Entresto

Entresto

sacubitril + valsartan

Manufacturer:

Novartis

Distributor:

DKSH
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Sacubitril, valsartan.
Description
Entresto contains a salt complex of the anionic forms of sacubitril and valsartan, sodium cations, and water molecules in the molar ratio of 1:1:3:2.5 respectively. Following oral administration, Entresto dissociates into sacubitril (which is further metabolized to LBQ657 [sacubitrilat]) and valsartan.
Entresto film coated tablets contains 50 mg (sacubitril 24.3 mg / valsartan 25.7 mg)*.
Entresto film coated tablets contains 100 mg (sacubitril 48.6 mg / valsartan 51.4 mg)*.
Entresto film coated tablets contains 200 mg (sacubitril 97.2 mg / valsartan 102.8 mg)*.
* Certain dosage strengths may not be available in all countries.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose, crospovidone, magnesium stearate (vegetable origin), talc and colloidal silicon dioxide.
Excipients of film coating: hypromellose, titanium dioxide (E 171), Macrogol 4000, talc, iron oxide red (E 172).
For 50 and 200 mg: iron oxide black (E 172). For 100 mg: iron oxide yellow (E 172).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system; angiotensin II antagonists, other combinations. ATC Code: C09DX04.
Pharmacology: Mechanism of action: Entresto exhibits the mechanism of action of an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor by simultaneously inhibiting neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase; NEP) via LBQ657, the active metabolite of the prodrug sacubitril, and by blocking the angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor via valsartan. The complementary cardiovascular benefits of Entresto in heart failure patients are attributed to the enhancement of peptides that are degraded by neprilysin, such as natriuretic peptides (NP), by LBQ657 and the simultaneous inhibition of the effects of angiotensin II by valsartan. NPs exert their effects by activating membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, resulting in increased concentrations of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which could result in vasodilation, natriuresis and diuresis, increased glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, inhibition of renin and aldosterone release, reduction of sympathetic activity, and anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic effects.
Valsartan inhibits detrimental cardiovascular and renal effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the AT1 receptor, and also inhibits angiotensin II-dependent aldosterone release. This prevents sustained activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that would result in vasoconstriction, renal sodium and fluid retention, activation of cellular growth and proliferation, and subsequent maladaptive cardiovascular remodelling.
Pharmacodynamics: The pharmacodynamic effects of Entresto were evaluated after single and multiple dose administrations in healthy subjects and in patients with heart failure, and are consistent with simultaneous neprilysin inhibition and RAAS blockade. In a 7-day valsartan-controlled study in patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), administration of Entresto resulted in an initial increase in natriuresis, increased urine cGMP, and decreased plasma levels of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) compared to valsartan. In a 21-day study in HFrEF patients, Entresto significantly increased urine ANP and cGMP and plasma cGMP, and decreased plasma NT-proBNP, aldosterone and endothelin-1 compared to baseline. The AT1-receptor was also blocked as evidenced by increased plasma renin activity and plasma renin concentrations. In the PARADIGM-HF study, Entresto decreased plasma NT-proBNP and increased plasma BNP and urine cGMP compared with enalapril. BNP is not a suitable biomarker of heart failure in patients treated with Entresto because BNP is a neprilysin substrate (see PRECAUTIONS). NT-proBNP is not a neprilysin substrate and is therefore a more suitable biomarker.
In a thorough QTc clinical study in healthy male subjects, single doses of Entresto 400 mg and 1200 mg had no effect on cardiac repolarisation.
Neprilysin is one of multiple enzymes involved in the clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Administration of Entresto 400 mg once daily for two weeks to healthy subjects was associated with an increase in CSF Aβ1-38 compared to placebo; there were no changes in concentrations of CSF Aβ1-40 and 1-42. The clinical relevance of this finding is not known (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: NON-CLINICAL SAFETY DATA as follows).
Clinical Studies: PARADIGM-HF: PARADIGM-HF was a multinational, randomised, double-blind study of 8,442 patients comparing Entresto to enalapril, both given to adult patients with chronic heart failure, NYHA class II-IV and reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] ≤40%, amended later to ≤35%) in addition to other heart failure therapy. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death or hospitalisation for heart failure (HF). Patients with SBP <100 mmHg, severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and severe hepatic impairment were excluded at screening and therefore not prospectively studied.
Prior to study participation, patients were well treated with standard of care therapy which included ACE inhibitors/ARBs (>99%), beta blockers (94%), mineralocorticoid antagonists (58%) and diuretics (82%). The median follow-up duration was 27 months and patients were treated for up to 4.3 years.
Patients were required to discontinue their existing ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy and enter a sequential single-blind run-in period during which they received treatment with enalapril 10 mg twice daily, followed by single-blind treatment with Entresto 100 mg twice daily, increasing to 200 mg twice daily (see ADVERSE REACTIONS for discontinuations during this period). They were then randomised to the double-blind period of the study, during which they received either Entresto 200 mg or enalapril 10 mg twice daily [Entresto (n=4,209); enalapril (n=4,233)].
The mean age of the population studied was 64 years of age and 19% were 75 years of age or older. At randomisation, 70% of patients were NYHA class II, 24% were class III and 0.7% were class IV. The mean LVEF was 29% and there were 963 (11.4%) patients with a baseline LVEF >35% and ≤40%.
In the Entresto group, 76% of patients remained on the target dose of 200 mg twice daily at the end of the study (mean daily dose of 375 mg). In the enalapril group, 75% of patients remained on the target dose of 10 mg twice daily at the end of the study (mean daily dose of 18.9 mg).
Entresto was superior to enalapril, reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalisations to 21.8% compared to 26.5% for enalapril treated patients. The absolute risk reductions were 4.7% for the composite of the CV death or HF hospitalisation, 3.1% for CV death alone, and 2.8% for first HF hospitalisation alone. The relative risk reduction was 20% versus enalapril (see Table 1). This effect was observed early and was sustained throughout the duration of the study (see figure). Both components contributed to the risk reduction. Sudden death accounted for 45% of cardiovascular deaths and was reduced by 20% in Entresto-treated patients compared to enalapril-treated patients (HR 0.80, p=0.0082). Pump failure accounted for 26% of cardiovascular deaths and was reduced by 21% in Entresto-treated patients compared to enalapril-treated patients (HR 0.79, p=0.0338).
This risk reduction was consistently observed across subgroups including: gender, age, race, geography, NYHA class (II/III), ejection fraction, renal function, history of diabetes or hypertension, prior heart failure therapy, and atrial fibrillation.
Entresto improved survival with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality of 2.8% (Entresto, 17%, enalapril, 19.8%). The relative risk reduction was 16% compared with enalapril (see Table 1).

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image


Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

TITRATION: TITRATION was a 12-week safety and tolerability study in 538 patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) and systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%) naive to ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy or on varying doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs prior to study entry. Patients received a starting dose of Entresto of 50 mg twice daily and were up-titrated to 100 mg twice daily, then to the target dose of 200 mg twice daily, with either a 3-week or a 6-week regimen.
More patients who were naive to previous ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy or on low-dose therapy (equivalent to <10 mg enalapril/day) were able to achieve and maintain Entresto 200 mg when up-titrated over 6 weeks (84.8%) versus 3 weeks (73.6%). Overall, 76% of patients achieved and maintained the target dose of Entresto 200 mg twice daily without any dose interruption or down-titration over 12 weeks.
Pharmacokinetics: The valsartan contained within Entresto is more bioavailable than the valsartan in other marketed tablet formulations; 26 mg, 51 mg, and 103 mg of valsartan in Entresto is equivalent to 40 mg, 80 mg and 160 mg of valsartan in other marketed tablet formulations, respectively.
Absorption: Following oral administration, Entresto dissociates into valsartan and the prodrug sacubitril. Sacubitril is further metabolised to the active metabolite LBQ657. These reach peak plasma concentrations in 2 hours, 1 hour, and 2 hours, respectively. The oral absolute bioavailability of sacubitril and valsartan is estimated to be more than 60% and 23%, respectively.
Following twice daily dosing of Entresto, steady-state levels of sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan are reached in three days. At steady state, sacubitril and valsartan do not accumulate significantly, while LBQ657 accumulates 1.6-fold. Administration with food has no clinically significant impact on the systemic exposures of sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan. Entresto can be administered with or without food.
Distribution: Sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan are highly bound to plasma proteins (94-97%). Based on the comparison of plasma and CSF exposures, LBQ657 crosses the blood brain barrier to a limited extent (0.28%). The average apparent volume of distribution of valsartan and sacubitril were 75 litres to 103 litres, respectively.
Biotransformation: Sacubitril is readily converted to LBQ657 by carboxylesterases 1b and 1c; LBQ657 is not further metabolised to a significant extent. Valsartan is minimally metabolised, as only about 20% of the dose is recovered as metabolites. A hydroxyl metabolite of valsartan has been identified in plasma at low concentrations (<10%).
Since CYP450-enzyme-mediated metabolism of sacubitril and valsartan is minimal, co-administration with medicinal products that impact CYP450 enzymes is not expected to impact the pharmacokinetics.
Elimination: Following oral administration, 52-68% of sacubitril (primarily as LBQ657) and ~13% of valsartan and its metabolites are excreted in urine; 37-48% of sacubitril (primarily as LBQ657) and 86% of valsartan and its metabolites are excreted in faeces.
Sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan are eliminated from plasma with a mean elimination half-life (T½) of approximately 1.43 hours, 11.48 hours, and 9.90 hours, respectively.
Linearity/non-linearity: The pharmacokinetics of sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan were approximately linear over an Entresto dose range of 50 mg to 200 mg.
Special populations: Elderly patients: LBQ657 and valsartan exposure are increased in subjects over 65 years of age by 42% and 30%, respectively, compared to younger subjects.
Impaired renal function: A correlation was observed between renal function and systemic exposure to LBQ657 in patients with mild to severe renal impairment. The exposure of LBQ657 in patients with moderate (30 ml/min/1.73 m2 ≤ eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) and severe renal impairment (15 ml/min/1.73 m2 ≤ eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) was 1.4-fold and 2.2-fold higher compared to patients with mild renal impairment (60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ≤ eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2), the largest group of patients enrolled in PARADIGM-HF). The exposure of valsartan was similar in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment compared to patients with mild renal impairment. No studies have been performed in patients undergoing dialysis. However, LBQ657 and valsartan are highly bound to plasma protein and therefore unlikely to be effectively removed by dialysis.
Impaired hepatic function: In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, the exposures of sacubitril increased by 1.5- and 3.4- fold, LBQ657 increased by 1.5- and 1.9-fold, and valsartan increased by 1.2-fold and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to matching healthy subjects. However, in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, the exposures of free concentrations of LBQ657 increased by 1.47- and 3.08-fold, respectively, and the exposures of free concentrations of valsartan increased by 1.09-fold and 2.20-fold, respectively, compared to matching healthy subjects. Entresto has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment, biliary cirrhosis or cholestasis (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).
Effect of gender: The pharmacokinetics of Entresto (sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan) are similar between male and female subjects.
Toxicology: Non-Clinical Safety Data: Non-clinical data (including studies with sacubitril and valsartan components and/or Entresto) reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and fertility.
Fertility, reproduction and development: Entresto treatment during organogenesis resulted in increased embryofoetal lethality in rats at doses ≥100 mg/kg/day (≤0.72-fold the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on the basis of AUC) and rabbits at doses ≥10 mg/kg/day (2-fold and 0.03-fold the MRHD on the basis of valsartan and LBQ657 AUC, respectively). It is teratogenic based on a low incidence of foetal hydrocephaly, associated with maternally toxic doses, which was observed in rabbits at an Entresto dose of ≥10 mg/kg/day. Cardiovascular abnormalities (mainly cardiomegaly) were observed in rabbit foetuses at a maternally non-toxic dose (3 mg/kg/day). A slight increase in two foetal skeletal variations (misshapen sternebra, sternebra bipartite ossification) was observed in rabbits at an Entresto dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The adverse embryofoetal effects of Entresto are attributed to the angiotensin receptor antagonist activity (see FEMALES OF CHILD-BEARING POTENTIAL, PREGNANCY, BREAST-FEEDING AND FERTILITY under Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Sacubitril treatment during organogenesis resulted in embryo-foetal lethality and embryo-foetal toxicity (decreased foetal body weights and skeletal malformations) in rabbits at doses associated with maternal toxicity (500 mg/kg/day; 5.7-fold the MRHD on the basis of LBQ657 AUC). A slight generalised delay in ossification was observed at doses of >50 mg/kg/day. This finding is not considered adverse. No evidence of embryo-foetal toxicity or teratogenicity was observed in rats treated with sacubitril. The embryo-foetal no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for sacubitril was at least 750 mg/kg/day in rats and 200 mg/kg/day in rabbits (2.2-fold the MRHD on the basis of LBQ657 AUC).
Pre- and postnatal development studies in rats conducted with sacubitril at high doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (2.2-fold the MRHD on the basis of AUC) and valsartan at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (0.86-fold the MRHD on the basis of AUC) indicate that treatment with Entresto during organogenesis, gestation and lactation may affect pup development and survival.
Other preclinical findings: Entresto: The effects of Entresto on amyloid-β concentrations in CSF and brain tissue were assessed in young (2-4 years old) cynomolgus monkeys treated with Entresto (50 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. In this study CSF Aβ clearance in cynomolgus monkeys was reduced, increasing CSF Aβ1-40, 1-42 and 1-38 levels; there was no corresponding increase in Aβ levels in the brain. Increases in CSF Aβ1-40 and 1-42 were not observed in a two-week healthy volunteer study in humans (see PHARMACOLOGY as previously mentioned). Additionally, in a toxicology study in cynomolgus monkeys treated with Entresto at 300 mg/kg/day for 39 weeks, there was no evidence for the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain. Amyloid content was not, however, measured quantitatively in this study.
Sacubitril: In juvenile rats treated with sacubitril (postnatal days 7 to 70), there was a reduction in age-related bone mass development and bone elongation. A study in adult rats showed only a minimal transient inhibitory effect on bone mineral density but not on any other parameters relevant for bone growth, suggesting no relevant effect of sacubitril on bone in adult patient populations under normal conditions. However, a mild transient interference of sacubitril with the early phase of fracture healing in adults cannot be excluded.
Valsartan: In juvenile rats treated with valsartan (postnatal days 7 to 70), doses as low as 1 mg/kg/day produced persistent irreversible kidney changes consisting of tubular nephropathy (sometimes accompanied by tubular epithelial necrosis) and pelvic dilatation. These kidney changes represent an expected exaggerated pharmacological effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 blockers; such effects are observed if rats are treated during the first 13 days of life. This period coincides with 36 weeks of gestation in humans, which could occasionally extend up to 44 weeks after conception in humans.
Indications/Uses
Entresto is indicated in adult patients for treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions).
Entresto is administered in combination with other heart failure therapies (e.g. beta blockers, diuretics and mineralocorticoid antagonists) as appropriate, in place of an ACE inhibitor or ARB (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions).
Dosage/Direction for Use
The recommended starting dose of Entresto is one tablet of 100 mg twice daily, except in the situations described as follows. The dose should be doubled at 2-4 weeks to the target dose of one tablet of 200 mg twice daily, as tolerated by the patient (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions).
If patients experience tolerability issues (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≤95 mmHg, symptomatic hypotension, hyperkalaemia, renal dysfunction), adjustment of concomitant medicinal products, temporary down-titration or discontinuation of Entresto is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS).
In PARADIGM-HF study, Entresto was administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, in place of an ACE inhibitor or other angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions). There is limited experience in patients not currently taking an ACE inhibitor or an ARB or taking low doses of these medicinal products, therefore a starting dose of 50 mg twice daily and slow dose titration (doubling every 3-4 weeks) are recommended in these patients (see PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies: Titration under Actions).
Treatment should not be initiated in patients with serum potassium level >5.4 mmol/l or with SBP <100 mmHg (see PRECAUTIONS). A starting dose of 50 mg twice daily should be considered for patients with SBP ≥100 to 110 mmHg.
Entresto should not be co-administered with an ACE inhibitor or an ARB. Due to the potential risk of angioedema when used concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor, it must not be started for at least 36 hours after discontinuing ACE inhibitor therapy (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS and INTERACTIONS).
The valsartan contained within Entresto is more bioavailable than the valsartan in other marketed tablet formulations (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
If a dose is missed, the patient should take the next dose at the scheduled time.
Method of administration: Oral use.
Entresto may be administered with or without food (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). The tablets must be swallowed with a glass of water.
Special patient populations: Elderly population: The dose should be in line with the renal function of the elderly patient.
Renal impairment: No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild (Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate [eGFR] 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment. A starting dose of 50 mg twice daily should be considered in patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30-60 ml/min/1.73 m2). As there is very limited clinical experience in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions) Entresto should be used with caution and a starting dose of 50 mg twice daily is recommended. There is no experience in patients with end-stage renal disease and use of Entresto is not recommended.
Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is required when administering Entresto to patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A classification). There is limited clinical experience in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B classification) or with AST/ALT values more than twice the upper limit of the normal range. Entresto should be used with caution in these patients and the recommended starting dose is 50 mg twice daily (see PRECAUTIONS and Pharmacology: PHARMACOKINETICS under Actions). Entresto is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment, biliary cirrhosis or cholestasis (Child-Pugh C classification) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of Entresto in children and adolescents aged below 18 years have not been established. No data are available.
Overdosage
Limited data are available with regard to overdose in humans. A single dose of Entresto 1200 mg and multiple doses of 900 mg (14 days) were studied in healthy volunteers and were well tolerated.
Hypotension is the most likely symptom of overdose due to the blood pressure lowering effects of Entresto. Symptomatic treatment should be provided.
The medicinal product is unlikely to be removed by haemodialysis due to high protein binding.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in Excipients/Inactive Ingredients under Description.
Concomitant use with ACE inhibitors (see PRECAUTIONS and INTERACTIONS). Entresto must not be administered until 36 hours after discontinuing ACE inhibitor therapy.
Known history of angioedema related to previous ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy (see PRECAUTIONS).
Hereditary or idiopathic angioedema (PRECAUTIONS).
Concomitant use with aliskiren-containing medicinal products in patients with diabetes mellitus or in patients with renal impairment (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see PRECAUTIONS and INTERACTIONS).
Severe hepatic impairment, biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION).
Second and third trimester of pregnancy (see FEMALES OF CHILD-BEARING POTENTIAL, PREGNANCY, BREAST-FEEDING AND FERTILITY under Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
Special Precautions
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS): The combination of Entresto with an ACE inhibitor is contraindicated due to the increased risk of angioedema (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Entresto must not be initiated until 36 hours after taking the last dose of ACE inhibitor therapy. If treatment with Entresto is stopped, ACE inhibitor therapy must not be initiated until 36 hours after the last dose of Entresto (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS and INTERACTIONS).
The combination of Entresto with direct renin inhibitors such as aliskiren is not recommended (see INTERACTIONS). The combination of Entresto with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or in patients with renal impairment (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and INTERACTIONS).
Entresto contains valsartan, and therefore should not be co-administered with another ARB containing product (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION and INTERACTIONS).
Hypotension: Treatment should not be initiated unless SBP is ≥100 mmHg. Patients with SBP <100 mmHg were not studied (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions). Cases of symptomatic hypotension have been reported in patients treated with Entresto during clinical studies (see ADVERSE REACTIONS), especially in patients ≥65 years old, patients with renal disease and patients with low SBP (<112 mmHg). When initiating therapy or during dose titration with Entresto, blood pressure should be monitored routinely. If hypotension occurs, temporary down-titration or discontinuation of Entresto is recommended (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). Dose adjustment of diuretics, concomitant antihypertensives and treatment of other causes of hypotension (e.g. hypovolaemia) should be considered. Symptomatic hypotension is more likely to occur if the patient has been volume-depleted, e.g. by diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. Sodium and/or volume depletion should be corrected before starting treatment with Entresto, however, such corrective action must be carefully weighed against the risk of volume overload.
Impaired renal function: Evaluation of patients with heart failure should always include assessment of renal function. Patients with mild and moderate renal impairment are more at risk of developing hypotension (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). There is very limited clinical experience in patients with severe renal impairment (estimated GFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2) and these patients may be at greatest risk of hypotension (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). There is no experience in patients with end-stage renal disease and use of Entresto is not recommended.
Worsening renal function: Use of Entresto may be associated with decreased renal function. The risk may be further increased by dehydration or concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) (see INTERACTIONS). Down-titration should be considered in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function.
Hyperkalaemia: Treatment should not be initiated if the serum potassium level is >5.4 mmol/l. Use of Entresto may be associated with an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, although hypokalaemia may also occur (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Monitoring of serum potassium is recommended, especially in patients who have risk factors such as renal impairment, diabetes mellitus or hypoaldosteronism or who are on a high potassium diet or on mineralocorticoid antagonists (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). If patients experience clinically significant hyperkalaemia adjustment of concomitant medicinal products, or temporary down-titration or discontinuation is recommended. If serum potassium level is >5.4 mmol/l discontinuation should be considered.
Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with Entresto. If angioedema occurs, Entresto should be immediately discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms has occurred. It must not be re-administered. In cases of confirmed angioedema where swelling has been confined to the face and lips, the condition has generally resolved without treatment, although antihistamines have been useful in relieving symptoms.
Angioedema associated with laryngeal oedema may be fatal. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g. adrenaline solution 1 mg/1 ml (0.3-0.5 ml), and/or measures necessary to ensure a patent airway, should be promptly administered.
Patients with a prior history of angioedema were not studied. As they may be at higher risk for angioedema, caution is recommended if Entresto is used in these patients. Entresto is contraindicated in patients with a known history of angioedema related to previous ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy or with hereditary or idiopathic angioedema (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Black patients have an increased susceptibility to develop angioedema (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Patients with renal artery stenosis: Entresto may increase blood urea and serum creatinine levels in patients with bilateral or unilateral renal artery stenosis. Caution is required in patients with renal artery stenosis and monitoring of renal function is recommended.
Patients with NYHA functional classification IV: Caution should be exercised when initiating Entresto in patients with NYHA functional classification IV due to limited clinical experience in this population.
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP): BNP is not a suitable biomarker of heart failure in patients treated with Entresto because it is a neprilysin substrate (see PHARMACOLOGY under Actions).
Patients with hepatic impairment: There is limited clinical experience in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B classification) or with AST/ALT values more than twice the upper limit of the normal range. In these patients, exposure may be increased and safety is not established. Caution is therefore recommended when using it in these patients (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION and Pharmacology: PHARMACOKINETICS under Actions). Entresto is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment, biliary cirrhosis or cholestasis (Child-Pugh C classification) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
EFFECTS ON ABILITY TO DRIVE AND TO USE MACHINES: Entresto has a minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. When driving vehicles or operating machines it should be taken into account that occasionally dizziness or fatigue may occur.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: The use of Entresto is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy and is contraindicated during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Valsartan: Epidemiological evidence regarding the risk of teratogenicity following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been conclusive; however, a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Whilst there is no controlled epidemiological data on the risk with ARBs, similar risks may exist for this class of medicinal product. Unless continued ARB therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ARBs should be stopped immediately and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started. Exposure to ARBs therapy during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human foetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia).
Should exposure to ARBs have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended. Infants whose mothers have taken ARBs should be closely observed for hypotension (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Sacubitril: There are no data from the use of sacubitril in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: NON-CLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions).
Entresto: There are no data from the use of Entresto in pregnant women. Animal studies with Entresto have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: NON-CLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions).
Breast-feeding: It is not known whether Entresto is excreted in human milk. The components of Entresto, sacubitril and valsartan, were excreted in the milk of lactating rats (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: NON-CLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions). Because of the potential risk for adverse reactions in breast-fed newborns/infants, it is not recommended during breast-feeding. A decision should be made whether to abstain from breast-feeding or to discontinue Entresto while breast-feeding, taking into account the importance of Entresto to the mother.
Fertility: There are no available data on the effect of Entresto on human fertility. No impairment of fertility was demonstrated in studies with it in male and female rats (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: NON-CLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions).
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment with Entresto were hypotension, hyperkalaemia and renal impairment (see PRECAUTIONS). Angioedema was reported in patients treated with Entresto (see description of selected adverse reactions as follows).
The safety of Entresto in patients with chronic heart failure was evaluated in the pivotal phase 3 study PARADIGM-HF, which compared patients treated twice daily with Entresto 200 mg (n=4,203) or enalapril 10 mg (n=4,229). Patients randomised to the Entresto group received treatment for a median duration of exposure of 24 months; 3,271 patients were treated for more than one year.
In the PARADIGM-HF study, subjects were previously treated with ACE inhibitors and/or ARBs and also had to successfully complete sequential enalapril and Entresto run-in periods (median drug exposure of 15 and 29 days, respectively) prior to the randomised double-blind period. During the enalapril run-in period, 1,102 patients (10.5%) permanently discontinued from the study, 5.6% because of an adverse reaction, most commonly renal dysfunction (1.7%), hyperkalemia (1.7%) and hypotension (1.4%). During the Entresto run-in period, 10.4% of patients permanently discontinued, 5.9% because of an adverse reaction, most commonly renal dysfunction (1.8%), hypotension (1.7%) and hyperkalemia (1.3%). Due to discontinuations during the run-in period, the adverse reaction rates as presented in table 2 may be lower than the adverse reaction rates expected in clinical practice.
Discontinuation of therapy due to an adverse reaction in the double-blind period of the PARADIGM-HF study occurred in 450 Entresto-treated patients (10.7%) and 516 enalapril-treated patients (12.2%).
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: Adverse reactions are ranked by System organ class and then by frequency with the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are ranked in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 2.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Description of selected adverse reactions: Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with Entresto. In PARADIGM-HF, angioedema was reported in 0.5% of patients treated with Entresto, compared with 0.2% of patients treated with enalapril. A higher incidence of angioedema was observed in Black patients treated with Entresto (2.4%) and enalapril (0.5%) (see PRECAUTIONS).
Hyperkalaemia and serum potassium: In PARADIGM-HF, hyperkalaemia and serum potassium concentrations >5.4 mmol/l were reported in 11.6% and 19.7% of Entresto-treated patients and 14.0% and 21.1% of enalapril-treated patients, respectively.
Blood pressure: In PARADIGM-HF, hypotension and clinically relevant low systolic blood pressure (<90 mmHg and decrease from baseline of >20 mmHg) were reported in 17.6% and 4.76% of Entresto-treated patients compared with 11.9% and 2.67% of enalapril-treated patients, respectively.
Renal impairment: In PARADIGM-HF, renal impairment was reported in 10.1% of Entresto-treated patients and 11.5% of enalapril-treated patients.
Drug Interactions
Interactions resulting in a contraindication: ACE inhibitors: The concomitant use of Entresto with ACE inhibitors is contraindicated, as the concomitant inhibition of neprilysin (NEP) and ACE may increase the risk of angioedema. Entresto must not be started until 36 hours after taking the last dose of ACE inhibitor therapy. ACE inhibitor therapy must not be started until 36 hours after the last dose of Entresto (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION and CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Aliskiren: The concomitant use of Entresto with aliskiren-containing products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or in patients with renal impairment (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). The combination of Entresto with direct renin inhibitors such as aliskiren is not recommended (see PRECAUTIONS). Combination of Entresto with aliskiren is potentially associated with a higher frequency of adverse events such as hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).
Interactions resulting in concomitant use not being recommended: Entresto contains valsartan, and therefore should not be co-administered with another ARB containing product (see PRECAUTIONS).
Interactions requiring precautions: OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 substrates, e.g. statins: In vitro data indicate that sacubitril inhibits OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters. Entresto may therefore increase the systemic exposure of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 substrates such as statins. Co-administration of Entresto increased the Cmax of atorvastatin and its metabolites by up to 2-fold and AUC by up to 1.3-fold. Caution should be exercised when co-administering Entresto with statins. No clinically relevant drug-drug interaction was observed when simvastatin and Entresto were co-administered.
PDE5 inhibitors including sildenafil: Addition of a single dose of sildenafil to Entresto at steady state in patients with hypertension was associated with a significantly greater blood pressure reduction compared to administration of Entresto alone. Therefore, caution should be exercised when sildenafil or another PDE5 inhibitor is initiated in patients treated with Entresto.
Potassium: Concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics (triamterene, amiloride), mineralocorticoid antagonists (e.g. spironolactone, eplerenone), potassium supplements, salt substitutes containing potassium or other agents (such as heparin) may lead to increases in serum potassium, and to increases in serum creatinine. Monitoring of serum potassium is recommended if Entresto is co-administered with these agents (see PRECAUTIONS).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: In elderly patients, volume-depleted patients (including those on diuretic therapy), or patients with compromised renal function, concomitant use of Entresto and NSAIDs may lead to an increased risk of worsening of renal function. Therefore, monitoring of renal function is recommended when initiating or modifying treatment in patients on Entresto who are taking NSAIDs concomitantly (see PRECAUTIONS).
Lithium: Reversible increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Interactions between Entresto and lithium have not been investigated. Therefore, this combination is not recommended. If the combination proves necessary, careful monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended. If a diuretic is also used, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased further.
Furosemide: Co-administration of Entresto and furosemide had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of Entresto but reduced Cmax and AUC of furosemide by 50% and 28%, respectively. While there was no relevant change in urine volume, the urinary excretion of sodium was reduced within 4 hours and 24 hours after co-administration. The average daily dose of furosemide was unchanged from baseline until the end of the PARADIGM-HF study in patients treated with Entresto.
Nitrates, e.g. nitroglycerine: There was no drug-drug interaction between Entresto and intravenously administered nitroglycerine with regard to blood pressure reduction. Co-administration of nitroglycerine and Entresto was associated with a treatment difference of 5 bpm in heart rate compared to the administration of nitroglycerine alone. A similar effect on the heart rate may occur when Entresto is co-administered with sublingual, oral or transdermal nitrates. In general no dose adjustment is required.
OATP and MRP2 transporters: The active metabolite of sacubitril (LBQ657) and valsartan are OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1 and OAT3 substrates; valsartan is also a MRP2 substrate. Therefore, co-administration of Entresto with inhibitors of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT3 (e.g. rifampicin, ciclosporin), OAT1 (e.g. tenofovir, cidofovir) or MRP2 (e.g. ritonavir) may increase the systemic exposure of LBQ657 or valsartan. Appropriate care should be exercised when initiating or ending concomitant treatment with such medicinal products.
Metformin: Co-administration of Entresto with metformin reduced both Cmax and AUC of metformin by 23%. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, when initiating therapy with Entresto in patients receiving metformin, the clinical status of the patient should be evaluated.
No significant interaction: No clinically meaningful drug-drug interaction was observed when Entresto was co-administered with digoxin, warfarin, hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, omeprazole, carvedilol or a combination of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol.
CYP 450 interactions: In vitro metabolism studies indicate that potential for CYP 450-based drug interactions is low since there is limited metabolism of Entresto via CYP450 enzymes. Entresto does not induce or inhibit CYP450 enzymes.
Caution For Usage
Instructions for Use and Handling: Not applicable.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Storage requirements: Do not store above 30°C. Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.
ATC Classification
C09DX04 - valsartan and sacubitril ; Belongs to the class of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), other combinations. Used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Presentation/Packing
50 mg FC tab (violet, white, ovaloid, biconvex with beveled edges, unscored, debossed with "NVR" on one side and "LZ" on the other side) x 30's. 100 mg FC tab (pale yellow, ovaloid, biconvex with beveled edges, unscored, debossed with "NVR" on one side and "L1" on the other side) x 30's, 60's. 200 mg FC tab (light pink, ovaloid, biconvex with beveled edges, unscored, debossed with "NVR" on one side and "L11" on the other side) x 60's.
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