Increased risk of birth defects, foetal and neonatal morbidity and death when used throughout pregnancy.
Special warnings: Common to perindopril and indapamide:
Lithium: The combination of lithium and the combination of perindopril and indapamide is usually not recommended (see Interactions).
Linked to perindopril:
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS): There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see Interactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.
ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Potassium-sparing drugs, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes: The combination of perindopril and potassium-sparing drugs, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes is usually not recommended (see Interactions).
Neutropenia/agranulocytosis/thrombocytopenia/anaemia: Neutropenia/agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and anaemia have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. In patients with normal renal function and no other complicating factors, neutropenia occurs rarely. Perindopril should be used with extreme caution in patients with collagen vascular disease, immunosuppressant therapy, treatment with allopurinol or procainamide, or a combination of these complicating factors, especially if there is pre-existing impaired renal function. Some of these patients developed serious infections which in a few instances did not respond to intensive antibiotic therapy. If perindopril is used in such patients, periodical monitoring of white blood cell counts is advised and patients should be instructed to report any sign of infection (e.g. sore throat, fever) (see Adverse Reactions and Interactions).
Renovascular hypertension: There is an increased risk of hypotension and renal insufficiency when patient with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with ACE inhibitors (see Contraindications). Treatment with diuretics may be a contributory factor. Loss of renal function may occur with only minor changes in serum creatinine even in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis.
Hypersensitivity/angioedema: Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported rarely in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, including perindopril (see Adverse Reactions). This may occur at any time during treatment. In such cases perindopril should be discontinued promptly and appropriate monitoring should be instituted to ensure complete resolution of symptoms prior to dismissing the patient. In those instances where swelling has been confined to the face and lips the condition generally resolved without treatment, although antihistamines have been useful in relieving symptoms.
Angioedema associated with laryngeal oedema may be fatal. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, which may include subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 ml to 0.5 ml) and/or measures to ensure a patent airway, should be administered promptly.
Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to non-blacks.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor (see Contraindications).
Intestinal angioedema has been reported rarely in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan, or ultrasound or at surgery and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Concomitant use of mTOR inhibitors (e.g. sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus):
Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitors (e.g. sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema (e.g. swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment) (see Interactions).
The combination of perindopril with sacubitril/valsartan is contraindicated due to the increased risk of angioedema (see Contraindications). Sacubitril/valsartan must not be initiated until 36 hours after taking the last dose of perindopril therapy. If treatment with sacubitril/valsartan is stopped, perindopril therapy must not be initiated until 36 hours after the last dose of sacubitril/valsartan (see Contraindications and Interactions). Concomitant use of other NEP inhibitors (e.g. racecadotril) and ACE inhibitors may also increase the risk of angioedema (see Interactions). Hence, a careful benefit-risk assessment is needed before initiating treatment with NEP inhibitors (e.g. racecadotril) in patients on perindopril.
Anaphylactoid reactions during desensitisation: There have been isolated reports of patients experiencing sustained, life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions while receiving ACE inhibitors during desensitisation treatment with hymenoptera (bees, wasps) venom. ACE inhibitors should be used with caution in allergic patients treated with desensitisation, and avoided in those undergoing venom immunotherapy. However these reactions could be prevented by temporary withdrawal of ACE inhibitor for at least 24 hours before treatment in patients who require both ACE inhibitors and desensitisation.
Anaphylactoid reactions during LDL apheresis: Rarely, patients receiving ACE inhibitors during low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis with dextran sulphate have experienced life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. These reactions were avoided by temporarily withholding ACE-inhibitor therapy prior to each apheresis.
Haemodialysis patients: Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialysed with high-flux membranes (e.g., AN 69) and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In these patients consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent.
Primary aldosteronism: Patients with primary hyperaldosteronism generally will not respond to anti-hypertensive drugs acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of this product is not recommended.
Pregnancy: ACE inhibitors should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see Contraindications and Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Linked to indapamide:
Hepatic encephalopathy: When liver function is impaired, thiazide diuretics and thiazide-related diuretics may cause hepatic encephalopathy. Administration of the diuretic should be stopped immediately if this occurs.
Photosensitivity: Cases of photosensitivity reactions have been reported with thiazides and related thiazides diuretics (see Adverse Reactions). If photosensitivity reaction occurs during treatment, it is recommended to stop the treatment. If a re-administration of the diuretic is deemed necessary, it is recommended to protect exposed areas to the sun or to artificial UVA.
Precautions for use: Common to perindopril and indapamide:
Renal impairment: In certain hypertensive patients without pre-existing apparent renal lesions and for whom renal blood tests show functional renal insufficiency, treatment should be stopped and possibly restarted either at a low dose or with one constituent only.
In these patients usual medical follow-up will include frequent monitoring of potassium and creatinine, after two weeks of treatment and then every two months during therapeutic stability period. Renal failure has been reported mainly in patients with severe heart failure or underlying renal failure including renal artery stenosis.
The drug is usually not recommended in case of bilateral renal artery stenosis or a single functioning kidney.
Coversyl Plus 5 mg/1.25 mg:
In cases of severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), treatment is contraindicated.
Coversyl Plus 10 mg/2.5 mg:
In cases of severe and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance <60 ml/min), treatment is contraindicated.
Hypotension and water and electrolyte depletion: There is a risk of sudden hypotension in the presence of pre-existing sodium depletion (in particular in individuals with renal artery stenosis). Therefore systematic testing should be carried out for clinical signs of water and electrolyte depletion, which may occur with an intercurrent episode of diarrhoea or vomiting.
Regular monitoring of plasma electrolytes should be carried out in such patients.
Marked hypotension may require the implementation of an intravenous infusion of isotonic saline.
Transient hypotension is not a contraindication to combination of treatment. After re-establishment of a satisfactory blood volume and blood pressure, treatment can be started again either at a reduced dose or with only one of the constituents.
Potassium levels: The combination of perindopril and indapamide does not prevent the onset of hypokalaemia particularly in diabetic patients or in patients with renal failure. As with any antihypertensive agent containing a diuretic, regular monitoring of plasma potassium levels should be carried out.
Excipients: Coversyl Plus should not be administered to patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption.
Level of sodium: Coversyl Plus 5 mg/1.25 mg and 10 mg/2.5 mg contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per tablet, i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.
Linked to perindopril:
Cough: A dry cough has been reported with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. It is characterised by its persistence and by its disappearance when treatment is withdrawn. An iatrogenic aetiology should be considered in the event of this symptom. If the prescription of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor is still preferred, continuation of treatment may be considered.
Paediatric population: The efficacy and tolerability of perindopril in children and adolescents, alone or in combination, have not been established.
Risk of arterial hypotension and/or renal insufficiency (in cases of cardiac insufficiency, water and electrolyte depletion, etc): Marked stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been observed particularly during marked water and electrolyte depletions (strict sodium-free diet or prolonged diuretic treatment), in patients whose blood pressure was initially low, in cases of renal artery stenosis, congestive heart failure or cirrhosis with oedema and ascites.
The blocking of this system with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor may therefore cause, particularly at the time of the first administration and during the first two weeks of treatment, a sudden drop in blood pressure and/or an increase in plasma levels of creatinine, showing a functional renal insufficiency.
Occasionally this can be acute in onset, although rare, and with a variable time to onset.
In such cases, the treatment should then be initiated at a lower dose and increased progressively.
Elderly: Renal function and potassium levels should be tested before the start of treatment. The initial dose is subsequently adjusted according to blood pressure response, especially in cases of water and electrolyte depletion, in order to avoid sudden onset of hypotension.
Atherosclerosis: The risk of hypotension exists in all patients but particular care should be taken in patients with ischaemic heart disease or cerebral circulatory insufficiency, with treatment being started at a low dose.
Renovascular hypertension: The treatment for renovascular hypertension is revascularisation. Nonetheless, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can be beneficial in patients presenting with renovascular hypertension who are awaiting corrective surgery or when such a surgery is not possible.
Coversyl Plus 5 mg/1.25 mg:
If Coversyl Plus 5mg/1.25mg is prescribed to patients with known or suspected renal artery stenosis, treatment should be started in a hospital setting at a low dose and renal function and potassium levels should be monitored, since some patients have developed a functional renal insufficiency which was reversed when treatment was stopped.
Coversyl Plus 10 mg/2.5 mg:
Treament with Coversyl Plus 10mg/2.5mg is not appropriate in patients with known or suspected renal artery stenosis because treatment should be started in a hospital setting at a dose lower than the Coversyl Plus 10mg/2.5mg one.
Cardiac failure/severe cardiac insufficiency: In patients with severe cardiac insufficiency (grade IV), treatment with Coversyl Plus is not appropriate because treatment should be started under medical supervision with a reduced initial dose. Treatment with beta-blockers in hypertensive patients with coronary insufficiency should not be stopped: the ACE inhibitor should be added to the beta-blocker.
Diabetic patients: In patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (spontaneous tendency to increased levels of potassium), treatment with Coversyl Plus is not appropriate because treatment should be started under medical supervision with a reduced initial dose.
The glycaemia levels should be closely monitored in diabetic patients previously treated with oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin, namely during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor (see Interactions).
Ethnic differences: As with other angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, perindopril is apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.
Surgery/anaesthesia: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can cause hypotension in cases of anaesthesia, especially when the anaesthetic administered is an agent with hypotensive potential.
It is therefore recommended that treatment with long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as perindopril should be discontinued where possible one day before surgery.
Aortic or mitral valve stenosis/hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ACE inhibitors should be used with caution in patient with an obstruction in the outflow tract of the left ventricle.
Hepatic failure: Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up (see Adverse Reactions).
Hyperkalaemia: Elevations in serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including perindopril. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalaemia include those with renal insufficiency, worsening of renal function, age (> 70 years), diabetes mellitus, intercurrent events, in particular dehydration, acute cardiac decompensation, metabolic acidosis and concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g. spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, amiloride), potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes; or those patients taking other drugs associated with increases in serum potassium (e.g. heparins, co-trimoxazole also known as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, other ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, acetylsalicylic acid ≥ 3 g/day, COX-2 inhibitors and non-selective NSAIDs, immunosuppressant agents such as ciclosporin or tacrolimus, trimethoprim).
The use of potassium supplements, potassium-sparing diuretics, or potassium-containing salt substitutes particularly in patients with impaired renal function may lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. Hyperkalaemia can cause serious, sometimes fatal arrhythmias. If concomitant use of the previously-mentioned agents is deemed appropriate, they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium (see Interactions).
Linked to indapamide:
Water and electrolyte balance: Sodium levels: These should be tested before treatment is started, then at regular intervals. Reduction in sodium levels can be initially asymptomatic and regular testing is therefore essential. Testing should be more frequent in elderly and cirrhotic patients (see Adverse Reactions and Overdosage). Any diuretic treatment may cause hyponatraemia, sometimes with very serious consequences. Hyponatraemia with hypovolaemia may be responsible of dehydration and orthostatic hypotension. Concomitant loss of chloride ions may lead to secondary compensatory metabolic alkalosis: the incidence and degree of this effect are slight.
Potassium levels: Potassium depletion with hypokalaemia is a major risk with thiazide diuretics and thiazide-related diuretics. The risk of onset of lowered potassium levels (< 3.4 mmol/l) should be prevented in some high risk populations such as elderly and/or malnourished subjects, whether or not they are taking multiple medications, cirrhotic patients with oedema and ascites, coronary patients and patients with heart failure.
In such cases hypokalaemia increases the cardiac toxicity of cardiac glycosides and the risk of rhythm disorders.
Subjects presenting with a long QT interval are also at risk, whether the origin is congenital or iatrogenic. Hypokalaemia, as with bradycardia, acts as a factor which favours the onset of severe rhythm disorders, in particular torsades de pointes, which may be fatal.
In all cases more frequent testing of potassium levels is necessary. The first measurement of plasma potassium levels should be carried out during the first week following the start of treatment.
If low potassium levels are detected, correction is required.
Calcium levels: Thiazide diuretics and thiazide-related diuretics may reduce urinary excretion of calcium and cause a mild and transient increase in plasma calcium levels. Markedly raised levels of calcium may be related to undiagnosed hyperparathyroidism. In such cases the treatment should be stopped before investigating the parathyroid function.
Blood glucose: Monitoring of blood glucose is important in diabetic patients, particularly when potassium levels are low.
Uric acid: Tendency to gout attacks may be increased in hyperuricaemic patients.
Renal function and diuretics: Thiazide diuretics and thiazide-related diuretics are only fully effective when renal function is normal or only slightly impaired (creatinine levels lower than approximately 25 mg/l, i.e. 220 μmol/l for an adult).
In the elderly the value of plasma creatinine levels should be adjusted to take account of the age, weight and sex of the patient, according to the Cockroft formula: (see equation.)
Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
This formula is suitable for an elderly male and should be adapted for women by multiplying the result by 0.85.
Hypovolaemia, resulting from the loss of water and sodium caused by the diuretic at the start of treatment, causes a reduction in glomerular filtration. It may result in an increase in blood urea and creatinine levels. This transitory functional renal insufficiency is of no adverse consequence in patients with normal renal function but may however worsen a pre-existing renal impairment.
Athletes: Athletes should note that this product contains an active substance which may cause a positive reaction in doping tests.
Acute myopia and secondary angle-closure glaucoma: Sulfonamide, or sulfonamide derivative, drugs can cause an idiosyncratic reaction resulting in transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue drug intake as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines:
Linked to perindopril, indapamide and Coversyl Plus: Coversyl Plus 5 mg/1.25 mg:
Neither the two active substances nor Coversyl Plus 5 mg/1.25 mg affect alertness but individual reactions related to low blood pressure may occur in some patients, particularly at the start of treatment or in combination with another antihypertensive medication.
As a result the ability to drive or use machinery may be impaired.
Coversyl Plus 10 mg/2.5 mg:
The two active substances, individually or combined in Coversyl Plus 10 mg/2.5 mg, have no influence on the ability to drive and use machines but individual reactions related to low blood pressure may occur in some patients, particularly at the start of treatment or in combination with another antihypertensive medication.
As a result the ability to drive or operate machinery may be impaired.