Diprospan

Diprospan

Manufacturer:

Merck Sharp & Dohme

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma

Marketer:

A. Menarini
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Betamethasone dipropionate, betamethasone disodium phosphate.
Description
Each ml of DIPROSPAN Suspension contains betamethasone dipropionate equivalent to 5 mg betamethasone and betamethasone disodium phosphate equivalent to 2 mg in a sterile buffered and preserved vehicle. DIPROSPAN Suspension is a sterile aqueous injectable suspension of betamethasone dipropionate and betamethasone disodium phosphate.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Each injection includes the following inactive ingredients: Disodium phosphate dihydrate (Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate), Sodium chloride, Disodium edetate, Polysorbate 80, Benzyl alcohol, Methyl parahydroxybenzoate, Propyl parahydroxybenzoate, Carmellose sodium (Sodium carboxymethylcellulose), Macrogols, Hydrochloric acid, Water for injections and Nitrogen.
Action
DIPROSPAN Suspension is a combination of soluble and very slightly soluble betamethasone esters that provides potent anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antiallergic effects in the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive disorders. Prompt therapeutic activity is achieved by the soluble ester, betamethasone disodium phosphate, which is absorbed quickly after injection. Sustained activity is provided by betamethasone dipropionate, which is only slightly soluble and becomes a repository for slow absorption, thereby controlling symptoms over a prolonged period. The small crystal size of betamethasone dipropionate permits the use of a fine-gauge needle (up to 26 gauge) for intradermal and intralesional administration. Glucocorticosteroids, such as betamethasone, cause profound and varied metabolic effects and modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.
Betamethasone has high glucocorticosteroid activity and slight mineralocorticosteroid activity.
Indications/Uses
DIPROSPAN Suspension is indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic corticosteroid-responsive disorders. Corticosteroid hormone therapy is an adjunct to, and not a replacement for, conventional therapy.
Musculoskeletal and Soft Tissue Conditions: Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; bursitis; ankylosing spondylitis; epicondylitis; radiculitis; coccydynia; sciatica; lumbago; torticollis; ganglion cyst; exostasis; fasciitis.
Allergic Conditions: Chronic bronchial asthma (including adjunctive therapy for status asthmaticus); hay fever; angioneurotic edema; allergic bronchitis; seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis; drug reactions; serum sickness; insect bites.
Dermatologic Conditions: Atopic dermatitis (nummular eczema); neurodermatitis (circumscribed lichen simplex); contact dermatitis; severe solar dermatitis; urticaria; hypertropic lichen planus; necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum; alopecia areata; discoid lupus erythematosus; psoriasis; keloids; pemphigus; dermatitis herpetiformis; cystic acne.
Collagen Diseases: Disseminated lupus erythematosus; scleroderma; dermatomyositis; periarteritis nodosa.
Neoplastic Diseases: For palliative management of leukemias and lymphomas in adults; acute leukemia of childhood.
Other Conditions: Adrenogenital syndrome; ulcerative colitis; regional ileitis; sprue; podiatric conditions (bursitis under heloma durum, hallux rigidus, digiti quinti varus); affections requiring subconjunctival injection; corticosteroid-responsive blood dyscrasias; nephritis, and nephritic syndrome.
Primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be treated with DIPROSPAN Suspension but should be supplemented with mineralocorticosteroids, if applicable.
DIPROSPAN Suspension is recommended for intramuscular injection in conditions responsive to systemic corticosteroids; injection directly into the affected soft tissues where indicated; intra-articular and periarticular injection in arthritides; intralesional injection in various dermatologic conditions; and local injection in certain inflammatory and cystic disorders of the foot.
Dosage/Direction for Use
FOR INTRAMUSCULAR, INTRA-ARTICULAR, PERIARTICULAR, INTRABURSAL, INTRADERMAL, INTRALESIONAL AND SOFT TISSUE INJECTION.
DOSING REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE SPECIFIC DISEASE, ITS SEVERITY AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.
The initial dose should be maintained or adjusted until a satisfactory response is observed. If a satisfactory clinical response does not occur after a reasonable period of time, treatment with DIPROSPAN Suspension should be discontinued and other appropriate therapy initiated.
Systemic Administration: For systemic therapy, treatment is initiated with 1 to 2 ml in most conditions and repeated as necessary. Administration is by deep intramuscular (IM) injection in the gluteal region. Dosage and frequency of administration will depend on the severity of the patient's condition and the therapeutic response. Two ml might be required initially in a severe illness, such as lupus erythematosus or status asthmaticus which has been resolved by appropriate life-saving procedures.
A wide variety of dermatologic conditions respond effectively to an IM injection of 1 ml DIPROSPAN Suspension, repeated according to the response of the conditions.
In respiratory tract disorders, onset of relief from symptoms has occurred within a few hours after IM injection of DIPROSPAN Suspension.
Effective control of symptoms with 1 to 2 ml is obtained in bronchial asthma, hay fever, allergic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis.
In the treatment of acute or chronic bursitis, excellent results are obtained with 1 to 2 ml IM injection of DIPROSPAN Suspension, repeated as necessary.
Local Administration: Concomitant use of a local anesthetic is rarely necessary. If coadministration of a local anesthetic is desired, DIPROSPAN Suspension may be mixed (in a syringe, not the vial) with 1% or 2% procaine hydrochloride or lidocaine, using formulations which do not contain parabens. Similar local anesthetics may also be used. Anesthetics containing methylparaben, propylparaben, phenol, etc. should be avoided. The required dose of DIPROSPAN Suspension is first withdrawn from the vial into the syringe. The local anesthetic is then drawn in, and the syringe is shaken briefly.
In acute subdeltoid, subacromial, oleocranon, and prepatellar bursitis, an intrabursal injection of 1 to 2 ml of DIPROSPAN Suspension may relieve pain and restore full range of movement within a few hours. Chronic bursitis may be treated with reduced dosage once acute symptoms are controlled. In acute tenosynovitis, tendinitis, and peritendinitis, one injection of DIPROSPAN Suspension should alleviate the condition. In chronic forms of these conditions, it may be necessary to repeat the injection as the patient's condition requires.
Following 0.5 to 2 ml intra-articular administration of DIPROSPAN Suspension, relief from pain, soreness, and stiffness associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis may be experienced within two to four hours. Duration of relief, which varies widely in both diseases, is four or more weeks in the majority of cases.
An intra-articular injection of DIPROSPAN Suspension is well tolerated in the joint and periarticular tissues. Recommended doses for intra-articular injection are: large joints (knee, hip, shoulder), 1 to 2 ml; medium joints (elbow, wrist, ankle), 0.5 to 1 ml; small joints (foot, hand, chest), 0.25 to 0.5 ml.
Dermatologic conditions may respond to intralesional administration of DIPROSPAN Suspension. Response of some lesions not treated directly may be due to a slight systemic effect of the drug. In intralesional treatment, an intradermal dosage of 0.2 ml/cm2 of DIPROSPAN Suspension evenly injected with a tuberculin syringe and a 26-gauge needle is recommended. The total amount of DIPROSPAN Suspension injected at all sites each week should not exceed 1 ml.
DIPROSPAN Suspension may be used effectively in disorders of the foot that are responsive to corticosteroid therapy. Bursitis under heloma durum may be controlled with two successive injections of 0.25 ml each. In some conditions, such as hallux rigidus, digiti quinti varus and acute gouty arthritis, onset of relief may be rapid. A tuberculin syringe with a 25-gauge needle is suitable for most injections. Recommended doses at intervals of approximately one week: bursitis under heloma durum or molle, 0.25 to 0.5 ml; bursitis under calcaneal spur, 0.5 ml; bursitis over hallux rigidus, 0.5 ml; bursitis over digiti quinti varus, 0.5 ml; synovial cyst, 0.25 to 0.5 ml; Morton's neuralgia (metatarsalgia), 0.25 to 0.5 ml; tenosynovitis, 0.5 ml; periostitis of cuboid, 0.5 ml; acute gouty arthritis, 0.5 to 1 ml.
After a favorable response is obtained, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial dose in small decrements at appropriate time intervals until the lowest dose which will maintain an adequate clinical response is determined.
Exposure of the patient to stressful situations unrelated to the existing disease may necessitate an increased dose of DIPROSPAN Suspension. If the drug is to be discontinued after long-term therapy, the dose should be decreased gradually.
Overdosage
Symptoms: Acute overdosage with glucocorticosteroids, including betamethasone, is not expected to lead to a life-threatening situation. Except at the most extreme dosages, a few days of excessive glucocorticosteroid dosing is unlikely to produce harmful results in the absence of specific contraindications, such as in patients with diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, or active peptic ulcer, or in patients on medications such as digitalis, coumarin-type anticoagulants or potassium-depleting diuretics.
Treatment: Complications resulting from the metabolic effects of the corticosteroid or from deleterious effects of the basic or concomitant illnesses or resulting from drug interactions should be handled as appropriate.
Maintain adequate fluid intake and monitor electrolytes in serum and urine, with particular attention to sodium and potassium balance. Treat electrolyte imbalance if necessary.
Contraindications
DIPROSPAN Suspension is contraindicated in patients with systemic fungal infections, in those with sensitivity reactions to betamethasone or to other corticosteroids, or to any component of this product (see Description).
Warnings
As this preparation contains benzyl alcohol, its use should be avoided in children under two years of age. Not to be used in neonates.
Special Precautions
DIPROSPAN Suspension is not for intravenous or subcutaneous use.
Serious neurologic events, some resulting in death, have been reported with epidural injection of corticosteroids. Specific events reported include, but are not limited to, spinal cord infarction, paraplegia, quadriplegia, cortical blindness, and stroke. These serious neurologic events have been reported with and without use of fluoroscopy. The safety and effectiveness of epidural administration of corticosteroids have not been established, and corticosteroids are not approved for this use.
Rare instances of anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions with a possibility of shock have occurred in patients receiving parenteral corticosteroid therapy. Appropriate precautionary measures should be taken with patients who have a history of allergic reactions to corticosteroids.
Strict aseptic technique is mandatory in the use of DIPROSPAN Suspension.
DIPROSPAN Suspension contains two betamethasone esters, one of which, betametasone disodium phosphate, disappears rapidly from the injection site. The potential for systemic effects produced by this soluble portion of DIPROSPAN Suspension should therefore be taken into account by the physician when using this preparation.
DIPROSPAN Suspension should be administered intramuscularly with caution to patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. IM injections of corticosteroids should be given deep into the large muscle masses to avoid local tissue atrophy.
Soft tissue, intralesional and intra-articular administration of a corticosteroid may produce systemic as well as local effects.
Examination of any joint fluid present is necessary to exclude a septic process. Local injection into a previously infected joint is to be avoided. A marked increase in pain and local swelling, further restriction of joint motion, fever and malaise are suggestive of septic arthritis. If the diagnosis of sepsis is confirmed, appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be instituted.
Corticosteroids should not be injected into unstable joints, infected areas or intervertebral spaces. Repeated injections into joints of osteoarthritis may increase joint destruction. Avoid injecting corticosteroids directly into the substance of tendons because delayed appearance of tendon rupture has resulted.
Following intra-articular corticosteroid therapy, care should be taken by the patient to avoid overuse of the joint in which symptomatic benefit has been obtained.
With long-term corticosteroid therapy, transfer from parenteral to oral administration should be considered after weighing the potential benefits and risks.
Dosage adjustments may be required with remission or exacerbation of the disease process, the patient's individual response to therapy and exposure of the patient to emotional or physical stress such as serious infection, surgery or injury. Monitoring may be necessary for up to one year following cessation of long-term or high-dose corticosteroid therapy.
Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during use. When corticosteroids are used, decreased resistance and inability to localize infection may occur.
Prolonged corticosteroid use may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts (especially in children), glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Average and large doses of corticosteroids can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be considered. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
While on corticosteroid therapy patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox. Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients receiving corticosteroids, especially high doses, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and lack of antibody response. However, immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g., for Addison disease.
Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to obtain medical advice. This is of particular importance in children.
Corticosteroid therapy in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for management in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary since reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, patients should receive chemoprophylaxis. If rifampin is used in a chemoprophylactic program, its enhancing effect on metabolic hepatic clearance of corticosteroids should be considered; adjustment in corticosteroid dosage may be required.
The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment; when dosage reduction is possible, it should be gradual.
Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may result from too rapid corticosteroid withdrawal and may be minimized by gradual dosage reduction. Such relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, if stress occurs during that period, corticotherapy should be reinstituted. If the patient is receiving corticosteroid already, dosage may have to be increased. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticosteroid should be administered concurrently.
Corticosteroid effect is enhanced in patients with hypothyroidism or in those with cirrhosis.
Cautious use of corticosteroids is advised in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation.
Psychic derangements may appear with corticosteroid therapy. Existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution in: nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess, or other pyogenic infection; diverticulitis; fresh intestinal anastomoses; active or latent peptic ulcer; renal insufficiency; hypertension; osteoporosis; and myasthenia gravis.
Since complications of glucocorticosteroid treatment are dependent on dose, size and duration of treatment, a risk/benefit decision must be made with each patient.
Since corticosteroid administration can disturb growth rates and inhibit endogenous corticosteroid production in infants and children, the growth and development of these patients receiving prolonged therapy should be followed carefully.
Corticosteroids may alter the motility and number of spermatozoa in some patients.
Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical (including, intranasal, inhaled and intraocular) corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes of visual disturbances which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Since controlled human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of DIPROSPAN Suspension during pregnancy or in women of child-bearing age requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against potential hazards to mother and fetus. Infants born of mother who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be observed carefully for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Because of the potential for unwanted adverse effects from DIPROSPAN Suspension in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue therapy, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Adverse Reactions
Adverse reactions to DIPROSPAN Suspension, which have been the same as those reported for other corticosteroids, relate both to dose and to duration of therapy. Usually these reactions can be reversed or minimized by a reduction in dosage; this is generally preferable to withdrawal of drug treatment.
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: sodium retention, potassium loss, hypokalemic alkalosis; fluid retention; congestive heart failure in susceptible patients; hypertension.
Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness, corticosteroid myopathy, loss of muscle mass; aggravation of myasthenic symptoms in myasthenia gravis; osteoporosis; vertebral compression fractures; aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads; pathologic fracture of long bones; tendon rupture; joint instability (from repeated intra-articular injections).
Gastrointestinal: hiccups; peptic ulcer with possible subsequent perforation and hemorrhage; pancreatitis; abdominal distention; ulcerative esophagitis.
Dermatologic: impaired would healing; skin atrophy; thin fragile skin; petechiae and ecchymoses; facial erythema; increased sweating; suppressed reactions to skin tests; reactions such as allergic dermatitis; urticaria, angioneurotic edema.
Neurologic: convulsions; increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudotumor cerebri) usually after treatment; vertigo; headache.
Endocrine: menstrual irregularities; development of cushingoid state; suppression of fetal intrauterine or childhood growth; secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness; decreased carbohydrate tolerance, manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus, increased requirements of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetes.
Ophthalmic: posterior subcapsular cataracts; increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma; exophthalmos, vision blurred.
Metabolic: negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism.
Psychiatric: euphoria, mood swings; severe depression to frank psychotic manifestations; personality changes; insomnia.
Other: anaphylactoid or hypersensitivity and hypotensive or shock-like reactions.
Additional adverse reactions related to parenteral corticosteroid therapy include rare instances of blindness associated with intralesional therapy around the face and head, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, subcutaneous and cutaneous atrophy, sterile abscess, post-injection flare (following intra-articular use) and charcot-like arthropathy.
Drug Interactions
Drug Interactions: Corticosteroids (including betamethasone) are metabolized by CYP3A4.
Concurrent use of phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin or ephedrine or ephedrine may enhance the metabolism of corticosteroids, reducing their therapeutic effects.
Patients receiving both a corticosteroid and an estrogen should be observed for excessive corticosteroid effects.
Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, cobicistat-containing products) may lead to increased exposures of corticosteroids and therefore the potential for increased risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects. Consider the benefit of coadministration versus the potential risk of systemic corticosteroid effects, in which case patients should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid side-effects.
Concurrent use of corticosteroids with potassium-depleting diuretics may enhance hypokalemia. Concurrent use of corticosteroids with cardiac glycosides may enhance the possibility of arrhythmias or digitalis toxicity associated with hypokalemia. Corticosteroids may enhance the potassium depletion caused by amphotericin B. In all patients taking any of these drug therapy combinations, serum electrolyte determinations, particularly potassium levels, should be monitored closely.
Concurrent use of corticosteroids with coumarin-type anticoagulants may increase or decrease the anticoagulant effects, possibly requiring adjustment in dosage.
Combined effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol with glucocorticosteroids may result in an increased occurrence or increased severity of gastrointestinal ulceration.
Corticosteroids may decrease blood salicylate concentrations. Acetylsalicylic acid should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypothrombinemia.
Dosage adjustments of an antidiabetic drug may be necessary when corticosteroids are given to diabetics.
Concomitant glucocorticosteroid therapy may inhibit the response to somatotropin.
Laboratory Test Interactions: Corticosteroids may affect the nitro-blue tetrazolium test for bacterial infection and produce false negative results.
Storage
Store below 30°C. Shake well before using. Protect from light and freezing.
ATC Classification
H02AB01 - betamethasone ; Belongs to the class of glucocorticoids. Used in systemic corticosteroid preparations.
Presentation/Packing
Inj (amp) 1 mL x 1's. (vial) 2 mL x 1's, 5 mL x 1's.
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