form the 6'-hydroxymethyl derivative is catalyzed by CYP enzymes. CYP3A4 appears to contribute to the metabolism of etoricoxib in vivo. In vitro studies indicate that CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 also can catalyse the main metabolic pathway, but their quantitative roles in vivo have not been studied.
Five metabolites have been identified in man. The principal metabolite is the 6'-carboxylic acid derivative of etoricoxib formed by further oxidation of the 6'-hydroxymethyl derivative. These principal metabolites either demonstrate no measurable activity or are only weakly active as COX-2 inhibitors. None of these metabolites inhibit COX-1.
Excretion: Etoricoxib is excretion mainly via the urine 70% with only 20% of a dose appearing in the feces. Less than 2% was recovered as unchanged drug.
Characteristics in patients: Elderly patients: Pharmacokinetics in the elderly (65 years of age and older) are similar to those in the young.
Gender: The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib are similar between men and women.
Hepatic impairment: Patients with mild hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 5-6) administered etoricoxib 60 mg once daily had an approximately 16% higher mean AUC as compared to healthy individuals given the same regimen. Patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 7-9) administered etoricoxib 60 mg every other day had similar mean AUC to the healthy individuals given etoricoxib 60 mg once daily; etoricoxib 30 mg once daily has not been studied in this population. There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score ≥10).
Renal impairment: The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of etoricoxib 120 mg in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency and patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis were not significantly different from those in healthy individuals. Haemodialysis contributed negligibly to elimination (dialysis clearance approximately 50 ml/min).
Paediatric patients: The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib in paediatric patients (<12 years old) have not been studied.
In adolescents (aged 12 to 17) the pharmacokinetics in adolescents weighing 40 to 60 kg given etoricoxib 60 mg once daily and adolescents >60 kg given etoricoxib 90 mg once daily were similar to the pharmacokinetics in adults given etoricoxib 90 mg once daily. Safety and effectiveness of etoricoxib in paediatric patients have not been established.
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