Cosyrel Mechanism of Action




Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Pharmacotherapeutic group: ACE inhibitors, other combinations. ATC code: C09BX02.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Bisoprolol: Bisoprolol is a highly beta1-selective-adrenoceptor blocking agent, lacking intrinsic stimulating and relevant membrane stabilising activity. It only shows low affinity to the beta2-receptor of the smooth muscles of bronchi and vessels as well as to the beta2-receptors concerned with metabolic regulation. Therefore, bisoprolol is generally not to be expected to influence the airway resistance and beta2-mediated metabolic effects. Its beta1-selectivity extends beyond the therapeutic dose range.
Perindopril: Perindopril is an inhibitor of the enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II (ACE). The converting enzyme, or kininase, is an exopeptidase that allows conversion of angiotensin I into the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II as well as causing the degradation of the vasodilator bradykinin into an inactive heptapeptide. Inhibition of ACE results in a reduction of angiotensin II in the plasma, which leads to increased plasma renin activity (by inhibition of the negative feedback of renin release) and reduced secretion of aldosterone. Since ACE inactivates bradykinin, inhibition of ACE also results in an increased activity of circulating and local kallikrein-kinin systems (and thus also activation of the prostaglandin system). It is possible that this mechanism contributes to the blood pressure-lowering action of ACE inhibitors and is partially responsible for certain of their side effects (e.g. cough).
Perindopril acts through its active metabolite, perindoprilat. The other metabolites show no inhibition of ACE activity in vitro.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Bisoprolol: Bisoprolol has no significant negative inotropic effects.
Bisoprolol reaches its maximum effects 3-4 hours after administration. Due to the half-life of 10-12 hours, bisoprolol acts for 24 hours.
The maximum blood-pressure-lowering effects of bisoprolol are generally reached after 2 weeks.
In acute administration in patients with coronary heart disease without chronic heart failure bisoprolol reduces the heart rate and stroke volume and thus the cardiac output and oxygen consumption. In chronic administration the initially elevated peripheral resistance decreases. The decrease in plasma renin activity is proposed as a mechanism of action underlying the antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers.
Bisoprolol reduces the sympatho-adrenergic response by blocking cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. This results in a decrease in heart rate and contractility, causing a reduction in oxygen consumption by the myocardium, which is the desired effect in the case of angina associated with underlying coronary heart disease.
Perindopril: Hypertension: Perindopril is active in all grades of hypertension: mild, moderate, severe; a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both supine and standing positions is observed.
Perindopril reduces peripheral vascular resistance, leading to blood pressure reduction. As a consequence, peripheral blood flow increases, with no effect on heart rate.
Renal blood flow increases as a rule, while the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually unchanged.
Heart failure: Perindopril reduces cardiac work by a decrease in pre-load and after-load.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Bisoprolol: In total 2647 patients were included in the CIBIS II trial. 83% (n = 2202) were in NYHA class III and 17% (n = 445) were in NYHA class IV. They had stable symptomatic systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <35%, based on echocardiography). Total mortality was reduced from 17.3% to 11.8% (relative reduction 34%). A decrease in sudden death (3.6% vs 6.3%, relative reduction 44%) and a reduced number of heart failure episodes requiring hospital admission (12% vs 17.6%, relative reduction 36%) was observed. Finally, a significant improvement of the functional status according to NYHA classification has been shown. During the initiation and titration of bisoprolol hospital admission due to bradycardia (0.53%), hypotension (0.23%), and acute decompensation (4.97%) were observed, but they were not more frequent than in the placebo-group (0%, 0.3% and 6.74%). The numbers of fatal and disabling strokes during the total study period were 20 in the bisoprolol group and 15 in the placebo group.
The CIBIS III trial investigated 1010 patients aged ≥65 years with mild to moderate chronic heart failure (CHF; NYHA class II or III) and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, who had not been treated previously with ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients were treated with a combination of bisoprolol and enalapril for 6 to 24 months after an initial 6 months treatment with either bisoprolol or enalapril. There was a trend toward higher frequency of chronic heart failure worsening when bisoprolol was used as the initial 6 months treatment. Non inferiority of bisoprolol-first versus enalapril-first treatment was not proven in the per-protocol analysis, although the two strategies for initiation of CHF treatment showed a similar rate of the primary combined endpoint death and hospitalization at study end (32.4% in the bisoprolol-first group vs. 33.1 % in the enalapril-first group, per-protocol population). The study shows that bisoprolol can also be used in elderly chronic heart failure patients with mild to moderate disease.
Perindopril: Hypertension: Perindopril is active in all grades of hypertension: mild, moderate, severe; a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both supine and standing positions is observed.
Perindopril reduces peripheral vascular resistance, leading to blood pressure reduction. As a consequence, peripheral blood flow increases, with no effect on heart rate.
Renal blood flow increases as a rule, while the GFR is usually unchanged.
The antihypertensive activity is maximal between 4 and 6 hours after a single dose and is sustained for at least 24 hours: trough effects are about 87- 100 % of peak effects.
The decrease in blood pressure occurs rapidly. In responding patients, normalisation is achieved within a month and persists without the occurrence of tachyphylaxis.
Discontinuation of treatment does not lead to a rebound effect.
Perindopril reduces left ventricular hypertrophy.
In man, perindopril has been confirmed to demonstrate vasodilatory properties. It improves large artery elasticity and decreases the media: lumen ratio of small arteries.
An adjunctive therapy with a thiazide diuretic produces an additive-type of synergy. The combination of an ACE inhibitor and a thiazide also decreases the risk of hypokalaemia induced by the diuretic treatment.
Heart failure: Studies in patients with heart failure have demonstrated: decreased left and right ventricular filling pressures, reduced total peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac output and improved cardiac index.
In comparative studies, the first administration of 2.5 mg of perindopril arginine to patients with mild to moderate heart failure was not associated with any significant reduction of blood pressure as compared to placebo.
Patients with stable coronary artery disease: The EUROPA study was a multicentre, international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial lasting 4 years.
Twelve thousand two hundred and eighteen (12 218) patients aged over 18 were randomised to 8 mg perindopril tert-butylamine (equivalent to 10 mg perindopril arginine) (n = 6 110) or placebo (n = 6 108).
The trial population had evidence of coronary artery disease with no evidence of clinical signs of heart failure.
Overall, 90% of the patients had a previous myocardial infarction and/or a previous coronary revascularisation. Most of the patients received the study medication on top of conventional therapy including platelet inhibitors, lipid lowering agents and beta-blockers.
The main efficacy criterion was the composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or cardiac arrest with successful resuscitation. The treatment with 8 mg perindopril tert-butylamine (equivalent to 10 mg perindopril arginine) once daily resulted in a significant absolute reduction in the primary endpoint of 1.9% (relative risk reduction of 20%, 95%CI [9.4; 28.6] – p<0.001).
In patients with a history of myocardial infarction and/or revascularisation, an absolute reduction of 2.2% corresponding to a RRR of 22.4% (95%CI [12.0; 31.6] – p<0.001) in the primary endpoint was observed by comparison to placebo.
In a subgroup of patients treated with beta-blockers from EUROPA study defined in a post-hoc analysis, the addition of perindopril to beta-blockers (n=3789) showed a significant absolute reduction of 2.2% (relative risk reduction of 24%, 95%CI [9.5; 36.4]) compared to beta-blockers without perindopril (n=3745) in the composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or cardiac arrest with successful resuscitation.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) clinical trial data: Two large randomised, controlled trials (ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA NEPHRON-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes) have examined the use of combination of an ACE-inhibitor with an angiotensin II receptor blocker.
ONTARGET was a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by evidence of end-organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D was a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.
These studies have shown no significant beneficial effect on renal and/or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and/or hypotension as compared to monotherapy was observed. Given their similar pharmacodynamic properties, these results are also relevant for other ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should therefore not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints) was a study designed to test the benefit of adding aliskiren to a standard therapy of an ACE-inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both. The study was terminated early because of an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were more frequently reported in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.
Paediatric population: No data are available with Cosyrel in children.
Pharmacokinetics: The rate and extent of absorption of bisoprolol and perindopril from Cosyrel are not significantly different, respectively, from the rate and extent of absorption of bisoprolol and perindopril when taken alone as monotherapy.
Bisoprolol: Absorption: Bisoprolol is almost completely (>90%) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and, because of its small hepatic first-pass metabolism (approximately 10%), it has a bioavailability of approximately 90% after oral administration.
Distribution: The distribution volume is 3.5 l/kg. The plasma protein binding of bisoprolol is about 30%.
Biotransformation and elimination: Bisoprolol is excreted from the body by two routes. 50% is metabolised by the liver to inactive metabolites which are then excreted by the kidneys. The remaining 50% is excreted by the kidneys in an unmetabolised form. Total clearance is approximately 15 l/h. The half-life in plasma of 10-12 hours gives a 24 hour effect after dosing once daily.
Special populations: The kinetics of bisoprolol are linear and independent of age.
Since the elimination takes place in the kidneys and the liver to the same extent a dosage adjustment is not required for patients with impaired liver function or renal insufficiency. The pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic heart failure and with impaired liver or renal function has not been studied. In patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA stage III) the plasma levels of bisoprolol are higher and the half-life is prolonged compared to healthy volunteers. Maximum plasma concentration at steady state is 64±21 ng/ml at a daily dose of 10 mg and the half-life is 17±5 hours.
Perindopril: Absorption: After oral administration, the absorption of perindopril is rapid and the peak concentration is achieved within 1 hour. The plasma half-life of perindopril is equal to 1 hour.
Distribution: The volume of distribution is approximately 0.2 l/kg for unbound perindoprilat. Protein binding of perindoprilat to plasma proteins is 20%, principally to ACE, but is concentration-dependent.
Biotransformation: Perindopril is a prodrug. Twenty seven percent of the administered perindopril dose reaches the bloodstream as the active metabolite perindoprilat. In addition to active perindoprilat, perindopril yields five metabolites, all inactive. The peak plasma concentration of perindoprilat is achieved within 3 to 4 hours.
As ingestion of food decreases conversion to perindoprilat, hence bioavailability, perindopril arginine should be administered orally in a single daily dose in the morning before a meal.
Elimination: Perindoprilat is eliminated in the urine and the terminal half-life of the unbound fraction is approximately 17 hours, resulting in steady-state within 4 days.
Linearity: It has been demonstrated a linear relationship between the dose of perindopril and its plasma exposure.
Special population: Elimination of perindoprilat is decreased in the elderly, and also in patients with heart or renal failure. Dosage adjustment in renal insufficiency is desirable depending on the degree of impairment (creatinine clearance). Dialysis clearance of perindoprilat is equal to 70 ml/min.
Perindopril kinetics are modified in patients with cirrhosis: hepatic clearance of the parent molecule is reduced by half. However, the quantity of perindoprilat formed is not reduced and therefore no dosage adjustment is required (see Dosage & Administration and Precautions).
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Bisoprolol: Preclinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity or carcinogenicity.
In reproductive toxicology studies, bisoprolol had no effect on fertility or other general results of reproduction. Like other beta-blockers, bisoprolol caused maternal (decreased food intake and decreased body weight) and embryo/fetal toxicity (increased incidence of resorptions, reduced birth weight of the offspring, retarded physical development) at high doses but was not teratogenic.
Perindopril: In the chronic oral toxicity studies (rats and monkeys), the target organ is the kidney, with reversible damage. No mutagenicity has been observed in in vitro or in vivo studies.
Reproduction toxicology studies (rats, mice, rabbits and monkeys) showed no sign of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. However, ACE inhibitors, as a class, have been shown to induce adverse effects on late foetal development, resulting in foetal death and congenital effects in rodents and rabbits: renal lesions and an increase in peri- and postnatal mortality have been observed. Fertility was not impaired either in male or in female rats.
No carcinogenicity has been observed in long term studies in rats and mice.
Environmental Risk Assessment: Cosyrel contains known active substances, bisoprolol and perindopril. Cosyrel will be prescribed as a direct replacement for individual doses of bisoprolol and perindopril, so there will be no increase in the environmental exposure.
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