Cefobid

Cefobid

cefoperazone

Manufacturer:

Pfizer

Distributor:

DKSH

Marketer:

DKSH
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Cefoperazone sodium.
Description
Cefoperazone sodium is a semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for parenteral use only. Cefoperazone contains 34 mg sodium (1.5 mEq) per gram. Cefoperazone is a white crystalline powder which is freely soluble in water. The pH of a 25% aqueous solution is 5.0 to 6.5 and the solution is colorless to straw-yellow, depending on the concentration. The empirical formula is C25H26N9NaO8S2.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: None.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: The bactericidal action of cefoperazone results from the inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefoperazone is active in vitro against a wide variety of clinically significant organisms, and is resistant to degradation by many beta-lactamases. Susceptible organisms include: Gram-Positive Organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, penicillinase and non-penicillinase-producing strains; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae); Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci); Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B beta-hemolytic streptococci); Streptococcus faecalis (enterococcus); Beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Gram-Negative Organisms: Escherichia coli; Klebsiella species; Enterobacter species; Citrobacter species; Haemophilus influenzae; Proteus mirabilis; Proteus vulgaris; Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii); Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri); Providencia species; Serratia species (including S. marcescens); Salmonella and Shigella species; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some other Pseudomonas; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria meningitidis; Bordetella pertussis; Yersinia enterocolitica.
Anaerobic Organisms: Gram-positive and gram-negative cocci (including Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Veillonella species).
Gram-positive bacilli (including Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus species).
Gram-negative bacilli (including Fusobacterium species, many strains of Bacteroides fragilis and other species of Bacteroides).
Pharmacokinetics: High serum bile and urine levels of cefoperazone are attained after a single dose of the drug. Table 1 demonstrates the serum concentrations of cefoperazone in normal volunteers following either a single 15-minute constant rate intravenous infusion of 1, 2, 3, or 4 grams of the drug or a single intramuscular injection of 1 or 2 grams of the drug. Probenecid has no effect on serum concentrations of cefoperazone. (See Table 1.)

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The mean serum half-life of cefoperazone is approximately 2 hours, independent of the route of administration.
Cefoperazone reaches therapeutic levels in all body fluids and tissues tested. Among these are ascitic and cerebrospinal (in patients with inflamed meninges) fluids; urine; bile and gallbladder wall; sputum and lung; palatine tonsil and sinus mucous membrane; atrial appendage; kidney, ureter, prostate, and testis; uterus and Fallopian tube; bone; and umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid.
Cefoperazone is excreted in both the bile and urine. Maximum bile concentrations are generally obtained between one and three hours following drug administration and exceed concurrent serum concentrations by up to 100 times. Reported biliary concentrations of cefoperazone range from 66 mcg/ml at 30 minutes to as high as 6000 mcg/ml at 3 hours after an intravenous bolus injection of 2 grams in patients without biliary tract obstruction.
After a variety of dosages and routes of administration, the urinary recovery of cefoperazone averages 20 to 30% over a 12-hour period in individuals with normal renal function. Urinary concentrations greater than 2200 mcg/ml have been obtained following a 15-minute infusion of a 2 gram dose. After an IM injection of 2 gram, peak urine concentrations of approximately 1000 mcg/ml have been obtained.
Repeated administration of cefoperazone has not resulted in accumulation of the drug in normal subjects.
Use in Hepatic Dysfunction: In patients with hepatic dysfunction, the serum half-life is prolonged and urinary excretion is increased. In patients with both renal and hepatic insufficiencies, cefoperazone may accumulate in the serum.
Use in Renal Dysfunction: Peak serum concentrations, AUCs, and serum half-lives are similar in normal subjects and in patients with renal insufficiency.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Cefoperazone had adverse effects on the testes of prepubertal rats at all doses tested. Subcutaneous administration of 1000 mg per kg per day (approximately 16 times the average adult human dose) resulted in reduced testicular weight, arrested spermatogenesis, reduced germinal cell population and vacuolation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. The severity of lesions was dose dependent in the 100 to 1000 mg/kg per day range; the low dose caused a minor decrease in spermatocytes. This effect has not been observed in adult rats. Histologically the lesions were reversible at all but the highest dosage levels. However, these studies did not evaluate subsequent development of reproductive function in the rats. The relationship of these findings to humans is unknown.
Indications/Uses
Mono-therapy: Cefoperazone is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms: Respiratory Tract Infections (Upper and Lower); Urinary Tract Infections (Upper and Lower); Peritonitis, Cholecystitis, Cholangitis, and Other Intra-Abdominal Infections; Septicemia; Meningitis; Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; Infections of Bones and Joints; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Endometritis, Gonorrhea, and Other Infections of the Genital Tract.
Prophylaxis: Cefoperazone sodium may be indicated in the prophylaxis of post-operative infection in patients undergoing abdominal and gynecological surgery, cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery.
Combination Therapy: Because of the broad spectrum of activity of cefoperazone, most infections can be treated adequately with this antibiotic alone. However, cefoperazone may be used concomitantly with other antibiotics if such combinations are indicated. If an aminoglycoside is used, renal function should be monitored during the course of therapy (see Dosage & Administration and Incompatibilities under Cautions for Usage).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Administration in Adults: The usual adult daily dosage of cefoperazone is 2 to 4 grams per day administered in equally divided doses every 12 hours. In severe infections the dosage may be increased to a total of 8 grams per day in equally divided doses every 12 hours. Twelve grams per day have been administered in equally divided doses every 8 hours and usage of up to 16 grams per day in divided doses has been reported without complications. Treatment may be started before results of susceptibility testing are available.
The recommended dosage for uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis is 500 mg intramuscularly as a single dose.
The drug should be given by deep intramuscular injection into the large muscle mass of the gluteus maximus or anterior thigh.
Use in Hepatic Dysfunction: Dose modification may be necessary in cases of severe biliary obstruction, severe hepatic disease or coexistent renal dysfunction. In these cases dosage should not exceed 2 grams/day without close monitoring of serum concentrations.
Use in Renal Dysfunction: Since renal excretion is not the main route for the elimination of cefoperazone, patients with renal failure require no adjustment in dosing when usual dosages (2-4 grams daily) are administered. For patients whose glomerular filtration rate is less than 18 ml/min or whose serum creatinine level is greater than 3.5 mg/dl, the maximum dosage of cefoperazone should be 4 grams per day.
The serum half-life of cefoperazone is reduced slightly during hemodialysis. Thus, dosing should be scheduled to follow a dialysis period.
Use in Patients with Hepatic and Concurrent Renal Dysfunction: In patients with both hepatic dysfunction and concomitant renal impairment, cefoperazone serum concentrations should be monitored and dosage adjusted as necessary. In these cases dosage should not exceed 2 grams/day without close monitoring of serum concentrations.
Administration in Infants and Children: In infants and children a 50 to 200 mg/kg/day dosage of cefoperazone should be given in twodivided doses every 8 to 12 hours. The maximum dose should not to exceed 12 grams/day (see Precautions).
Use in Neonates: For neonates aged less than 8 days, the drug should be given every 12 hours.
Intravenous Administration in Adults and Children: For intermittent intravenous infusion each 1 or 2 gram vial of cefoperazone should be dissolved in 20 to 100 ml of a compatible sterile intravenous solution and infused over a period of 15 minutes to one hour. If sterile water for injection is the preferred diluent, no more than 20 ml should be added to the vial.
For continuous intravenous infusion, each gram of cefoperazone should be dissolved in either 5 ml of Sterile Water for Injection or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection and the solution added to an appropriate intravenous diluent.
For direct intravenous injection, the maximum dose of cefoperazone should be 2 grams per administration for adults and 50 mg/kg per administration for children. The drug should be dissolved in an appropriate diluent to give a final concentration of 100 mg/ml and administered over a period of no less than three to five minutes.
For the antibiotic prophylaxis of surgical procedures, 1 or 2 grams should be administered intravenously 30 to 90 minutes prior to the start of surgery. The dose may be repeated every 12 hours for, in most cases, no longer than 24 hours. In surgery where the incidence of infection is known to be greater (e.g. colorectal surgery) or when the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g. open heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of cefoperazone may be continued for 72 hours following the completion of surgery.
Overdosage
Limited information is available on the acute toxicity of cefoperazone sodium. Overdosage of the drug would be expected to produce manifestations that are principally extensions of the adverse reactions reported with the drug. The fact that high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics may cause neurologic effects and the potential for seizures should be considered. Since cefoperazone is removed from the circulation by hemodialysis, this procedure may enhance the elimination of the drug from the body should overdosage occur in some patients with impaired renal function.
Contraindications
Cefoperazone is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics.
Special Precautions
Hypersensitivity: Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam or cephalosporin therapy, including cefoperazone. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to multiple allergens.
Before therapy with cefoperazone is instituted, careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins or other drugs. This product should be given cautiously to penicillin-sensitive patients.
Antibiotics should be administered with caution to any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs.
If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted. Serious anaphylactoid reactions require immediate emergency treatment with adrenaline. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should be administered as indicated.
Severe and occasionally fatal skin reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and dermatitis exfoliative have been reported in patients on cefoperazone therapy. If a severe skin reaction occurs cefoperazone should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated (see Adverse Reactions).
Use in Hepatic Dysfunction: Cefoperazone is extensively excreted in bile. The serum half-life of cefoperazone is usually prolonged and urinary excretion of the drug increased in patients with hepatic diseases and/or biliary obstruction. Even with severe hepatic dysfunction, therapeutic concentrations of cefoperazone are obtained in bile and only a 2 to 4 fold increase in half-life seen (see Dosage & Administration).
General: Serious hemorrhage cases, including fatalities, have been reported with cefoperazone. As with other antibiotics, Vitamin K deficiency resulting in coagulopathy has occurred in patients treated with cefoperazone. The mechanism may possibly be related to the suppression of gut flora which normally synthesize this vitamin. Those at risk include patients with poor diet, malabsorption states (e.g. cystic fibrosis) and patients on prolonged intravenous alimentation regimens. Prothrombin time should be monitored in these patients and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated. Discontinue cefoperazone if there is persistent bleeding and no alternative explanations are identified.
As with other antibiotics, overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms may occur during prolonged use of cefoperazone. Patients should be observed carefully during treatment. As with any potent systemic agent, it is advisable to check periodically for organ system dysfunction during extended therapy; this includes renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic systems. This is particularly important in neonates, especially when premature, and other infants.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefoperazone, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
Usage in Infancy: Cefoperazone has been effectively used in infants. It has not been extensively studied in premature infants and neonates. Therefore in treating premature infants and neonates potential benefits and possible risks involved should be considered before instituting therapy (see Pharmacology: Toxicoloy: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions).
In neonates with kernicterus, cefoperazone does not displace bilirubin from plasma protein binding sites.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Clinical experience with cefoperazone indicates that it is unlikely to impair a patient's ability to drive or use machinery.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Usage During Pregnancy: Reproduction studies have been performed in mice, rats and monkeys at doses up to 10 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility and did not show any teratological findings. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Usage in Nursing Mothers: Only small quantities of cefoperazone are excreted in human milk. Although cefoperazone passes poorly into breast milk of nursing mothers, caution should be exercised when cefoperazone is administered to a nursing mother.
Adverse Reactions
Adverse Reaction Table: (See Table 2.)

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Drug Interactions
Alcohol: A disulfiram-like reaction characterized by flushing, sweating, headache, and tachycardia has been reported when alcohol was ingested during and as late as the fifth day after administration of cefoperazone. A similar reaction has been reported with certain other cephalosporins and patients should be cautioned concerning ingestion of alcoholic beverages in conjunction with administration of cefoperazone. For patients requiring artificial feeding orally or parenterally, solutions containing ethanol should be avoided.
Drug Laboratory Test Interactions: A false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict's or Fehling's solution.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Intravenous Administration: Vials of cefoperazone sterile powder may be initially reconstituted with a minimum of 2.8 ml per gram of cefoperazone of any compatible reconstituting solution appropriate for intravenous administration listed below in Table 3. For ease of reconstitution the use of 5 ml of compatible solution per gram of cefoperazone is recommended. (See Table 3.)

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The entire quantity of the resulting solution should then be further diluted for administration using any of the following vehicles for intravenous infusion listed below in Table 4: (See Table 4.)

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Intramuscular Administration: Sterile Water for Injection or Bacteriostatic Water for Injection may be used to prepare cefoperazone for intramuscular injection. When concentrations of 250 mg/ml or more are to be administered, a lidocaine solution should be used. These solutions should be prepared using a combination of Sterile Water for Injection and 2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection that approximates a 0.5% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Solution. A two-step dilution process as follows is recommended: First, add the required amount of Sterile Water for Injection and agitate until cefoperazone powder is completely dissolved. Second, add the required amount of 2% lidocaine and mix. (See Table 5.)

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Storage
Store below 30°C.
Shelf-Life: Observe "Expiry Date" (month/year) imprinted on outer carton.
The following parenteral diluents and approximate concentrations of cefoperazone provide stable solutions under the following conditions for the indicated time periods.
Controlled room temperature of (15° - 25°C) for 24 hours (After the indicated time periods, unused portions of solutions should be discarded). (See Table 6.)

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Reconstituted cefoperazone solutions may be stored in glass or plastic syringes, or in glass or flexible plastic parenteral solution containers for 5 days at refrigerator temperatures of (2° - 8°C). (See Table 7.)

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Reconstituted cefoperazone solutions may be stored in glass or plastic syringes, or in glass or flexible plastic parenteral solution containers for 3 weeks at freezer temperatures of (-20° to - 10°C). (See Table 8.)

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Reconstituted cefoperazone solutions may be stored in plastic syringes, or in flexible plastic parenteral solution containers.
Frozen samples should be thawed at room temperature before use. After thawing, unused portions should be discarded. Do not re-freeze.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01DD12 - cefoperazone ; Belongs to the class of third-generation cephalosporins. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
Powd for inj (vial) 1 g x 1's. 2 g x 1's.
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