Forxiga

Forxiga Adverse Reactions

Manufacturer:

AstraZeneca

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: In the clinical studies in type 2 diabetes, more than 15,000 patients have been treated with dapagliflozin.
The primary assessment of safety and tolerability was conducted in a pre-specified pooled analysis of 13 short-term (up to 24 weeks) placebo-controlled studies with 2,360 subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 2,295 were treated with placebo.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions), 8,574 patients received dapagliflozin 10 mg and 8,569 received placebo for a median exposure time of 48 months. In total, there were 30,623 patient-years of exposure to dapagliflozin.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions across the clinical studies were genital infections.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: The following adverse reactions have been identified in the placebo-controlled clinical studies and postmarketing surveillance. None were found to be dose-related. Adverse reactions listed as follows are classified according to frequency and system organ class (SOC). Frequency categories are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 9.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections: In the 13-study safety pool, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections were reported in 5.5% and 0.6% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females (8.4% and 1.2% for dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively), and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, the number of patients with serious adverse events of genital infections were few and balanced: 2 patients in each of the dapagliflozin and placebo groups.
Necrotising fascitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Cases of Fournier's gangrene have been reported postmarketing in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors including dapagliflozin (see Precautions).
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcome study with 17,160 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and a median exposure time of 48 months, a total of 6 cases of Fournier's gangrene were reported, one in the dapagliflozin-treated group and 5 in the placebo group.
Hypoglycaemia: The frequency of hypoglycaemia depended on the type of background therapy used in each study.
For studies of dapagliflozin in monotherapy, initial combination with metformin, as add-on to metformin or as add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin), the frequency of minor episodes of hypoglycaemia was similar (< 5%) between treatment groups, including placebo up to 102 weeks of treatment. Across all studies, major events of hypoglycaemia were uncommon and comparable between the groups treated with dapagliflozin or placebo. Studies with add-on sulphonylurea and add-on insulin therapies had higher rates of hypoglycaemia (see Interactions).
In an add-on to glimepiride study, at Weeks 24 and 48, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported more frequently in the group treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus glimepiride (6.0% and 7.9%, respectively) than in the placebo plus glimepiride group (2.1% and 2.1%, respectively).
In an add-on to insulin study, episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin at Weeks 24 and 104, respectively, and in 0.5% of subjects treated with placebo plus insulin groups at Weeks 24 and 104. At Weeks 24 and 104, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported, respectively, in 40.3% and 53.1% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin and in 34.0% and 41.6% of the subjects who received placebo plus insulin.
In an add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea study, up to 24 weeks, no episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported. Minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported in 12.8% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin and a sulphonylurea and in 3.7% of subjects who received placebo plus metformin and a sulphonylurea.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, no increased risk of major hypoglycaemia was observed with dapagliflozin therapy compared with placebo. Major events of hypoglycaemia were reported in 58 patients (0.7%) treated with dapagliflozin and 83 (1.0%) patients treated with placebo.
Volume depletion: In the 13-study safety pool, reactions suggestive of volume depletion (including, reports of dehydration, hypovolaemia or hypotension) were reported in 1.1% and 0.7% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively; serious reactions occurred in < 0.2% of subjects balanced between dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo (see Precautions).
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, the numbers of patients with events suggestive of volume depletion were balanced between treatment groups: 213 (2.5%) and 207 (2.4%) in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively. Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (0.9%) and 70 (0.8%) in the dapagliflozin and placebo group, respectively. Events were generally balanced between treatment groups across subgroups of age, diuretic use, blood pressure and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use. In patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline, there were 19 events of serious adverse events suggestive of volume depletion in the dapagliflozin group and 13 events in the placebo group.
Diabetic ketoacidosis: In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, with a median exposure time of 48 months, events of DKA were reported in 27 patients in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group and 12 patients in the placebo group. The events occurred evenly distributed over the study period. Of the 27 patients with DKA events in the dapagliflozin group, 22 had concomitant insulin treatment at the time of the event. Precipitating factors for DKA were as expected in a type 2 diabetes mellitus population (see Precautions).
Urinary tract infections: In the 13-study safety pool, urinary tract infections were more frequently reported for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo (4.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; see Precautions). Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females, and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, serious events of urinary tract infections were reported less frequently for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared with placebo, 79 (0.9%) events versus 109 (1.3%) events, respectively.
Increased creatinine: Adverse drug reactions related to increased creatinine were grouped (e.g. decreased renal creatinine clearance, renal impairment, increased blood creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate). This grouping of reactions was reported in 3.2% and 1.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. In patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment (baseline eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) this grouping of reactions were reported in 1.3% and 0.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. These reactions were more common in patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (18.5% dapagliflozin 10 mg vs 9.3% placebo).
Further evaluation of patients who had renal-related adverse events showed that most had serum creatinine changes of ≤ 0.5 mg/dl from baseline. The increases in creatinine were generally transient during continuous treatment or reversible after discontinuation of treatment.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, including elderly patients and patients with renal impairment (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), eGFR decreased over time in both treatment groups. At 1 year, mean eGFR was slightly lower, and at 4 years, mean eGFR was slightly higher in the dapagliflozin group compared with the placebo group.
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