Anti-diabetic agents: Levothyroxine may reduce the effect of antidiabetic agents. For this reason, blood glucose levels should be checked frequently at the start of thyroid hormone therapy and the dosage of the antidiabetic agent has to be adapted, if necessary.
Coumarin derivates: The effect of anti-coagulant therapy can be intensified as levothyroxine displaces anti-coagulative drugs from plasma proteins, which may increase the risk of haemorrhage, e.g. CNS or gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in elderly patients. Therefore it is necessary for coagulation parameters to be checked regularly at the start of and during concomitant therapy. If necessary, the dosage of the anti-coagulative drug has to be adapted.
Protease inhibitors: Protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir, indinavir, lopinavir) may influence the effect of levothyroxine. Close monitoring of thyroid hormone parameters is recommended. If necessary, the levothyroxine dose has to be adjusted.
Phenytoin: Phenytoin may influence the effect of levothyroxine by displacing levothyroxine from plasma proteins resulting in an elevated fT4 and fT3 fraction. On the other hand phenytoin increases the hepatic metabolisation of levothyroxine. Close monitoring of thyroid hormone parameters is recommended.
Colestyramine, Colestipol: Ingestion of ion exchange resins such as cholestyramine and colestipol inhibits the absorption of levothyroxine sodium. Levothyroxine sodium should therefore be taken 4-5 hours before administration of such products.
Aluminium, Iron and Calcium salts: Aluminium-containing drugs (antacids, sucralfate) have been reported in the pertinent literature as potentially decreasing the effect of levothyroxine. Drugs containing levothyroxine should therefore be administered at least 2 hours prior to the administration of aluminium-containing drugs. The same applies to medicinal products containing iron and calcium salts.
Salicylates, dicumarol, furosemide, clofibrate: Salicylates, dicumarol, furosemide in high doses (250 mg), clofibrate and other substances can displace levothyroxine sodium from plasma proteins, resulting in an elevated fT4 fraction.
Orlistat: Hypothyroidism and/or reduced control of hypothyroidism may occur when orlistat and levothyroxine are taken at the same time. This could be due to a decreased absorption of iodine salts and/or levothyroxine.
Sevelamer: Sevelamer may decrease levothyroxine absorption. Therefore, it is recommended that patients are monitored for changes in thyroid function at the start or end of concomitant treatment. If necessary, the levothyroxine dose has to be adjusted.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g. imatinib, sunitinib) may decrease the efficacy of levothyroxine. Therefore, it is recommended that patients are monitored for changes in thyroid function at the start or end of concomitant treatment. If necessary, the levothyroxine dose has to be adjusted.
Propylthiouracil, glucocorticoids, beta-sympatholytics, amiodarone and iodine containing contrast media: These substances inhibit the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3.
Due to its high iodine content amiodarone can trigger hyperthyroidism as well as hypothyroidism. Particular caution is advised in the case of nodular goitre with possibly unrecognized autonomy.
Sertraline, chloroquine/proguanil: These substances decrease the efficacy of levothyroxine and increase the serum TSH level.
Enzyme inducing medicinal products: Enzyme inducing medicinal products such as barbiturates or carbamazepine can increase hepatic clearance of levothyroxine.
Estrogens: Women using oestrogen-containing contraceptives or postmenopausal women under hormone-replacement therapy may have an increased need for levothyroxine.
Soy-containing compounds: Soy-containing compounds can decrease the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine. Therefore, a dosage adjustment of Euthyrox may be necessary, in particular at the beginning or after termination of nutrition with soy supplements.