Mercaptopurine/azathioprine: On the basis of the mechanism of action of febuxostat on XO inhibition concomitant use is not recommended. Inhibition of XO by febuxostat may cause increased plasma concentrations of these drugs leading to toxicity (see Precautions). Drug interaction studies of febuxostat with drugs that are metabolized by XO have not been performed. Where the combination cannot be avoided patients should be closely monitored. A reduction of dosage of mercaptopurine or azathioprine is recommended in order to avoid possible haematological effects.
Drug interaction studies of febuxostat with cytotoxic chemotherapy have not been conducted. No data is available regarding the safety of febuxostat during cytotoxic therapy.
Rosiglitazone/CYP2C8 substrates: Febuxostat was shown to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vitro. In a study in healthy subjects, coadministration of 120 mg febuxostat QD with a single 4 mg oral dose of rosiglitazone had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone and its metabolite N-desmethyl rosiglitazone, indicating that febuxostat is not a CYP2C8 enzyme inhibitor in vivo. Thus, co-administration of febuxostat with rosiglitazone or other CYP2C8 substrates is not expected to require any dose adjustment for those compounds.
Theophylline: An interaction study in healthy subjects has been performed with febuxostat to evaluate whether the inhibition of XO may cause an increase in the theophylline circulating levels as reported with other XO inhibitors. The results of the study showed that the co-administration of febuxostat 80 mg QD with theophylline 400 mg single dose has no effect on the pharmacokinetics or safety of theophylline. Therefore no special caution is advised when febuxostat 80 mg and theophylline are given concomitantly.
Naproxen and other inhibitors of glucuronidation: Febuxostat metabolism depends on Uridine Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT) enzymes. Medicinal products that inhibit glucuronidation, such as NSAIDs and probenecid, could in theory affect the elimination of febuxostat. In healthy subjects concomitant use of febuxostat and naproxen 250 mg twice daily was associated with an increase in febuxostat exposure (Cmax 28%, AUC 41% and t½ 26%). In clinical studies the use of naproxen or other NSAIDs/Cox-2 inhibitors was not related to any clinically significant increase in adverse events.
Febuxostat can be co-administered with naproxen with no dose adjustment of febuxostat or naproxen being necessary.
Inducers of glucuronidation: Potent inducers of UGT enzymes might possibly lead to increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of febuxostat. Monitoring of serum uric acid is therefore recommended 1-2 weeks after start of treatment with a potent inducer of glucuronidation. Conversely, cessation of treatment of an inducer might lead to increased plasma levels of febuxostat.
Colchicine/indomethacin/hydrochlorothiazide/warfarin: Febuxostat can be co-administered with colchicine or indomethacin with no dose adjustment of febuxostat or the co-administered active substance being necessary.
No dose adjustment is necessary for febuxostat when administered with hydrochlorothiazide.
No dose adjustment is necessary for warfarin when administered with febuxostat.
Administration of febuxostat (80 mg or 120 mg once daily) with warfarin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in healthy subjects. INR and Factor VII activity were also not affected by the co-administration of febuxostat.
Desipramine/CYP2D6 substrates: Febuxostat was shown to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vitro. In a study in healthy subjects, 120 mg febuxostat QD resulted in a mean 22% increase in AUC of desipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate indicating a potential weak inhibitory effect of febuxostat on the CYP2D6 enzyme in vivo. Thus, co-administration of febuxostat with other CYP2D6 substrates is not expected to require any dose adjustment for those compounds.
Antacids: Concomitant ingestion of an antacid containing magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide has been shown to delay absorption of febuxostat (approximately 1 hour) and to cause a 32% decrease in Cmax, but no significant change in AUC was observed. Therefore, febuxostat may be taken without regard to antacid use.