Symptoms of overdose: Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) have a relatively low therapeutic index. The threshold for vitamin D intoxication is between 40,000 and 100,000 IU daily for 1 to 2 months in adults with normal parathyroid function. Infants and small children may react sensitively to far lower concentrations. Therefore, it is warned against intake of vitamin D without medical supervision.
Overdose leads to increased serum and urinary phosphorus levels, as well as hypercalcaemic syndrome and consequently calcium deposits in the tissues and above all in the kidneys (nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis) and the vessels.
Discontinue D-Cure when calcaemia exceeds 10.6 mg/dl (2.65 mmol/l) or if the calciuria exceeds 300 mg/24 hours in adults or 4-6 mg/kg/day in children.
Chronic overdosage may lead to vascular and organ calcification, as a result of hypercalcaemia.
The symptoms of intoxication are little characteristic and manifest as nausea, vomiting, initially also diarrhoea, later constipation, loss of appetite, weariness, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, muscle weakness, persistent sleepiness, azotaemia, polydipsia and polyuria and, in the final stage, dehydration. Typical biochemical findings include hypercalcaemia, hypercalciuria, as well as increased serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations.
Treatment of overdose: Symptoms of chronic vitamin D overdosage may require forced diuresis as well as administration of glucocorticoids or calcitonin.
Overdosage requires measures for treating the - often persisting and under certain circumstances life-threatening - hypercalcaemia.
The first measure is to discontinue the vitamin D preparation; it takes several weeks to normalise hypercalcaemia caused by vitamin D intoxication.
Depending on the degree of hypercalcaemia, measures include a diet that is low in calcium or free of calcium, abundant liquid intake, increase of urinary excretion by means of the drug furosemide, as well as the administration of glucocorticoids and calcitonin.
If kidney function is adequate, calcium levels can be reliably lowered by infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution (3-6 liters in 24 hours) with addition of furosemide and, in some circumstances, also 15 mg/kg body weight/hour sodium edetate accompanied by continuous calcium and ECG monitoring. In oligoanuria, in contrast, haemodialysis (calcium-free dialysate) is necessary.
No special antidote exists.
It is recommended to point out the symptoms of potential overdose to patients under chronic therapy with higher doses of vitamin D (nausea, vomiting, initially also diarrhoea, later constipation, anorexia, weariness, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, muscle weakness, persistent sleepiness, azotaemia, polydipsia and polyuria).