Adult: Opioid-naive patient: As conventional tab: 2-4 mg 4-6 hrly as needed. As liq: 2.5-10 mg 3-6 hrly as needed. Dose may be increased gradually if analgesia is inadequate, pain severity increases, or as tolerance develops. Opioid-tolerant patient: As conventional preparation: Dose is adjusted according to prior opioid daily dose to achieve at least 3-4 hr of analgesia. As extended-release tab: Initially, dose is titrated according to prior opioid daily dose taken once daily. Maintenance: Dose is titrated w/ increments of 4-8 mg every 3-4 days until adequate analgesia is achieved. Elderly: Start at the lower end of dosing range.
Parenteral Moderate to severe pain
Adult: 1-2 mg via IM or SC inj 2-3 hrly as necessary. Alternatively, 0.2-1 mg 2-3 hrly via slow IV inj over at least 2-3 min. Adjust doses according to individual requirements. Elderly: Start at the lower end of dosing range.
Rectal Moderate to severe pain
Adult: As supp: 3 mg 6-8 hrly as needed.
Extended-release: Initiate w/ 25% of usual starting dose.
IM/IV/Parenteral/PO/Rectal/SC: C (Prolonged use may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.)
Patient Counseling Information
This drug may cause drowsiness and dizziness, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery.
Monitor relief of pain, resp and mental status, and BP. Monitor for signs of misuse, abuse, and addiction.
Symptoms: Pin-point pupils, resp depression, somnolence progressing to stupor and coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, and bradycardia; cold and clammy skin, hypotension, apnoea, pulmonary oedema, circulatory collapse. Management: Supportive treatment w/ primary attention to establishment of patent airway and institution of assisted ventilation. Administer IV naloxone 0.4-2 mg, may be repeated at 2 min interval if no response, for severe overdosage; and 0.2 mg, followed by increments of 0.1 mg every 2 min, for less severe cases. Employ activated charcoal if significant amount has been ingested w/in 1-2 hr provided that the patient has intact gag reflex or secured airway.
Additive depressant effects w/ sedative/hypnotics, general anaesth, antipsychotics (e.g. phenothiazines), tranquilizers, and neuromuscular blockers. Reduced analgesic effect and may precipitate withdrawal symptoms w/ mixed agonist/antagonist opioid analgesics (e.g. pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, buprenorphine). Potentially Fatal: CNS excitation or depression may occur when given w/ MAOIs.
Additive CNS depression w/ alcohol. Increased peak plasma concentration resulting in potentially toxic doses of hydromorphone (extended-release) when taken w/ alcohol.
Description: Hydromorphone, a phenanthrene derivative, is an opiate agonist w/ greater analgesic potency than morphine. It binds to µ-opioid receptors in the CNS and smooth muscles, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering perception of and response to pain, and producing generalised CNS depression. Additionally, it may directly supress the resp reflex, thereby causing resp depression. Onset: 15-30 min (conventional preparations); 6 hr (extended-release preparations); 5 min (IV). Duration: 3-4 hr (conventional preparations, IV); approx 13 hr (extended-release preparations). Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Rapidly but incompletely absorbed from the GI tract. Time to peak plasma concentration: ≤1 hr (conventional); 12-16 hr (extended-release). Bioavailability: Approx 24%. Distribution: Widely distributed in the tissues; crosses the placenta and enters breast milk. Volume of distribution: 4 L/kg. Plasma protein binding: Approx 8-19%. Metabolism: Extensively metabolised in the liver via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites (>95% as hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, minor amounts as 6-hydroxy reduction metabolites); undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. Excretion: Via urine (mainly as glucuronide conjugates). Terminal elimination half-life: 2.3 hr (conventional); 8-15 hr (extended-release).
N02AA03 - hydromorphone ; Belongs to the class of natural opium alkaloids. Used to relieve pain.
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