Vildagliptin, metformin hydrochloride.
Metformin hydrochloride: Imidodicarbinimidic, N,N-dimethyl-, monohydrochloride.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, hypromellose, hydroxypropylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, and talc.
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Drugs used in diabetes, combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. ATC Code: A10BD08.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Galvus Met combines two antihyperglycaemic agents with complimentary mechanisms of action to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: vildagliptin, a member of the islet enhancer class, and metformin hydrochloride, a member of the biguanide class.
Vildagliptin, a member of the islet enhancer class, is a potent and selective dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. Metformin acts primarily by decreasing endogenous hepatic glucose production.
Vildagliptin: Vildagliptin acts primarily by inhibiting DPP-4, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide).
The administration of vildagliptin results in a rapid and complete inhibition of DPP-4 activity resulting in increased fasting and postprandial endogenous levels of the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP.
By increasing the endogenous levels of these incretin hormones, vildagliptin enhances the sensitivity of beta cells to glucose, resulting in improved glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Treatment with vildagliptin 50-100 mg daily in patients with type 2 diabetes significantly improved markers of beta cell function including HOMA-β (Homeostasis Model Assessment-β), proinsulin to insulin ratio and measures of beta cell responsiveness from the frequently-sampled meal tolerance test. In non-diabetic (normal glycaemic) individuals, vildagliptin does not stimulate insulin secretion or reduce glucose levels.
By increasing endogenous GLP-1 levels, vildagliptin also enhances the sensitivity of alpha cells to glucose, resulting in more glucose-appropriate glucagon secretion.
The enhanced increase in the insulin/glucagon ratio during hyperglycaemia due to increased incretin hormone levels results in a decrease in fasting and postprandial hepatic glucose production, leading to reduced glycaemia.
The known effect of increased GLP-1 levels delaying gastric emptying is not observed with vildagliptin treatment.
Metformin Hydrochloride: Metformin is a biguanide with antihyperglycaemic effects, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. It does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore does not produce hypoglycaemia or increased weight gain.
Metformin may exert its glucose-lowering effect via three mechanisms: by reduction of hepatic glucose production through inhibition of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis; in muscle, by modestly increasing insulin sensitivity, improving peripheral glucose uptake and utilisation; by delaying intestinal glucose absorption.
Metformin stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase and increases the transport capacity of specific types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4).
In humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium-term or long-term clinical studies: metformin reduces serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
The prospective randomised UKPDS (UK Prospective Diabetes Study) study has established the long-term benefit of intensive blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the results for overweight patients treated with metformin after failure of diet alone showed: a significant reduction in the absolute risk of any diabetes-related complication in the metformin group (29.8 events/1,000 patient-years) versus diet alone (43.3 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0023, and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups (40.1 events/1,000 patient-years), p=0.0034; a significant reduction in the absolute risk of diabetes-related mortality: metformin 7.5 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 12.7 events/1,000 patient-years, p=0.017; a significant reduction in the absolute risk of overall mortality: metformin 13.5 events/1,000 patient-years versus diet alone 20.6 events/1,000 patient-years (p=0.011), and versus the combined sulphonylurea and insulin monotherapy groups 18.9 events/1,000 patient-years (p=0.021); a significant reduction in the absolute risk of myocardial infarction: metformin 11 events/1,000 patient-years, diet alone 18 events/1,000 patient-years (p=0.01).
Clinical efficacy and safety: Vildagliptin added to patients whose glycaemic control was not satisfactory despite treatment with metformin monotherapy resulted after 6-month treatment in additional statistically significant mean reductions in HbA1c compared to placebo (between group differences of -0.7% to -1.1% for vildagliptin 50 mg and 100 mg, respectively). The proportion of patients who achieved a decrease in HbA1c of ≥ 0.7% from baseline was statistically significantly higher in both vildagliptin plus metformin groups (46% and 60%, respectively) versus the metformin plus placebo group (20%).
In a 24-week trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to pioglitazone (30 mg once daily) in patients inadequately controlled with metformin (mean daily dose: 2020 mg). Mean reductions from baseline HbA1c of 8.4% were -0.9% with vildagliptin added to metformin and -1.0% with pioglitazone added to metformin. A mean weight gain of +1.9 kg was observed in patients receiving pioglitazone added to metformin compared to +0.3 kg in those receiving vildagliptin added to metformin.
In a clinical trial of 2 years' duration, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to glimepiride (up to 6 mg/day - mean dose at 2 years: 4.6 mg) in patients treated with metformin (mean daily dose: 1894 mg). After 1 year mean reductions in HbA1c were -0.4% with vildagliptin added to metformin and -0.5% with glimepiride added to metformin, from a mean baseline HbA1c of 7.3%. Body weight change with vildagliptin was -0.2 kg vs +1.6 kg with glimepiride. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in the vildagliptin group (1.7%) than in the glimepiride group (16.2%). At study endpoint (2 years), the HbA1c was similar to baseline values in both treatment groups and the body weight changes and hypoglycaemia differences were maintained.
In a 52-week trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to gliclazide (mean daily dose: 229.5 mg) in patients inadequately controlled with metformin (metformin dose at baseline 1928 mg/day). After 1 year, mean reductions in HbA1c were -0.81% with vildagliptin added to metformin (mean baseline HbA1c 8.4%) and -0.85% with gliclazide added to metformin (mean baseline HbA1c 8.5%); statistical non-inferiority was achieved (95% CI -0.11 - 0.20). Body weight change with vildagliptin was +0.1 kg compared to a weight gain of +1.4 kg with gliclazide.
In a 24-week trial the efficacy of the fixed dose combination of vildagliptin and metformin (gradually titrated to a dose of 50 mg/500 mg twice daily or 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily) as initial therapy in drug-naive patients was evaluated. Vildagliptin/metformin 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily reduced HbA1c by -1.82%, vildagliptin/metformin 50 mg/500 mg twice daily by -1.61%, metformin 1000 mg twice daily by -1.36% and vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily by -1.09% from a mean baseline HbA1c of 8.6%. The decrease in HbA1c observed in patients with a baseline ≥10.0% was greater.
A 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 318 patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) in combination with metformin (≥1500 mg daily) and glimepiride (≥4 mg daily). Vildagliptin in combination with metformin and glimepiride significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo. The placebo-adjusted mean reduction from a mean baseline HbA1c of 8.8% was -0.76%.
A 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 449 patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) in combination with a stable dose of basal or premixed insulin (mean daily dose 41 units), with concomitant use of metformin (N=276) or without concomitant metformin (N=173). Vildagliptin in combination with insulin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo. In the overall population, the placebo-adjusted mean reduction from a mean baseline HbA1c 8.8% was -0.72%. In the subgroups treated with insulin with or without concomitant metformin the placebo-adjusted mean reduction in HbA1c was -0.63% and -0.84%, respectively. The incidence of hypoglycaemia in the overall population was 8.4% and 7.2% in the vildagliptin and placebo groups, respectively. Patients receiving vildagliptin experienced no weight gain (+0.2 kg) while those receiving placebo experienced weight reduction (-0.7 kg).
In another 24-week study in patients with more advanced type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled on insulin (short and longer acting, average insulin dose 80 IU/day), the mean reduction in HbA1c when vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was added to insulin was statistically significantly greater than with placebo plus insulin (0.5% vs. 0.2%). The incidence of hypoglycaemia was lower in the vildagliptin group than in the placebo group (22.9% vs. 29.6%).
Cardiovascular risk: A meta-analysis of independently and prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events from 37 phase III and IV monotherapy and combination therapy clinical studies of up to more than 2 years duration (mean exposure 50 weeks for vildagliptin and 49 weeks for comparators) was performed and showed that vildagliptin treatment was not associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk versus comparators. The composite endpoint of adjudicated major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including acute myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death was similar for vildagliptin versus combined active and placebo comparators [Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (M-H RR) 0.82 (95% CI 0.61-1.11)]. A MACE occurred in 83 out of 9,599 (0.86%) vildagliptin-treated patients and in 85 out of 7,102 (1.20%) comparator-treated patients. Assessment of each individual MACE component showed no increased risk (similar M-H RR). Confirmed heart failure (HF) events defined as HF requiring hospitalisation or new onset of HF were reported in 41 (0.43%) vildagliptin-treated patients and 32 (0.45%) comparator-treated patients with M-H RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.68 - 1.70).
Pharmacokinetics: Galvus Met: Absorption: Bioequivalence has been demonstrated between Galvus Met at three dose strengths (50 mg/500 mg, 50 mg/850 mg and 50 mg/1000 mg) versus free combination of vildagliptin and metformin hydrochloride tablets at the corresponding doses.
Food does not affect the extent and rate of absorption of vildagliptin from Galvus Met. The rate and extent of absorption of metformin from Galvus Met 50 mg/1000 mg were decreased when given with food as reflected by the decrease in Cmax by 26%, AUC by 7% and delayed Tmax (2.0 to 4.0 h).
The following statements reflect the pharmacokinetic properties of the individual active substances of Galvus Met.
Vildagliptin: Absorption: Following oral administration in the fasting state, vildagliptin is rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations observed at 1.7 hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak plasma concentration to 2.5 hours, but does not alter the overall exposure (AUC). Administration of vildagliptin with food resulted in a decreased Cmax (19%) compared to dosing in the fasting state. However, the magnitude of change is not clinically significant, so that vildagliptin can be given with or without food. The absolute bioavailability is 85%.
Distribution: The plasma protein binding of vildagliptin is low (9.3%) and vildagliptin distributes equally between plasma and red blood cells. The mean volume of distribution of vildagliptin at steady-state after intravenous administration (Vss) is 71 litres, suggesting extravascular distribution.
Biotransformation: Metabolism is the major elimination pathway for vildagliptin in humans, accounting for 69% of the dose. The major metabolite (LAY 151) is pharmacologically inactive and is the hydrolysis product of the cyano moiety, accounting for 57% of the dose, followed by the amide hydrolysis product (4% of dose). DPP-4 contributes partially to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin based on an in vivo study using DPP-4 deficient rats. Vildagliptin is not metabolised by CYP 450 enzymes to any quantifiable extent, and accordingly the metabolic clearance of vildagliptin is not anticipated to be affected by co-medications that are CYP 450 inhibitors and/or inducers. In vitro studies demonstrated that vildagliptin does not inhibit/induce CYP 450 enzymes. Therefore, vildagliptin is not likely to affect metabolic clearance of co-medications metabolised by CYP 1A2, CYP 2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, CYP 2D6, CYP 2E1 or CYP 3A4/5.
Elimination: Following oral administration of [14C] vildagliptin, approximately 85% of the dose was excreted into the urine and 15% of the dose was recovered in the faeces. Renal excretion of the unchanged vildagliptin accounted for 23% of the dose after oral administration. After intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the total plasma and renal clearances of vildagliptin are 41 and 13 l/h, respectively. The mean elimination half-life after intravenous administration is approximately 2 hours. The elimination half-life after oral administration is approximately 3 hours.
Linearity / non-linearity: The Cmax for vildagliptin and the area under the plasma concentrations versus time curves (AUC) increased in an approximately dose proportional manner over the therapeutic dose range.
Characteristics in patients: Gender: No clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin were observed between male and female healthy subjects within a wide range of age and body mass index (BMI). DPP-4 inhibition by vildagliptin is not affected by gender.
Age: In healthy elderly subjects (≥ 70 years), the overall exposure of vildagliptin (100 mg once daily) was increased by 32%, with an 18% increase in peak plasma concentration as compared to young healthy subjects (18-40 years). These changes are not considered to be clinically relevant, however. DPP-4 inhibition by vildagliptin is not affected by age.
Hepatic impairment: In subjects with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A-C) there were no clinically significant changes (maximum ~30%) in exposure to vildagliptin.
Renal impairment: In subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment, systemic exposure to vildagliptin was increased (Cmax 8-66%; AUC 32-134%) and total body clearance was reduced compared to subjects with normal renal function.
Ethnic group: Limited data suggest that race does not have any major influence on vildagliptin pharmacokinetics.
Metformin Hydrochloride: Absorption: After an oral dose of metformin, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is achieved after about 2.5 h. Absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg metformin tablet is approximately 50-60% in healthy subjects. After an oral dose, the non-absorbed fraction recovered in faeces was 20-30%.
After oral administration, metformin absorption is saturable and incomplete. It is assumed that the pharmacokinetics of metformin absorption are non-linear. At the usual metformin doses and dosing schedules, steady state plasma concentrations are reached within 24-48 h and are generally less than 1 μg/ml. In controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin plasma levels (Cmax) did not exceed 4 μg/ml, even at maximum doses.
Food slightly delays and decreases the extent of the absorption of metformin. Following administration of a dose of 850 mg, the plasma peak concentration was 40% lower, AUC was decreased by 25% and time to peak plasma concentration was prolonged by 35 minutes. The clinical relevance of this decrease is unknown.
Distribution: Plasma protein binding is negligible. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes. The mean volume of distribution (Vd) ranged between 63-276 litres.
Biotransformation: Metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine. No metabolites have been identified in humans.
Elimination: Metformin is eliminated by renal excretion. Renal clearance of metformin is > 400 ml/min, indicating that metformin is eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Following an oral dose, the apparent terminal elimination half-life is approximately 6.5 h. When renal function is impaired, renal clearance is decreased in proportion to that of creatinine and thus the elimination half-life is prolonged, leading to increased levels of metformin in plasma.
Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: Animal studies of up to 13-week duration have been conducted with the combined substances in Galvus Met. No new toxicities associated with the combination were identified. The following data are findings from studies performed with vildagliptin or metformin individually.
Vildagliptin: Intra-cardiac impulse conduction delays were observed in dogs with a no-effect dose of 15 mg/kg (7-fold human exposure based on Cmax).
Accumulation of foamy alveolar macrophages in the lung was observed in rats and mice. The no-effect dose in rats was 25 mg/kg (5-fold human exposure based on AUC) and in mice 750 mg/kg (142-fold human exposure).
Gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly soft faeces, mucoid faeces, diarrhoea and, at higher doses, faecal blood were observed in dogs. A no-effect level was not established.
Vildagliptin was not mutagenic in conventional in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity.
A fertility and early embryonic development study in rats revealed no evidence of impaired fertility, reproductive performance or early embryonic development due to vildagliptin. Embryofoetal toxicity was evaluated in rats and rabbits. An increased incidence of wavy ribs was observed in rats in association with reduced maternal body weight parameters, with a no-effect dose of 75 mg/kg (10-fold human exposure). In rabbits, decreased foetal weight and skeletal variations indicative of developmental delays were noted only in the presence of severe maternal toxicity, with a no-effect dose of 50 mg/kg (9-fold human exposure). A pre- and postnatal development study was performed in rats. Findings were only observed in association with maternal toxicity at ≥ 150 mg/kg and included a transient decrease in body weight and reduced motor activity in the F1 generation.
A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats at oral doses up to 900 mg/kg (approximately 200 times human exposure at the maximum recommended dose). No increases in tumour incidence attributable to vildagliptin were observed. Another two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in mice at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg. An increased incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas and haemangiosarcomas was observed with a no-effect dose of 500 mg/kg (59-fold human exposure) and 100 mg/kg (16-fold human exposure), respectively. The increased incidence of these tumours in mice is considered not to represent a significant risk to humans based on the lack of genotoxicity of vildagliptin and its principal metabolite, the occurrence of tumours only in one species, and the high systemic exposure ratios at which tumours were observed.
In a 13-week toxicology study in cynomolgus monkeys, skin lesions have been recorded at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day. These were consistently located on the extremities (hands, feet, ears and tail). At 5 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to human AUC exposure at the 100 mg dose), only blisters were observed. They were reversible despite continued treatment and were not associated with histopathological abnormalities. Flaking skin, peeling skin, scabs and tail sores with correlating histopathological changes were noted at doses ≥ 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times human AUC exposure at the 100 mg dose). Necrotic lesions of the tail were observed at ≥ 80 mg/kg/day. Skin lesions were not reversible in the monkeys treated at 160 mg/kg/day during a 4-week recovery period.
Metformin Hydrochloride: Non-clinical data on metformin reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and toxicity to reproduction.
Galvus Met is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Galvus Met is indicated in the treatment of adult patients who are unable to achieve sufficient glycaemic control at their maximally tolerated dose of oral metformin alone or who are already treated with the combination of vildagliptin and metformin as separate tablets.
Galvus Met is indicated in combination with a sulphonylurea (i.e. triple combination therapy) as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients inadequately controlled with metformin and a sulphonylurea.
Galvus Met is indicated in triple combination therapy with insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control in adult patients when insulin at a stable dose and metformin alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
Galvus Met is also indicated as initial therapy in patients with T2DM whose diabetes is not adequately controlled by diet and exercise alone.
The dose of antihyperglycaemic therapy with Galvus Met should be individualized on the basis of the patient's current regimen, effectiveness and tolerability while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 100 mg vildagliptin. Galvus Met may be initiated at either the 50 mg/500 mg, 50 mg/850 mg or 50 mg/1000 mg tablet strength twice daily, one tablet in the morning and the other in the evening.
For patients inadequately controlled at their maximal tolerated dose of metformin monotherapy: The starting dose of Galvus Met should provide vildagliptin as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) plus the dose of metformin already being taken.
For patients switching from co-administration of vildagliptin and metformin as separate tablets: Galvus Met should be initiated at the dose of vildagliptin and metformin already being taken.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination with metformin and a sulphonylurea: The doses of Galvus Met should provide vildagliptin as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When Galvus Met is used in combination with a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of the sulphonylurea may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy with insulin and the maximal tolerated dose of metformin: The dose of Galvus Met should provide vildagliptin dosed as 50 mg twice daily (100 mg total daily dose) and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken.
For treatment naive patients, Galvus Met may be initiated at 50mg/500mg once daily and gradually titrated to a maximum dose of 50mg/1000mg twice daily after assessing the adequacy of therapeutic response.
The safety and efficacy of vildagliptin and metformin as triple oral therapy in combination with a thiazolidinedione have not been established.
Taking Galvus Met with or just after food may reduce gastrointestinal symptoms associated with metformin (see also Pharmacology: PHARMACOKINETICS under Actions).
Patients with renal impairment:
A GFR should be assessed before initiation of treatment with metformin-containing products (such as Galvus Met) and at least annually thereafter. In patients at an increased risk of further progression of renal impairment and in the elderly, renal function should be assessed more frequently, e.g. every 3 to 6 months.
The maximum daily dose of metformin should preferably be divided into 2 to 3 daily doses. Factors that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis (see PRECAUTIONS) should be reviewed before considering initiation of metformin-containing products (such as Galvus Met) in patients with GFR<60ml/min.
If no adequate strength of Galvus Met is available, individual monocomponents should be used instead of the fixed dose combination. (See Table 1.)
Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Patients with hepatic impairment:
Galvus Met should not be used in patients with hepatic impairment, including those with pre-treatment aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Elderly (≥65 years):
As metformin is excreted via the kidney, and elderly patients have a tendency to decreased renal function, elderly patients taking metformin-containing products (such as Galvus Met) should have their renal function monitored regularly (see PRECAUTIONS and Pharmacology: PHARMACOKINETICS under Actions).
Paediatric patients (< 18 years):
Galvus Met is not recommended for use in children and adolescents (< 18 years). The safety and efficacy of Galvus Met in children and adolescents (< 18 years) have not been established. No data are available.
No data are available with regard to overdose of Galvus Met.
Vildagliptin: Information regarding overdose with vildagliptin is limited.
Information on the likely symptoms of overdose with vildagliptin was taken from a rising dose tolerability study in healthy subjects given vildagliptin for 10 days. At 400 mg, there were three cases of muscle pain, and individual cases of mild and transient paraesthesia, fever, oedema and a transient increase in lipase levels. At 600 mg, one subject experienced oedema of the feet and hands, and increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), AST, C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin levels. Three other subjects experienced oedema of the feet, with paraesthesia in two cases. All symptoms and laboratory abnormalities resolved without treatment after discontinuation of the study medicinal product.
Metformin Hydrochloride: A large overdose of metformin (or co-existing risk of lactic acidosis) may lead to lactic acidosis, which is a medical emergency and must be treated in hospital.
Management: The most effective method of removing metformin is haemodialysis. However, vildagliptin cannot be removed by haemodialysis, although the major hydrolysis metabolite (LAY 151) can. Supportive management is recommended.
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients.
Any type of acute metabolic acidosis (such as lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis).
Severely reduced kidney function (GFR < 30 ml/min) (see PRECAUTIONS).
Acute conditions with the potential to alter renal function, such as: Dehydration; Severe infection; Shock; Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents (see PRECAUTIONS).
Acute or chronic disease which may cause tissue hypoxia, such as: Cardiac or respiratory failure; Recent myocardial infarction; Shock.
Hepatic impairment (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION, PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Acute alcohol intoxication, alcoholism.
Breast-feeding (see USE IN PREGNANCY & LACTATION).
General: Galvus Met is not a substitute for insulin in patients requiring insulin and should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Lactic acidosis: Lactic acidosis is a very rare but serious metabolic complication, most often occurs with acute worsening of renal function, or cardiorespiratory illness or sepsis. Metformin accumulation occurs with acute worsening of renal function and increases the risk of lactic acidosis.
In case of dehydration (severe diarrhoea or vomiting, fever or reduced fluid intake), metformin should be temporarily discontinued and contact with a health care professional is recommended.
Medicinal products that can acutely impair renal function (such as antihypertensives, diuretics and NSAIDs) should be initiated with caution in metformin-treated patients. Other risk factors for lactic acidosis are excessive alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency, inadequately controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting and any conditions associated with hypoxia, as well as concomitant use of medicinal products that may cause lactic acidosis.
Patients and/or care-givers should be informed of the risk of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is characterized by acidotic dyspnoea, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, asthenia and hypothermia followed by coma. In case of suspected symptoms, the patient should stop taking metformin and seek immediate medical attention. Diagnostic laboratory findings are decreased blood pH (<7.35), increased plasma lactate levels (≥5 mmol/L) and an increased anion gap and lactate/pyruvate ratio.
Administration of iodinated contrast agent: Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents may lead to contrast-induced nephropathy, resulting in metformin accumulation and increased risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin should be discontinued prior to or at the time of the imaging procedure and not restarted until at least 48 hours after, provided that renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION and INTERACTIONS).
Renal impairment: GFR should be assessed before treatment initiation and regularly thereafter (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). Metformin is contraindicated in patients with GFR <30 mL/min and should be temporarily discontinued in the presence of conditions that alter renal function (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Hepatic impairment: Patients with hepatic impairment, including those with pre-treatment ALT or AST > 3x ULN, should not be treated with Galvus Met (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Liver enzyme monitoring: Rare cases of hepatic dysfunction (including hepatitis) have been reported with vildagliptin. In these cases, the patients were generally asymptomatic without clinical sequelae and liver function tests (LFTs) returned to normal after discontinuation of treatment. LFTs should be performed prior to the initiation of treatment with Galvus Met in order to know the patient's baseline value. Liver function should be monitored during treatment with Galvus Met at three-month intervals during the first year and periodically thereafter. Patients who develop increased transaminase levels should be monitored with a second liver function evaluation to confirm the finding and be followed up thereafter with frequent LFTs until the abnormality/abnormalities return to normal. Should an increase in AST or in ALT of 3x ULN or greater persist, withdrawal of Galvus Met therapy is recommended. Patients who develop jaundice or other signs suggestive of liver dysfunction should discontinue Galvus Met.
Following withdrawal of treatment with Galvus Met and LFT normalization, treatment with Galvus Met should not be re-initiated.
Skin disorders: Skin lesions, including blistering and ulceration have been reported with vildagliptin in extremities of monkeys in non-clinical toxicology studies (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: PRECLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions). Although skin lesions were not observed at an increased incidence in clinical trials, there was limited experience in patients with diabetic skin complications. Furthermore, there have been post-marketing reports of bullous and exfoliative skin lesions. Therefore, in keeping with routine care of the diabetic patient, monitoring for skin disorders, such as blistering or ulceration, is recommended.
Acute pancreatitis: Use of vildagliptin has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis.
If pancreatitis is suspected, vildagliptin should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, vildagliptin should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of acute pancreatitis.
Hypoglycaemia: Sulphonylureas are known to cause hypoglycaemia. Patients receiving vildagliptin in combination with a sulphonylurea may be at risk for hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of sulphonylurea may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
Surgery: As Galvus Met contains metformin, the treatment should be discontinued 48 hours before elective surgery with general anaesthesia and should not usually be resumed earlier than 48 hours afterwards.
Severe and Disabling Arthralgia: There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. Patients who may experience dizziness as an undesirable effect should avoid driving vehicles or using machines.
Pregnancy: There are no adequate data from the use of Galvus Met in pregnant women. For vildagliptin studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses. For metformin, studies in animals have not shown reproductive toxicity. Studies in animals performed with vildagliptin and metformin have not shown evidence of teratogenicity, but foetotoxic effects at maternotoxic doses (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: PRECLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Galvus Met should not be used during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: Studies in animals have shown excretion of both metformin and vildagliptin in milk. It is unknown whether vildagliptin is excreted in human milk, but metformin is excreted in human milk in low amounts. Due to both the potential risk of neonate hypoglycaemia related to metformin and the lack of human data with vildagliptin, Galvus Met should not be used during breast-feeding (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Fertility: No studies on the effect on human fertility have been conducted for Galvus Met. (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: PRECLINICAL SAFETY DATA under Actions).
There have been no therapeutic clinical trials conducted with Galvus Met. However, bioequivalence of Galvus Met with co-administered vildagliptin and metformin has been demonstrated (see Pharmacology: PHARMACOKINETICS under Actions). The data presented here relate to the co-administration of vildagliptin and metformin, where vildagliptin has been added to metformin. There have been no studies of metformin added to vildagliptin.
The majority of adverse reactions were mild and transient, not requiring treatment discontinuations. No association was found between adverse reactions and age, ethnicity, duration of exposure or daily dose.
Rare cases of hepatic dysfunction (including hepatitis) have been reported with vildagliptin. In these cases, the patients were generally asymptomatic without clinical sequelae and liver function returned to normal after discontinuation of treatment. In data from controlled monotherapy and add-on therapy trials of up to 24 weeks in duration, the incidence of ALT or AST elevations ≥ 3x ULN (classified as present on at least 2 consecutive measurements or at the final on-treatment visit) was 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.2% for vildagliptin 50 mg once daily, vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily and all comparators, respectively. These elevations in transaminases were generally asymptomatic, non-progressive in nature and not associated with cholestasis or jaundice.
Rare cases of angioedema have been reported on vildagliptin at a similar rate to controls. A greater proportion of cases were reported when vildagliptin was administered in combination with an ACE inhibitor. The majority of events were mild in severity and resolved with ongoing vildagliptin treatment.
Adverse reactions reported in patients who received vildagliptin in double-blind studies as monotherapy and add-on therapies are listed as follows by system organ class and absolute frequency. Adverse reactions listed in Table 6 are based on information available from the metformin Summary of Product Characteristics available in the EU. Frequencies are defined as very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See Table 2.)
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In controlled clinical trials with the combination of vildagliptin 100 mg daily plus metformin, no withdrawal due to adverse reactions was reported in either the vildagliptin 100 mg daily plus metformin or the placebo plus metformin treatment groups.
In clinical trials, the incidence of hypoglycaemia was common in patients receiving vildagliptin in combination with metformin (1%) and uncommon in patients receiving placebo + metformin (0.4%). No severe hypoglycaemic events were reported in the vildagliptin arms.
In clinical trials, weight did not change from baseline when vildagliptin 100 mg daily was added to metformin (+0.2 kg and -1.0 kg for vildagliptin and placebo, respectively).
Clinical trials of up to more than 2 years' duration did not show any additional safety signals or unforeseen risks when vildagliptin was added on to metformin.
Combination with a sulphonylurea:
(See Table 3.)
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There were no withdrawals due to adverse reactions reported in the vildagliptin + metformin + glimepiride treatment group versus 0.6% in the placebo + metformin + glimepiride treatment group.
The incidence of hypoglycaemia was common in both treatment groups (5.1% for the vildagliptin + metformin + glimepiride group versus 1.9% for the placebo + metformin + glimepiride group). One severe hypoglycaemic event was reported in the vildagliptin group.
At the end of the study, effect on mean body weight was neutral (+0.6 kg in the vildagliptin group and -0.1 kg in the placebo group).
Combination with insulin:
(See Table 4.)
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In controlled clinical trials using vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily in combination with insulin, with or without concomitant metformin, the overall incidence of withdrawals due to adverse reactions was 0.3% in the vildagliptin treatment group and there were no withdrawals in the placebo group.
The incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar in both treatment groups (14.0% in the vildagliptin group vs 16.4% in the placebo group). Two patients reported severe hypoglycaemic events in the vildagliptin group, and 6 patients in the placebo group.
At the end of the study, effect on mean body weight was neutral (+0.6 kg change from baseline in the vildagliptin group and no weight change in the placebo group).
Additional information on the individual active substances of the fixed combination: Vildagliptin
: (See Table 5.)
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The overall incidence of withdrawals from controlled monotherapy trials due to adverse reactions was no greater for patients treated with vildagliptin at doses of 100 mg daily (0.3%) than for placebo (0.6%) or comparators (0.5%).
In comparative controlled monotherapy studies, hypoglycaemia was uncommon, reported in 0.4% (7 of 1,855) of patients treated with vildagliptin 100 mg daily compared to 0.2% (2 of 1,082) of patients in the groups treated with an active comparator or placebo, with no serious or severe events reported.
In clinical trials, weight did not change from baseline when vildagliptin 100 mg daily was administered as monotherapy (-0.3 kg and -1.3 kg for vildagliptin and placebo, respectively).
Clinical trials of up to 2 years' duration did not show any additional safety signals or unforeseen risks with vildagliptin monotherapy.
(See Table 6.)
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Gastrointestinal adverse reactions occur most frequently during initiation of therapy and resolve spontaneously in most cases. To prevent them, it is recommended that metformin be taken in 2 daily doses during or after meals. A slow increase in the dose may also improve gastrointestinal tolerability.
(See Table 7.)
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Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions.
There have been no formal interaction studies for Galvus Met. The following statements reflect the information available on the individual active substances.
Vildagliptin: Vildagliptin has a low potential for interactions with co-administered medicinal products. Since vildagliptin is not a cytochrome P (CYP) 450 enzyme substrate and does not inhibit or induce CYP 450 enzymes, it is not likely to interact with active substances that are substrates, inhibitors or inducers of these enzymes.
Results from clinical trials conducted with the oral antidiabetics pioglitazone, metformin and glyburide in combination with vildagliptin have shown no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions in the target population.
Drug-drug interaction studies with digoxin (P-glycoprotein substrate) and warfarin (CYP2C9 substrate) in healthy subjects have shown no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions after co-administration with vildagliptin.
Drug-drug interaction studies in healthy subjects were conducted with amlodipine, ramipril, valsartan and simvastatin. In these studies, no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions were observed after co-administration with vildagliptin. However, this has not been established in the target population.
Combination with ACE-inhibitors: There may be an increased risk of angioedema in patients concomitantly taking ACE-inhibitors (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
As with other oral antidiabetic medicinal products the hypoglycaemic effect of vildagliptin may be reduced by certain active substances, including thiazides, corticosteroids, thyroid products and sympathomimetics.
Metformin Hydrochloride: Combinations not recommended: There is increased risk of lactic acidosis in acute alcohol intoxication (particularly in the case of fasting, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency) due to the metformin active substance of Galvus Met (see PRECAUTIONS). Consumption of alcohol and medicinal products containing alcohol should be avoided.
Cationic active substances that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g. cimetidine) may interact with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems and hence delay the elimination of metformin, which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. A study in healthy volunteers showed that cimetidine, administered as 400 mg twice daily, increased metformin systemic exposure (AUC) by 50%. Therefore, close monitoring of glycaemic control, dose adjustment within the recommended posology and changes in diabetic treatment should be considered when cationic medicinal products that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion are co-administered (see PRECAUTIONS).
Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media may lead to renal failure, resulting in metformin accumulation with the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin-containing products (such as Galvus Met) should be discontinued prior to, or at the time of the test and not reinstituted until 48 hours afterwards, and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be stable (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION and INTERACTIONS).
Combinations requiring precautions for use: Glucocorticoids, beta-2-agonists, and diuretics have intrinsic hyperglycaemic activity. The patient should be informed and more frequent blood glucose monitoring performed, especially at the beginning of treatment. If necessary, the dosage of Galvus Met may need to be adjusted during concomitant therapy and on its discontinuation.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may decrease the blood glucose levels. If necessary, the dosage of the antihyperglycaemic medicinal product should be adjusted during therapy with the other medicinal product and on its discontinuation.
Instructions for Use and Handling: No special requirements.
Note: Galvus Met should be kept out of the reach and sight of children.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Do not store above 30°C.
Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.
A10BD08 - metformin and vildagliptin ; Belongs to the class of combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
50 mg/500 mg FC tab (light yellow, ovaloid, bevelled edge, imprinted with "NVR" on one side and "LLO" on the other side) x 30's, 60's. 50 mg/850 mg FC tab (yellow, ovaloid, bevelled edge, imprinted with "NVR" on one side and "SEH" on the other side) x 30's, 60's. 50 mg/1,000 mg FC tab (dark yellow, ovaloid, bevelled edge, imprinted with "NVR" on one side and "FLO" on the other side) x 30's, 60's.